On the 30th of January 2020, the world came to an end. A new infectious disease was declared a public health emergency of international concern by the World Health Organization. Some would argue that the world first ended on the 31st of December 2019, when the patients who first reported at hospitals in Wuhan with pneumonic symptoms led to the discovery of the novel coronavirus. The fires of the pandemic stealthily stole across the world exposing the fault lines of fragile healthcare systems and in the developed world, healthcare systems snapped like dry twigs. Mortality statistics jumped around the world, leapfrogging regions. At first, it seemed the pandemic had a preference for a certain class of people within demographics, however it quickly showed that it had many sides to its biological pattern. In no time, the pandemic had proven a virological affront on humanity and its civilizations.
Today, globalization has been rudely arrested in its frenzied manifestations in the global commerce. International conferences have been stalled, and virtual presence has increased. There is a temptation to think that humanity itself is going through the process of dematerialization that has taken over the sphere of its technologies. The face of the global economy has changed considerably, with capitalism suffering a significant blow in its pace. This is not because capitalism in itself is to blame, but prevailing Keynesian behavioral economics define the global economy today. Since the invisible hand in the markets follow the pattern of people’s actions and inaction, the global economy has refused to change, because people are unwilling to change.
The pandemic’s rage across the world has forced a roaring debate amongst libertarians, about government intervention and what it means for human liberty. The biopolitics of societal preservation is the prevailing discourse and this is informing the iron-fist policies of governments’ across the world in controlling the spread of the virus. The times require unconventional thinking and technological innovation more than ever, and more than before, government’s role in the polity should be emphasized, but defined. Governmental economic relief packages, especially in Africa could increase corruption as there are lower restraints to executive action in states across Africa. Therefore governments should focus on tax cuts and as never before, support technological innovation through beneficial policies, as this is one of the building blocks of the modern economy.
The structure of liberty in the minimal state is defined by the social contract, as the individual is seen as a party in a contractual agreement to trade some liberty for preservation. What this suggests is that with liberty comes great individual responsibility. Governments across Africa have succumbed to the socialist temptation of militarizing collective preservation internally. According to the BBC, the South African government deployed a large number of troops, the largest since the time of Apartheid. In Nigeria, it was the same response, with Nigeria recording deaths from its army’s brutal engagement with civilians. In Kenya, there has been several human rights issues arising from the security forces deployed to enforce curfews. The Daily Mail reported that a young boy was shot on the balcony of his parents’ house during the curfew in Kenya. The endangerment of liberty isn’t the solution to the surging rates of COVID 19 infection. Rather a humanistic approach should engage individual responsibility.
The social contract suggests that individual liberty should not be taken without negotiation. However democracies across the African continent are scarred by the decades of turbulent strong man regimes and therefore do not think much of individual liberty. There are lessons to come away with, in an Africa where a pandemic puts people at the crossroads between economic annihilation and government sponsored violence. What makes Africa very vulnerable to the ravaging throes of the pandemic, is that in pre-COVID 19 times, many economies across Africa were machines whose working parts were small businesses that struggled from day to day, and whose growth were stifled by repressive government policies inspired by too much governmental interest in the commerce.
Today lockdowns and curfews across the continent hold African economies by their tails. It is a showdown between the pandemic and decadent systems unchanging because many African governments attempt to control economic outcomes in their countries. They realize that holding the key to the economy is power, but they forget that as guardians of the polity, they already hold enough power. Attempting to hold any more power is to play God. The delusion that African governments have about their capacity to create prosperity and wealth for their citizens has become a hopeless one in the face of the current realities. It has become even more obvious that the undervalued private sector is the one to look to as the future of the African economy. The bigger picture especially in Africa is allowing more autonomy in the private sector. Africa will transition economically only when governments on the continent, step back from meddling with the economies of their countries. African people would become freer in their home countries if only they can have more economic liberty, and this would emancipate the markets, only then would prosperity be created.
What a Successful Summit for Democracy Looks Like from Africa
The Biden administration is wrapping up preparations for its Summit for Democracy, to be held virtually next month. While the list of invitees is now clear, what is not yet clear is what success for the Summit looks like – overall and for each region of the globe. Here, I outline concrete ways the Summit could help advance democracy in Africa.
