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Rohingya Influx and its Economic Significance for Bangladesh

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Rohingya refugees fleeing conflict and persecution in Myanmar (file photo). IOM/Mohammed

Authors:Shuva Das & Sherajul Mustajib Sharif*

It is generally perceived that refugees are curse for host countries though the former often play positive roles for the latter. The context of Bangladesh over hosting Rohingya refugees is portrayed in such a way that demonstrates they are solely an obvious danger for the country in the areas of its economy, politics, environment, health, and security. The above argument is true but it is a one-sided view which is enough to make hospitable Bangladeshis hostile against the Rohingya. Thus, it is crucial to explore in which areas the Rohingya have made positive contributions in Bangladesh. In this article, we intend to elucidate the economic benefits offered by the displaced Rohingya for the host country.

Brief Overview of the Rohingya Crisis

The Rohingya crisis is one of the worst humanitarian disasters in the modern world. The degree of violence and persecution taken against the Rohingya by the military of Myanmar has reached in an extremely horrendous extent in which an UN fact finding team in 2018 found genocidal elements. The Rohingya are an ethno-religious Muslim minority group of Myanmar. Though they have lived in Rakhine state of the country for centuries, to the Burmese government and Buddhists they are illegal Bengali immigrants who came from the present Bangladesh to Rakhine State for works during British colonial rule. The Burmese government withdrew their citizenship status through the “1982 Citizenship Act”, rendering them stateless. Since 1978, they have experienced several brutal military crackdowns and every time they have taken shelter in Bangladesh. In particular, since 2017 when the military of Myanmar launched “clearance operation” against the Rohingya in retaliation of an insurgent attack allegedly carried out by a Rohingya rebel group known as the Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army on several police posts, a significant number of Rohingya, over 740,000, have fled to Bangladesh from Myanmar. This number with the previously remaining Rohingya refugees has exceeded the one-million mark in the host country, intensifying the level of strain on it.

Economic Advantages Offered by the Rohingya Refugees

Bangladesh is a small developing country and with a population of about 16.7 million, it is the world’s eighth most populous country. In these circumstances, over one additional million Rohingya refugees are competing with cheaper labor against many local people for jobs in the Rohingya-hosted areas in the Cox’s Bazar district of the nation, and they have put extreme pressure on its limited resources. Nonetheless, to graduate from the pool of the UN’s Least Developed Countries, with the massive refugee burden Bangladesh successfully accomplished all three required criteria in 2018 and is on track to be graduated by 2024. On an average, the real GDP growth of the country from 2017 to the running 2020 has also remained stable at around 7.70. The Rohingya influx has immense significance on the thriving economy of Bangladesh.

To begin with, Rohingya refugees have created numerous job opportunities for many Bangladeshi people who are working as volunteers, relief specialists, researchers, health workers and so on in almost 150 national and international aid groups and non-governmental organizations currently operating in Rohingya camps. In the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), for instance, more than 200 Bangladeshis have been employed to enhance its operational efficiency on the refugee crisis. Through working in humanitarian organizations, they are earning not only handsome salaries but quality skills. Besides, a good number of local people of the Rohingya-hosted areas in Bangladesh are doing transportation jobs to convey goods in the Rohingya camps.

Another vital point is that an entrepreneurial spark is currently seen among local host population. International donor agencies provide relief goods to Rohingya refugees who sell these to local traders to bring diversity in their daily meals. Local entrepreneurs purchase the relief products from Rohingya refugees at very low rate and sell these to their fellow Bangladeshis in a profitable price. Apart from this, the UNHCR took an ambitious project in 2019, under which 250 poor women of Cox’s Bazar along with equal number of Rohingya women have been given training in cloth crafting. And it has the will to train more women. Backward female population of Bangladesh can, in this manner, be empowered to be entrepreneurs, and effectively integrated into its booming economy.

Last but not least, International Organization for Migration, and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization in 2018 provided micro gardening kits to 25,000 Rohingya and 25,000 host households. This has opened a new economic window in South Eastern Bangladesh. To feed their gardens, the Rohingya purchase compost from Bangladeshi women. In addition to eating, they sell their produce in the host community market thereby generating a number of local vegetable dealers. The combined production of the Rohingya refugee and host families by micro gardening are enormously contributing to alleviate an estimated 50,000 metric ton yearly food deficit in Cox’s Bazar.

