Connect with us

Middle East

Egypt needs to better leverage its foreign policy

Published

on

Despite being a developing nation incapable of providing adequate job opportunities for its youth, Egypt possesses tremendous soft power that, if well utilized, could positively benefit our economy and political relationships. Our intense daily challenges might be diverting the Egyptian State from thinking strategically and capitalizing on our national strengths. Sadly, we have focused on advocating for a given political stance at the expense of a fully functional and beneficial foreign policy.

Since President Al Sisi assumed power in 2014, he has defined Egypt’s foreign policy in black and white; regional nations that are ruled by Islamic governments, or countries that are politically influenced by Islamists, are permanently placed on Egypt’s blacklist, whereas nations opposed to Islamists are our best allies. As a result, Egypt has frozen its relations with Turkey and Qatar, maintains cold relations with many regional states, and is in perfect harmony with Saudi Arabia and the United Arab of Emirates. 

Egyptian foreign policy has revolved around a single proposition: we are the largest Arab nation, we have removed the Muslim Brotherhood from power and we are fighting Islamic terrorism; thus, we deserve unconditional support from our neighbors. This extremely narrow political proposition that only a few nations follow has restricted our potential political capabilities, placing us constantly in a defensive position; instead of working on expanding our regional power, we are exhausting our political vitality on working to avoid various conflicts.

Meanwhile, there is a huge difference between possessing cultural attributes that many Arabs admire and having a functional foreign policy capable of influencing the behavior and actions of neighboring policymakers! Egypt’s unwillingness to engage with its adversaries, discouraging Egyptian civil society organizations from interacting with their counterparts abroad, and not welcoming visitors from nations with whom we disagree have all resulted in shrinking Egypt’s regional political influence.

Egypt’s traditional strength lies in its ability to reach out to conflicting parties equally with the serious intention of resolving any given conflict in the region. Historically, Egypt has managed to sustain good relations with most Arab rulers while concurrently hosting their exiled opposition figures – a very delicate strategic approach that we used to apply skillfully. While we may have been naturally biased toward a given political force, all conflicting parties used to admire and rely on our mediating role.

This approach is best reflected in our long running mediation between the two Palestinian political entities (Fattah and Hamas) and our maintenance of good relations with all the Lebanese political forces. Moreover, and although often forgotten, Egypt hosted Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, the Emir of Qatar, after he was exiled by his son in 1995. Similarly,  Egypt offered asylum to other exiled political leaders from Libya, Sudan and Yemen.

There is a great difference between being implicitly biased toward a certain party and working on forcing a specific political outcome on a nation, such as backing Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the Commander of the Libyan National Army at the expense of his opponent, Fayez Al-Sarraj, Prime Minister of the Government of National Accord of Libya. As a result of this approach, a number of European nations have interfered in the Libyan crisis, taking over Egypt’s traditional role, albeit unsuccessfully. 

Should Egypt maintain relations with a regional nation that is working against our national security? The short answer is yes, but through a political dynamic that is specifically articulated to deal adequately with this position. The two largest economic powers at present, the United States and the People’s Republic of China, have recently been engaged in a major trade dispute, pressuring each other with sanctions– yet they have never considered severing relations. 

Egypt’s foreign policy needs to focus on strengthening relations with all regional states, including Turkey and Qatar. We should advance our bilateral relations through political and economic themes that are of added value to both parties, genuinely offering the services of our talented diplomats and intelligentsia to help resolve some of their present challenges. Such an approach will give Egypt the political leverage needed to strengthen its regional standing, which might help us address the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam crisis more productively, for example.  

Egypt refrained from forming any kind of relationship with Iran, a country that is eagerto reach out to us. Allowing Iranian tourists to visit Islamic sites in Egypt, something the Iranian regime has been yearning for, would give Egypt additional leverage (an initiative that might take place after getting rid of Covid19). Meanwhile, enabling Qatar to better operate its investments in Egypt would reflect positively on our foreign direct investment as well as reduce unemployment, whereas decelerating Qatari investments in Egypt will not have a significant effect on this small wealthy nation. A similar approach needs to be applied vis-à-vis Turkey by integrating it in the exploitation of East Mediterranean natural gas reserves.