To be realistic, success should be defined at the individual country level and consider the history and context of each one. However, for the purposes of this paper I will focus on sub-Saharan Africa as a whole and what common hopes we have with regards to democracy success across the continent.
The State of Democracy in Africa
It is now a cliché’ to say that democracy is in retreat in Africa. Evidence for this appears strong and includes back-sliding in Ethiopia and Sudan, two countries that held out hope for a democratic awakening. In addition, recent coups in Guinea, Chad, and Mali provided further evidence of back-sliding. Closing and closed political spaces in Angola, Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Cameroon and Zimbabwe (among others) do not provide much in the way of hope. During the past 18 months COVID-19 has provided fertile ground for autocracy and has led to economic deterioration and further restricted political space.
On the other hand, Africa is the world’s youngest continent. According to the latest “World Values Survey”, those holding “emancipative” (i.e. democratic) values are far and away higher than those holding more autocratic values. The older generation of autocratic leaders such as President Museveni in Uganda is facing a population representing values at odds with those of the political leadership. While autocratic values currently hold sway throughout the continent, one can conclude that these represent “eddies” in a river which largely represents more democratic values. Consequently, we should counsel patience and not condone pessimism over the long-term.
Making Progress through Summit Commitments
Success will not be a static end-point or destination or some far-flung and unattainable goal that is unrealistic. It will represent a series of actions or steps among a variety of actors in each society that are on a journey toward a democratic future. These actors, explained in detail below, include political parties, civil society, and legislative bodies. We must be modest in our assumptions around success given the slow vicissitudes of progress. Modest progress is still progress, particularly given the direction in which many countries are headed (at least over the short-term).
Successful political parties aggregate, communicate and advocate for the wishes and hopes of their members. Ideally, they are not based on the charisma of a leader, nor does a good party represent only the needs of a specific group, such as an ethnic group. Unfortunately, across the continent the evidence points to nearly all political parties serving as a vehicle for a particular leader’s wish to obtain high office. Political parties exist for their leaders instead of serving as a vehicle to promote a particular set of policies advocated by their constituents. As a result, traditionally marginalized groups such as women and youth are rarely given real leadership roles within political parties. Witness the situation in Sudan where women and youth were the vanguard of a revolution but were then marginalized within political parties vying for power in the new transitional government. We must be realistic and patient when addressing the question of what democracy would look like vis-à-vis the upcoming Summit for Democracy. The longer-term goal of ideologically based, inclusive, participatory, and transparent political parties is a worthy one. To realize these goals, the U.S. and its allies should commit to the following:
- Ensure that political party governing documents are revised to promote intra-party democracy and the inclusion of traditionally marginalized groups.
- Cultivate youth and female leaders within political parties because they represent upwards of 75% of each country’s population.
- Promote and support peaceful elections using widely available research that has been shown to reduce violence before, during, and after elections. This also includes honestly criticizing elections that do not meet regional or international standards.
Civil society organizations (CSOs) are key actors in all societies. We have seen that where CSOs are trained and motivated they can have a significant impact holding governments and legislative bodies accountable. For example, CSOs provided electoral observation during the Ethiopian elections to ensure that Ethiopia’s first democratic elections were conducted according to international and regional standards. In the Gambia, CSOs advocated to the government to pass legislation to provide citizens access to information and succeeded in court in suing the electoral commission (IEC) over voter registration anomalies. Despite successes, several factors will need to be addressed for their contribution to democracy to be sustained and amplified. This includes CSOs working together in coalitions that magnify their power and scope. Working alone on sensitive issues in often restricted contexts rarely produces lasting success. Learning the skills of networking with other CSOs will be critical to fulfill the promises of democracy.
To realize these goals, the U.S. and its allies should commit to the following:
- Train CSOs in strategic communications, project development and management, monitoring and evaluation, and other skills needed to flourish. Organizational development support will provide long-term sustainable assistance across a wide range of CSOs.
- Strengthen CSOs outside of capital cities. In most African capitals there is a cadre of well-resourced, well-trained, and savvy CSOs that speak the language of the donor. In the countryside, however, where enthusiasm generally runs higher, CSOs are organizationally weaker and more isolated. The US and its allies should bring these CSOs into the planning of international organizations who traditionally work with CSOs with higher profiles in capital cities. This will broaden the base of capable CSOs throughout each country and addresses the challenge of relying on just a few located in capital cities.