Concluding Remarks

Rohingya refugees have brought an economic boon for Bangladesh in multidimensional aspects. Because of them, many skilled and unskilled Bangladeshi people, especially women, have found their income sources. Positive contributions of the Rohingya should not be underestimated though these are less worthy if weighed against the overall drawbacks they have caused for the host nation. Since the Rohingya crisis is a protracted one having no possible certainty to be resolved soon, the government of Bangladesh needs not only to continue their diplomatic pressure against Myanmar but to focus on how effectively they can benefit from the displaced population in economic aspects.

*Sherajul Mustajib Sharif holds his BSS and MSS degrees from the Department of International Relations, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

Shuva Das holds a BSS (Hons) degree in International Relations from Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University (BSMRSTU), Bangladesh. Das’ articles have appeared in Synergy: the Journal of Contemporary Asian Studies, The Oxford University Politics Blog, and Strife among others.

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Economy

Coronavirus Impact On The World Of Work Traverses National Borders

Dr. Arshad M. Khan

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With the coronavirus lockdown, one aspect of our lives has been revolutionized … the world of work.  Computers have facilitated the transition and the coronavirus forced a real-life test.  For jobs where it is possible, we are working from home and many of us like it that way.

There are countries that have been doing it long before the coronavirus — at least in numbers far in excess of other industrialized countries.  In the Netherlands 14.1 percent of workers say they usually work away from the office compared to 4.7 percent in the UK and only 3.6 percent in the US.  Only Finland is comparable.  

Finland also allows flexible hours.  Indeed such flexibility has a basis in law ever since the 1996 Work Hours Act giving most workers the right to adjust workplace time.  Thus 92 percent of companies allow flexible hours there (a notable example being an employee who works remotely from Malaga, Spain!) compared to about three-quarters in the US and UK, a half in Russia and only 18 percent in Japan.   Employees can start or finish their workday up to three hours earlier or later.  A new Working Hours Act came into effect on Jan. 1, 2020 through prior legislation, fortuitously given Covid-19.  This now permits workers to schedule up to half their working hours away from the workplace.

Both Finland and the Netherlands also benefit from a culture of trust and equality; also practicality, a quality that small countries nurture to compete with the giants beside them.  Think Russia in one case and Germany for the other.

Flextime has other benefits.  Studies report higher output and efficiency.  When workers are allowed to pick their hours, they drift towards when they want to work.  In Finland, they still have to average 40 hours per week over each four-month period.  Nevertheless, working at a time most suitable for their individual circumstances implies they are working at their best, which also translates to most productive.

HSBC, the large UK bank, looked at what is driving UK productivity growth in a 2018 study.  Eighty-nine percent of respondents cited the importance of flexible working hours and work-life balance rating them higher than financial incentives.  One-in-five also cited poor work-life balance as the main reason for leaving a prior job, ranking it higher than limited opportunities or salary increases.

Meanwhile in the Netherlands, where 98 percent of homes have high-speed internet access, there is also a culture of trust, plus a combination of technology, attitude and expectation to make remote working a success.  King Willem-Alexander issued a photo of himself working from home to encourage others to do the same during the pandemic.

But then, the Netherlands is different.  ING, an Amsterdam-based bank, is now trying out a policy of unlimited vacation time for pilot groups of workers.  They can take as much time off as they want provided their work and set tasks do not suffer.

There must be something in all this for Dutch men averaging 163 cm (6 feet) are the tallest people on earth.  At 179.6 cm, the Finns are not far behind. 

Perhaps employers over here in the US will be enlightened by the statistics.  If there is a silver lining in this dark coronavirus cloud then, it could be in the world of work.

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Covid-19 and its impact on Belt and road initiative and CPEC

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Nowadays, Covid-19 is increasing rapidly in Pakistan. As of June 30 the amount of confirmed cases had risen to 208359 along with 4254 deaths. Tremendously a very bad situation of Pakistan economy as well as global economy due to this pandemic era. Coronavirus effects many business and major Flagship project in Pakistan like CPEC development due to shortage of local labour. The China-Pakistan Economic (CPEC) is a part of ambitious Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) which runs through South-East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, Russia and Europe by land as well as 21st century Maritime Silk Road, a sea route flanked by China’s coastal regions with South-East and South Asia, the South Pacific, the Middle East and Eastern Africa, all the way to Europe.