For better or for worse, in the present era – and especially after the Arab Spring – no single Arab political force will be able to govern exclusively and simultaneously realize internal stability! Even if this were to happen, it could never (as we wish) be permanent. National security would be better served by maintaining constructive relations with our neighbors through building bilateral relationships that offer an economic and political interest to both parties. Additionally, as long as we decline to apply liberal democracy, we can expect political Islam to last for years to come in our region.

Some argue that Egypt has managed to build a coalition against the spread of regional Islamic forces. Perhaps, but we can’t sustain a given political proposition forever, especially when we have curtailed our regional capabilities to advance our political interests. Moreover, Egypt’s relationship with its closest allies might be vulnerable; having alternative pillars that we can rely on would constitute a strategic advantage. Egypt needs to develop a dynamic foreign policy that works to win the hearts and minds of its neighbors– a proposition that will also advance its relationships with western nations.

Mohammed Nosseir is an Egyptian liberal politician, living in Cairo and advocating for political participation, liberal values and economic freedom. He tweets @MohammedNosseir

Continue Reading
Comments

Middle East

Erdogan’s Calamitous Authoritarianism

Published

on

Turkey’s President Erdogan is becoming ever more dangerous as he continues to ravage his own country and destabilize scores of states in the Middle East, the Balkans, and North Africa, while cozying up to the West’s foremost advisories. Sadly, there seems to be no appetite for most EU member states to challenge Erdogan and put him on notice that he can no longer pursue his authoritarianism at home and his adventurous meddling abroad with impunity.

To understand the severity of Erdogan’s actions and ambitions and their dire implications, it suffices to quote Ahmet Davutoglu, formerly one of Erdogan’s closest associates who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and subsequently Prime Minister. Following his forced resignation in May 2016 he stated “I will sustain my faithful relationship with our president until my last breath. No one has ever heard — and will ever hear — a single word against our president come from my mouth.”

Yet on October 12, Davutoglu declared “Erdogan left his friends who struggled and fought with him in exchange for the symbols of ancient Turkey, and he is trying to hold us back now…. You yourself [Erdogan] are the calamity. The biggest calamity that befell this people is the regime that turned the country into a disastrous family business.”

The stunning departure of Davutoglu from his earlier statement shows how desperate conditions have become, and echoed how far and how dangerously Erdogan has gone. Erdogan has inflicted a great calamity on his own people, and his blind ambition outside Turkey is destabilizing many countries while dangerously undermining Turkey’s and its Western allies’ national security and strategic interests.

A brief synopsis of Erdogan’s criminal domestic practices and his foreign misadventures tell the whole story.

Domestically, he incarcerated tens of thousands of innocent citizens on bogus charges, including hundreds of journalists. Meanwhile he is pressuring the courts to send people to prison for insulting him, as no one can even express their thoughts about this ruthlessness. Internationally, Erdogan ordered Turkish intelligence operatives to kill or smuggle back to the country Turkish citizens affiliated with the Gülen movement.

He regularly cracks down on Turkey’s Kurdish minority, preventing them from living a normal life in accordance with their culture, language, and traditions, even though they have been and continue to be loyal Turkish citizens. There is no solution to the conflict except political, as former Foreign Minister Ali Babacan adamantly stated on October 20: “… a solution [to the Kurdish issue] will be political and we will defend democracy persistently.”

Erdogan refuses to accept the law of the sea convention that gives countries, including Cyprus, the right to an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) for energy exploration, while threatening the use of force against Greece, another NATO member no less. He openly sent a research ship to the region for oil and gas deposits, which EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell called “extremely worrying.”

He invaded Syria with Trump’s blessing to prevent the Syrian Kurds from establishing autonomous rule, under the pretext of fighting the PKK and the YPG (the Syrian Kurdish militia that fought side-by-side the US, and whom Erdogan falsely accuses of being a terrorist group).

He is sending weapons to the Sunni in northern Lebanon while setting up a branch of the Turkish Cooperation and Coordination Agency (TIKA) in the country—a practice Erdogan has used often to gain a broader foothold in countries where it has an interest.