- Stand up for CSOs working in repressive environments. For instance, in Sudan CSOs were largely responsible for the overthrow of the al-Bashir Government but lacked the skills to move from protest to governance. This in part led to the recent military coup.
- Train CSOs to hold legislative and executive bodies accountable through things like performance “report cards” and publishing national budgets in easy-to-understand formats.
Legislative bodies throughout Africa are largely rubber-stamp institutions that do the bidding of the countries’ leadership. They rarely perform their traditional role as an independent branch of government that represents the people they were elected to serve. IRI’s own work found that many members of legislatures do not even understand their role with regards to oversight of the executive branch, outreach to constituents, legislative processes, and budgetary oversight. Consequently, we must be realistic about what can be accomplished and take small steps to train legislators about their roles.
To realize these goals, the U.S. and its allies should commit to the following:
- Train newly elected members of legislative bodies on their role as legislators.
- Link members of legislative bodies with their constituents to better craft laws that meet the needs of their communities. This is relatively inexpensive yet has demonstrable impact.
- Work with legislative bodies to improve transparency through more public hearings, making it easier for citizens to interact with them.
- Encourage legislative bodies to address corruption through a strong legal framework and use their subpoena power to address instance of corruption.
An opportunity now exists to change the narrative that democracy is in decline. Africa’s youthful population, its increasing levels of education and better access to information are all factors pointing to more democracy; not less. Recent democratic victories in Malawi and Zambia, coupled with strong opposition and protest movements in Sudan, Guinea, and Chad portend further gains. To sustain these gains, institutions that represent citizens, including political parties, legislative bodies, and civil society must be strengthened. Autocratic governments, some in power for more than 30 years, will not easily give up power. As a result, both public and private institutions must be resilient and have the skills necessary to thrive in restricted environments. The Summit for Democracy can highlight gains made, to provide support to those working in restricted environments, and to provide resources to continue building the capabilities of democracy’s institutions.
Eighth Ministerial Meeting of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation “FOCAC”
The conditions of convening (the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation “FOCAC”) on November 29-30, 2021, in the Senegalese capital, “Dakar”, reflect the challenges faced by the two parties after the spread of the conditions of the Corona pandemic “Covid-19”. We find here that the “Forum on China-Africa Cooperation “FOCAC” has inaugurated on October 2000 in a move that is in line with the requirements of the times, and reflects the common desire of the Chinese and African peoples to achieve peace, development and cooperation under the new circumstances. Over the course of more than 21 years, since the establishment of this forum, the cooperation mechanism between the Chinese and African parties has continuously developed, and made important achievements. This eighth ministerial meeting is held to review all opportunities for China-Africa cooperation, to open new horizons for the China-Africa strategic partnership and to emphasize the establishment of the (China-Africa Free Trade Area). The two sides will have to work out a future plan for cooperation between them in the next stage, to lay solid foundations for a new and greater development of China-Africa relations post (Covid-19) pandemic.
So, the Egyptian researcher can identify the main objectives for helding the the (Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation “FOCAC”) on November 29-30, 2021, and the main agenda, planning and pledges for the benefits of the African continent and its people, as follows:
First: Agenda of the Eighth Ministerial Conference of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC)
Therefore, the most prominent points on the agenda are the fruitful cooperation and continuous support between the countries of the African continent and China. China is the largest developing country in the world, while Africa is the continent with the largest number of developing countries. Hence, we find that the most prominent areas of current cooperation between the Chinese and African sides, are:
1- Strengthen strategic alignment and political coordination and advance China-Africa cooperation in building the “Belt and Road”.
2- Linking the “Belt and Road Initiative to the African Union Agenda 2063 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development of the United Nations” closely with all development strategies of African countries.
3- Giving priority to the implementation of (the eight goals of China-Africa cooperation), which are:
(industrial development, enterprise connectivity, trade facilitation and green development, capacity building, health, public communication, and peace and security)
This will surely increase the opportunities and impetus for China-Africa cooperation.
4- Focusing on deepening the Sino-African partnership (as an important part of South-South cooperation), and these relations bring opportunities for Africa to add a new dynamism to the global economy.