The China-Pakistan Economic Corridor badly effect and now most of the people concerned about CPEC development and its impact of covid-19 on development projects. Specifically the CPEC development were also stopped because of the absence of local labour who were forced to stay at home due to lockdown and  to avoid further spread of Covid-19. In addition, the government of Pakistan and china also announced the travel restrictions which delayed the availability of workforce. All business areas and business centers in the port of Gwadar are completely closed, and the impact of all these problems on CPEC and its branches. But there is encouraging news that the port of Gwadar is still operating under strict policies.

Covid-19 has already had a significant impact on the global economy, influencing production, supply chains and the movement of people and goods. Since the outbreak and increasing the cases of corona virus, many people concerned about the impact of covid-19 on CPEC development projects. Most of the people says it has no impact but some people says it has huge impact on development of CPEC. As per my opinion it has a huge Impact on CPEC development. According to the challenging situation Chinese government decided to work again on BRI projects. Chinese government believe that once the pandemic crisis is over BRI projects will lead the world economy recovery and sustainable development.

As our honorable PM Imran Khan said multiple time that corona virus is not going anywhere, we have to live with this epidemic situation following SOP otherwise survival in Pakistan is much difficult as compared to developing and developed countries. If all Factories, industries, and development teams closed for certain time, Pakistan economy will goes down for sure and people will die due to hunger and unemployment. Consequently, the Pakistan Government is in full consultation with the government of China as well as Chinese companies working on the CPEC projects. In this regard, Pakistan government is taking preventive measures and providing full protection to Chinese workforce on CPEC. In addition, the Chinese workers who are returning to Pakistan have to endure double quarantine system for their safety as well as the safety of other workers too.

Contemporaneous, we must be aware of the fact that there is a force in the world that does not want to see CPEC’s success, so they indiscriminately amplify the impact of the pandemic on CPEC development. The Chinese and Pakistan government both nations agreed to continue this project and overcome difficulties caused by Covid-19 and support CPEC construction. Both governments have upheld close communication and coordination on particular issues of CPEC projects. Chinese companies have implemented closed management, and all CPEC projects have maintain prevention and control plans and implemented them very strictly, therefore effectively preventing the invasion of the novel coronavirus. As far as I know, there is no Covid-19 spread at the construction or development sites.

In addition, the Chinese companies contributing in the construction of CPEC projects are also actively making assistances to the prevention and control of the pandemic in several locations in Pakistan, donating material to local government’s offices, schools, and hospitals. When the world suffering from corona virus, china was there for supplying material and help to various nations in the form of medical equipment, protection accessories and medical supplies. It’s a bit challenging circumstances in China in pandemic situation but china prove his kindness in front of other nations that increased the trust of countries in China.

It is still unclear situation when local and global economic activities become stable, which also creates uncertainty about the feasibility of these projects. In the same way, other cross-border corridors and the Silk Road Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) are also facing delays and cancellations. Despite difficult circumstances, the Chinese are promoting BRI, gradually resuming development work and building the health Silk Road. Beijing China is much confident that BRI will lead the global economic recovery after resolving the crisis.

The most common broader issue nowadays is whether the planned BRI projects can be delay in the current economic environment. For instance, it was recently stated that nearly seven to eight years after the creation of CPEC, less than one-third of the development projects had been completed. Since sustainability of financing for BRI projects is already a challenge, and Chinese capital projected to be organized to meet the basic and domestic needs, the pandemic and the resulting slowdown in economic growth will be even more delayed and could even be a death sentence for Some Belt and road Initiative projects as well as CPEC.

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Economy

Pandemic Recovery: Empowerment of Women Entrepreneurship

Naseem Javed

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Jocelyn Hobbie

A new world unfolding by the day, new economic thinking emerging by the hour, late comers to digital-age panicking by the minutes; new value systems measured and women’s role on grassroots prosperity re-defined as fastest trajectory. The largest untapped and hidden potential of any nation today by all counts the underexposed entrepreneurialism of women. Pandemic recovery has no room for such ignorance, truth must get unmasked and large-scale actions on role of women entrepreneurialism on national economic recovery immediately deployed.