While the Turkish economy is in tatters, he is investing hundreds of millions of dollars in the Balkans, flooding countries with Turkish imams to spread his Islamic gospel and to ensure their place in his neo-Ottoman orbit. Criticizing Erdogan’s economic leadership, Babacan put it succinctly when he said this month that “It is not possible in Turkey for the economic or financial system to continue, or political legitimacy hold up.”

Erdogan is corrupt to the bone. He conveniently appointed his son-in-law as Finance Minister, which allows him to hoard tens of millions of dollars, as Davutoglu slyly pointed out: “The only accusation against me…is the transfer of land to an educational institution over which I have no personal rights and which I cannot leave to my daughter, my son, my son-in-law or my daughter-in-law.”

Erdogan is backing Azerbaijan in its dispute with Armenia (backed by Iran) over the breakaway territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, which is inhabited by ethnic Armenians and has been the subject of dispute for over 30 years.

He is exploiting Libya’s civil strife by providing the Government of National Accord (GNA) with drones and military equipment to help Tripoli gain the upper hand in its battle against Khalifa Haftar’s forces. Former Foreign Minister Yasar Yakis said in February 2020 that “The unclear Turkish foreign policy by Erdogan may put Turkey in grave danger due to this expansion towards Libya.”

He is meddling in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in an effort to prevent them from settling their dispute unless Israel meets Palestinian demands. He granted several Hamas officials Turkish citizenship to spite Israel, even though Hamas openly calls for Israel’s destruction.

He betrayed NATO by buying the Russian-made S-400 air defense system, which seriously compromises the alliance’s technology and intelligence.

He is destabilizing many countries, including Somalia, Qatar, Libya, and Syria, by dispatching military forces and hardware while violating the air space of other countries like Iraq, Cyprus, and Greece. Yakis said Turkey is engaging in a “highly daring bet where the risks of failure are enormous.”

Erdogan supports extremist Islamist groups such as the Muslim Brotherhood and Hamas, and an assortment of jihadists, including ISIS, knowing full well that these groups are sworn enemies of the West—yet he uses them as a tool to promote his wicked Islamic agenda.

He regularly blackmails EU members, threatening to flood Europe with Syria refugees unless they support his foreign escapades such as his invasion of Syria, and provide him with billions in financial aid to cope with the Syrian refugees.

The question is how much more evidence does the EU need to act? A close look at Erdogan’s conduct clearly illuminates his ultimate ambition to restore much of the Ottoman Empire’s influence over the countries that were once under its control.

Erdogan is dangerous. He has cited Hitler as an example of an effective executive presidential system, and may seek to acquire nuclear weapons. It’s time for the EU to wake up and take Erdogan’s long-term agenda seriously, and take severe punitive measures to arrest his potentially calamitous behavior. Sadly, the EU has convinced itself that from a geostrategic perspective Turkey is critically important, which Erdogan is masterfully exploiting.

The EU must be prepared take a stand against Erdogan, with or without the US. Let’s hope, though, that Joe Biden will be the next president and together with the EU warn Erdogan that his days of authoritarianism and foreign adventurism are over.

The views expressed are those of the author.

Continue Reading

Middle East

Syrian Refugees Have Become A Tool Of Duplicitous Politics

Published

on

Syrian refugees in Rukban camp

Since the beginning of the conflict in Syria the issue of Syrian refugees and internally displace has been the subject of countless articles and reports with international humanitarian organizations and countries involved in the Syrian conflict shifting responsibility for the plight of migrants.

The most notorious example of human suffering put against political games is the Rukban refugee camp located in eastern Syria inside the 55-km zone around Al-Tanf base controlled by the U.S. and its proxies.

According to official information, more than 50,000 people, mostly women and children, currently live in the camp. This is a huge number comparable to the population of a small town. The Syrian government, aware of the plight of people in Rukban, has repeatedly urged Washington to open a humanitarian corridor so that everyone can safely return home. However, all such proposals were ignored by the American side. U.S. also refuse to provide the camp with first aid items. Neighbouring Jordan is inactive, too, despite Rukban being the largest of dozens other temporary detention centres in Syria, where people eke out a meager existence.