5- The China-Africa Cooperation Forum plays a greater role in (fighting poverty – raising Africa’s capacity for self-development – developing the green economy – enhancing human communication between the two parties).
6- The African Union, with the support of the United Nations, works resolutely for cooperation between China and Africa, and makes joint efforts with both sides to achieve (permanent peace, development and prosperity in the world, especially the developing countries).
7- The Chinese and African sides unanimously agree on (cooperation, win-win and common development), with the Chinese side continuing to adhere to the concept of transparency, justice and mutual benefit, and working with the African side to enhance mutual trust between China and Africa, thus pushing the relations of partnership and comprehensive strategic cooperation between China and Africa to progress in a more depth and effectiveness way, with steady and continuous steps.
In this way, it can be considered that China-Africa cooperation as a model of international partnership is part of international cooperation with Africa, which adheres to the criteria of (mutual benefit and win-win, openness and inclusiveness, learning from each other, employing the advantages of each and uniting efforts, jointly contributing to peace and development in Africa). Therefore, the Chinese strategy is based on respecting the sovereignty of African countries, listening to their views, paying attention to their positions, and fulfilling promises towards them.
Second: The most prominent areas of China-Africa cooperation Forum within the framework of the “FOCAC”
There are many areas of cooperation between China and the countries of the African continent within the framework of joint efforts with the “Forum on China-Africa Cooperation” FOCAC, and the most prominent areas of China-Africa cooperation, are:
First: Expanding cooperation in (investment and financing fields to help Africa achieve sustainable development). In this context, China pledged to provide $60 billion in loans to African countries to develop the infrastructure, agriculture, manufacturing, and small and medium-sized businesses sectors in Africa.
Second: Continuing to increase aid to Africa, including humanitarian and medical aid, after (Covid-19), so that the African peoples benefit from the fruits of development. Hence, China will work to (increase the number of model centers for agricultural technology in Africa, train 30,000 Africans) in various specialties, provide thousands of government scholarships, and send 1,500 doctors from its medical missions to help eradicate epidemics and combat endemic diseases, viruses, Ebola and the coronavirus, as well as helping African countries build meteorological infrastructure and protect and manage forests.
Third: Supporting the African integration process to help the continent raise its development capacity. In this context, China has established with Africa (Partnership Relations and Cooperation in the Implementation of Cross-Border and Regional Infrastructure Projects).
Fourth: Consolidating the friendship between the Chinese people and the African peoples to lay solid popular foundations for the common Sino-African development, by inviting China to launch the “Chinese-African People’s Friendship Campaign”, establish the “China-Africa Media Exchange Center” in China, and continue to implement the “Sino-African Joint Research Programme”.
Fifth: Strengthening peace and stability in Africa to create a secure environment for development in Africa. This is through China’s launch of the “China-Africa Partnership and Cooperation Initiative to Strengthen Peace and Security”, and the Chinese government’s training of more African Union officials in (the field of peace and security affairs, conflict avoidance, development and peacekeeping).
Accordingly, we can arrive at an important analysis, which is that the launch of the Sino-African development initiatives for cooperation within the framework of the “FOCAC Forum on China-Africa Cooperation” comes within the framework of the strategy of “South-South” cooperation efforts, as an exemplary cooperation between the Sino-African parties, especially with (the prominent role of Chinese banks and companies in financing and building power stations, railways, highways and ports, as well as communications infrastructure, fiber-optic cables and smart cities in African countries), and if these Chinese initiatives continue to implement their goals, China will be able to stimulate global and then African economic growth China will meet the needs of developing countries for the long term.
Third: Evaluating the model and experience of the Ministerial Meeting and Sino-African Cooperation “FOCAC”
By evaluating the model of China-Africa ministerial cooperation, the leaders of the Chinese and African sides have reached important consensus on all important issues with their unified voices. Therefore, the previous summits and ministerial meetings between China and the African Union were crowned with complete success and bore abundant fruits, and recorded a new historical page for Chinese-African relations, and formed (a new modern milestone for the model of South-South cooperation). Among the most important messages, achievements and experience gained from previous ministerial meetings and summits between China and Africa, as follows:
1) We find the interest of the leaders of the Chinese and African sides to hold intense bilateral meetings or reciprocal meetings and visits, with the keenness of a number of leaders of African countries and governments to visit China (to exchange views in depth on bilateral relations and issues of common interest, especially those related to trade issues and joint investments between the two parties).