Nations missing 50% of their working citizenry’s talent are blindly pushing national economy as a one-wheel cart. What are the immediate key requirements to mobilize the empowerment of women entrepreneurship?  Here are the unstoppable cyclones

For the first time ever in the history, there are far too many women in colleges and universities, in science, technology, engineering and mathematics subjects, plus as individual business owners, entrepreneurs or executives in small, medium or large organizations, including top government officials and as national leaders. So what just happened?

For the first time ever in the history, educated parents across the world supported down streaming of organized quality education on their children, rain of almost free technologies brought information and knowledge at doorsteps. Businesses around the world started globalization opening new cities and towns and now the zoomerang effect of remote working via video-conferencing created a new easy access universe of women. So what is next?

For the first time ever in the history, the women of the world ever assembled in big or small circles all connected on global digital platforms and connectivity making the largest combined group. They now know well, how to take next steps and are well equipped to venture out onto micro to mega projects. The global mindshare amongst educated smart STEM women have just become a call of time to national economic advancements.  So how will this unfold?

For the first time in the history, the long awaited time for all women entrepreneurial groups in five continents to come together on similar page, common language and similar platforms.  Is it possible now, business-women associations and women chambers of commerce and special groups to all rise up and join forces under larger umbrellas of digital platforms where they multiply their local, national, global reach and also use upskilling and reskilling as way to quadruple innovative excellence and exportability and shine? In addition, why not and what is stopping this?

What is missing depending of nations, open and bold dialogues to bring business and STEM women under large economic development umbrellas? Is it about time that woman entrepreneurs finally join hands, become a humongous national global force and powerful voice on world stage, and not left behind as 1000 small splintered groups lost amongst 200 nations?

Three Major Trends:
Understanding collaborative synthesizim:
our broken and fragmented economies splintered amongst 200 nations and 10,000 cites need the glue of collaborative synthesizim.

Understanding real “value creation” over “value manipulations”: our economies of small and medium businesses are required to measure real value creation as direct productivity and exportability to boost grassroots prosperity.

Understanding “soft-power-asset-management”: our prime occupation with “hard-asset-mentality” must blend with imagination, creativity to multiply growth and global-age speed of operations

Three Major Challenges:
How difficult
is it for women organizations to leave local and internal politics aside, seriously evaluate all current offering, and seek beyond on larger national/global platforms.

How challenging is tit for the leadership of women organization to boldly enlarge vision befitting global stage and spin out from local agenda events to major global advancements issues.

How complex is for the entire membership of any large or small women group to face the truth on national and global image and identity confusions and make creating professionally managed Intellectual Property digital assets as name brands, protectable trademarks, and domain name websites to skate around the world.

Three options; study deeply

How do you re-calibrate into an international organization, with little or no extra cost. This calls for fresh new thinking to scale up organizational structure paralleled with digital platforms to reach higher level of connectivity.

How to build global teams via collaborative alliances, attracting big and small groups and umbrella thinking on global goals advancements and creating highly smooth events and operational systems.

How do you achieve mastery by offering real value to all members, as this the most difficult challenge and calls for detail analysis of the principal objectives and offerings and a real match of leadership capabilities to drive the agenda forward.

The futurism is workless:
This is a new ocean now in need of trained swimmers and skilled scuba divers.

Top key questions: are women business sectors ready for national mobilization of entrepreneurialism on digital platforms?  Is there a national agenda to quadruple innovative performance of women and drive exportability? 

Top key solutions: How simultaneous synchronization of upskilling of 10,000 to 100,000 results in growth on a fast track basis? How roundtable discussions live streamed to top 1000 to 10,000 stakeholders instantly create a national umbrella? How identification of few VIP candidates on nationwide collaborations on global digital platforms will start action? Why high power round-table events zoomed live across 1000-10,000 selected viewers instantly makes the topic a national agenda. Study Pentiana Project on how 100,000 SME on digital platform of upskilling shine and grow.

To become the second missing wheel to fix the national economic cart is now new art and science

The rest is easy

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