At the same time, the problem is not only refugee camps. Syria has been at war for a decade. The country’s economy has suffered greatly over this period, and many cities have been practically grazed to the ground. Moreover, the global coronavirus epidemic didn’t spare Syria and drained the already weakened economy even more. However, Damascus’ attempts of post-war reconstruction and economic recovery were undermined by multiple packages of severe sanctions imposed by the U.S. At the same time, U.S.-based human rights monitors and humanitarian organizations continue to weep over the Syrian citizens’ misery.

The situation is the same for those refugees who stay in camps abroad, especially in countries bordering on Syria, particularly Jordan and Turkey. Ankara has been using Syrian citizens as a leverage against the European states in pursuit of political benefits for a long time. No one pays attention to the lives of people who are used as a change coin in big politics. This is equally true for Rukban where refugees are held in inhuman conditions and not allowed to return to their homeland. In those rare exceptions that they are able to leave, refugees have to pay large sums of money that most of those living in camp are not able to come by.

It’s hard to predict how long the Syrian conflict will go on and when – or if – the American military will leave the Al-Tanf base. One thing can be said for sure: the kind of criminal inaction and disregard for humanitarian catastrophe witnessed in refugee camps is a humiliating failure of modern diplomacy and an unforgivable mistake for the international community. People shouldn’t be a tool in the games of politicians.

Continue Reading

Middle East

Is Syria Ready For Second Wave Of COVID-19?

Published

on

©UNICEF/Delil Souleiman

Despite a relative calm that has been holding on the front lines of the Syrian conflict since the beginning of the year, Syria had to face other equally – if not more – serious challenges. The spread of COVID-19 virus in the wake of a general economic collapse and a health care system battered by nine years of war threatened Syria with a death toll as a high as that of resumed military confrontation. However, the actual scale of the infection rate turned out to be less than it was expected considering the circumstances.

Although Syria did not have much in resources to mobilize, unlike some other countries that were slow to enforce restrictions or ignored them altogether, the Syrian authorities did not waste time to introduce basic measures that, as it became obvious in hindsight, proved to be the most effective. A quarantine was instituted in the areas controlled by the government, all transportation between the provinces was suspended, schools and universities were temporarily closed and face masks were made obligatory in public spaces.

As a result, official data puts the number of people infected with COVID-19 in the government areas at modest 4,457 while 192 people died of the infection. In turn, the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria announced that 1,998 people contracted the virus. The data on the infection rate in the opposition-controlled areas in Idlib and Aleppo is incomplete, but the latest number is 1,072. Compared to the neighboring Turkey with  9,000 of deaths of COVID-19, Syria seems to be doing relatively well.

Tackling the virus put the already embattled health care system under enormous strain. Syrian doctors are dealing with an acute shortage of medicines and equipment, and even hospital beds are in short supply. Over 60 medical workers who treated COVID-19 patients died.

The situation is worsened even further by the economic hardships, not least due to the sanctions imposed on Syria by the U.S. and the European states. Syrian hospitals are unable to procure modern equipment necessary for adequate treatment of COVID-19, most importantly test kits and ventilators.

The economic collapse exposed and aggravated many vulnerabilities that could have been easily treated under more favorable circumstances. A grim, yet fitting example: long queues in front of bakeries selling bread at subsidised prices, that put people under the risk of catching the virus. Many Syrians are simply unable to avoid risking their health in these queues, as an average income is no longer enough to provide for a family.

Moreover, despite a nation-wide information campaign conducted with the goal of spreading awareness about means of protections against COVID-19 like social distancing and mask-wearing, for many Syrians the disease is still stigmatized, and those who contracted it are often too ashamed to go to a hospital or even confess to their friends. As consequence, a substantial number of cases goes unreported.

With the second wave of COVID-19 in sight, it is of utmost importance that the work of health care professionals is supported, not subverted by the citizens. Otherwise Syria – and the world – may pay too high a price.

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

Trending