2) Although more than 21 years have passed since the establishment of the China-Africa Cooperation Forum, it came in line with the trend of the times and developed with the progress of China-Africa cooperation, and it has become more mature and complete with the passage of time, and it has become (a landmark for international cooperation with Africa and a model for South-South cooperation). .
3) Here, the “Eighth Ministerial Meeting of Africa and China” aims to strengthen the comprehensive strategic partnership and cooperation relations between China and Africa from a new historical perspective, and open a new historical path for it, with joint efforts made to activate and strengthen the (China-Africa Cooperation Forum), and for (implementation of the outcomes of the summit of the previous “FOCAC” to support cooperation with Beijing in a comprehensive and effective manner, bringing (tangible benefits to the peoples of the Chinese and African sides).
4) When we evaluate the most important measures taken by the Chinese government in the eighth ministerial meeting, in addition to the previous meetings that brought China together with African leaders and at the level of ministerial meetings, we find that they are represented in (five priority areas for China and Africa), revolving mainly around: strengthening peace and development in Africa, and pushing forward the China-Africa strategic partnership to new forms for the new era.
What is remarkable about this in most of the previous ministerial meetings and summits between China and the countries of the African continent, is the great Chinese interest in the development of African human resources, and the great Chinese welcome to receive African delegations, most of whose members are young people to be trained in various fields, and it has (exceeded the total number of Africans who received trainings in China to almost 5,000 students, compared to just dozens of students before the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation).
If trade is one of the most important indicators of the development and strength of the relationship between the Chinese and African sides, the growth of the volume of trade exchange between the Chinese and African sides is a testament to the great boost witnessed by Chinese-African relations in recent years.
The role of China’s Health Silk Road to combat Covid-19 in Africa and Egypt
China has immediately activated its initiative for “Health Silk Road”, post the outbreak of “Covid-19” as a prominent part of its initiative for “Silk and Road”, and donated the necessary supplies to combat the epidemic in Egypt and more than 50 African countries. Chinese authorities have collaborated with the member states and leaders of the (Forum on China-Africa Cooperation) “FOCAC” to recognize the main requirements of the African states. China contributed to the establishment of the (African Center for Disease Control).
Most African countries have also received many (Chinese aid to confront the new Corona virus disease, which came in the form of governmental or private donations, whether from a number of Chinese provincial and municipal governments, and Chinese organizations and companies), which donated quantities of masks, protective suits, virus detectors and an x-ray examination system, CT scans of the lungs with artificial intelligence, and others. The most important aspects of Chinese cooperation with Egypt and African foreigners to overcome the low growth and lack of supplies resulting from the pressure of the Corona pandemic can be identified, as follows:
1) China has sent (148 anti-epidemic medical experts to 11 African countries to support African countries in combating the novel coronavirus epidemic), and experts from both sides also held video conferences.
2) The Chinese government has held intensive meetings and meetings to help the countries of the African continent overcome deficiencies after the spread of the pandemic, the most important of which are (the Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation and the China-Africa Extraordinary Summit on Solidarity against “Covid-19” in Beijing), in confirmation on China’s role in always seeking to jointly build a “future for a common future for humanity”, as it has continued to assist African countries by sending expert teams, and by providing and facilitating the purchase of necessary medical supplies.
3) In addition, (more than 40 Chinese medical teams traveled to help Africa with active work in a number of local regions and regions, where Chinese experts carried out nearly 400 training activities to acquire various skills to cope with the pandemic conditions), and to exchange experiences in combating the epidemic with the African side, and Chinese experts have trained more than 20,000 local employees, according to official statements issued by both sides.
4) Chinese President “Xi Jinping” stressed that China (provided vaccines for about 40 African countries, including Egypt), also called on the major countries to fulfill their obligations to help the countries of the African continent with (President Xi’s invitation to the leaders of the Group of Twenty major economic countries in Participation in providing vaccines to the African continent and reducing the burden of the pandemic), especially since some developed countries have secured vaccines for up to 80% of their population.
5) Chinese President (Xi Jinping’s initiative of reducing the debt burden of poor African countries after “Covid-19”) came through President Xi’s announcement that (China has fully implemented the G-20 initiative to suspend debt service to help the poorest countries in response to the pandemic conditions), in addition to (China has reached debt relief agreements with 16 African countries with a total value of more than one and a half billion dollars), and more agreements were signed with many other countries.
6) Chinese President Xi Jinping’s call for (the Chinese side to adopt the Partnership Initiative to Support Africa’s Development Supervised by the United Nations), was announced by Chinese Foreign Minister “Wang Yi” while presiding over a virtual open debate via video of the “UN Security Council” on May 2021, where (China called on the international community to provide more assistance on supplies, medicines, technology and financing to combat the epidemic in developing African countries), especially through various and diversified ways to ensure access to affordable vaccines in Africa, including:
(Non-refundable assistance, preferential procurement, technology transfer, and cooperative production)
7) What was remarkable here was (China’s call for the international community to provide support to Africa in the areas of epidemic control, post-epidemic reconstruction, trade and investment, debt relief, food security, poverty reduction and alleviation, tackling climate change, as well as industrialization). Beijing also expressed cooperation and coordination with many countries and relevant international organizations, especially Africa’s traditional cooperation partners, to join this initiative, within the framework of (China’s commitment to the principles of African leadership, equality and openness to the continent and its emerging markets, strengthening coordination and cooperation, and commitment to true pluralism).
8) On the Egyptian side, the Egyptian-Chinese cooperation in the field of health during the period of the Corona pandemic witnessed a great growth and escalation, in a multi-varied way through (China sent three shipments in batches as aid from China to the Egyptian people, with the Egyptian Minister of Health keen to visit China to declare Egyptian solidarity with it).
9) The most important forms of cooperation between Egypt and China were represented in (the cooperation and partnership agreement between the Egyptian company “Vaccera” and the Chinese “Sinovac”, which makes Egypt an important regional center for the manufacture of vaccines), and even one of the strong arms for the production of vaccines in the Arab region and the African continent.
9) China has translated its assistance to Egypt in practice through (the Chinese government sent raw materials to produce nearly 100 million doses by the end of 2021), in addition to the continuation of the partnership between (Sinovac and Vaccera) as a fruit of cooperation in eliminating the “Covid-19” pandemic between the two Chinese and Egyptian sides.
10) It also came (Chinese approval of the Egyptian request to cooperate in making Egypt a center for the Chinese vaccine industry), and China’s assistance to the Egyptian government in the field of (localizing Corona vaccine technology in Cairo and making it a center for exporting the vaccine to African markets and neighboring countries), especially with regard to the production of raw materials. .
11) The most prominent here is what was announced by the Chinese Ambassador in Cairo, Mr.ambassador, Li Qiang, through a press conference (that all Chinese projects continue to operate in Egypt during the pandemic period to ensure the continuation of Egypt’s economic growth), which led to the expansion of Chinese companies’ investments in Egypt, and his announcement of rising the volume of the direct Chinese business investments increased to 34.6% during the “Covid-19” pandemic period, to reach about $72 million.
12) The work of Chinese companies in Egypt also continued during the Corona virus period, which completed the completion of the main structure of four buildings in (the new administrative capital in Cairo), including the highest skyscraper in Africa, and it is expected that four new buildings will be built with Chinese expertise.
13) The confirmation of the Chinese Ambassador in Cairo, Li Qiang, came about (the Chinese-Egyptian cooperation zone “TEDA” in Ain Sukhna achieved sales worth more than 2.3 billion dollars by the end of September 2020, while it paid taxes to the Egyptian government that amounted to 170 million dollars, in addition to providing many job opportunities for the Egyptian youth during the pandemic period), where about 96 Chinese institutions and companies work, which have achieved investments worth one and a half billion pounds.
Hence, we understand China’s keenness to enhance African-Chinese solidarity and consensus in combating the spread of the Corona pandemic, and to give a new impetus to cooperation between the two sides in light of the current developments, and the most important is Sino-African solidarity and cooperation, with (China’s keenness to transfer its experiences to build the capacities of African countries most in need to help it overcome the pandemic crisis with the China’s invitation to African leaders to hold extraordinary summits and give priority to protecting the medical sector in the African continent through (a sufficient funding mechanism to ensure the availability of necessary medical and preventive supplies, as well as Chinese assistance in building and equipping African hospitals), especially in light of the limited available resources.
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