Authors: Navya Bhandari and Ayush Mehta*
Recently, Donald Trump was heard accusing China of “spreading” the Novel Coronavirus. Of late, there are sources which show that China initially hid information about the virus, which strengthen the claim that it’s a Chinese virus. COVID-19 has changed all dimensions of business, making it all the more uncertain. With crashing markets, stagnant growth, and job layoffs, the global economy is hard hit. Among such business uncertainties, it seems that China has emerged as the winner. The strength of this statement lies at the fact that while nations all over the world are at an all-time low, the Chinese economy has started to recover and so much that 96.6% of China’s large and medium sized firms have resumed operation.
In such a scenario, the Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, with a view to curb “opportunistic takeovers/acquisitions of Indian companies due to the current COVID-19 pandemic,” took a strong step and recently amended paragraph 3.1.1of the Consolidated FDI Policy, 2017. This article analyzes the said change in law and its repercussions thereof.
What strained the government to take this step?
On 12th April, the Chinese Central Bank increased its stake in HDFC bank by 1%. This led to widespread uproar among the Indian investors and public, and the Indian government was driven to the realization that Chinese firms may take advantage of India’s fragile economic condition and undertake similar actions. Taking hands on approach, the government, forced by the fears of hostile takeovers, decided to change the existing norms related to Foreign Direct Investments to protect investor interest.
Since a lot of sectors in India are open to 100% foreign investment, it compelled the government to act preemptively. Though the change has been made for investments from all land neighbours of India, it mainly hints at hijacks by Chinese firms.
Changes in the Legal Position Regarding FDI Norms
The government via a Press Note, introduced strategic changes in the FDI policy to curb takeovers and acquisitions of Indian companies in light of the falling stock prices on account of the COVID – 19 pandemic. However, this amendment in norms, though in action, is yet to be confirmed by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under the Foreign Exchange Management Non-Debt Instruments Rules, 2019 (Non-Debt Rules) which govern foreign investments in India. It is pertinent to note that under the FEMA Rules, 2019, only RBI has been vested with the power to make regulations. Therefore, because the aforesaid notification was given out by the Ministry of Commerce, it is yet to be confirmed by the RBI.
FDI Policy in India
As per the FDI Policy in India, foreign investments can be done via two routes:
- Automatic route – Under the automatic route, the threshold for investments has been capped as per different sectors and it can be done without prior government approval.
- Government route – Under the government route for foreign investment, governmental approval is required.
Non-resident entities can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy except in those sectors/activities which are prohibited. However, a citizen of Bangladesh or an entity incorporated in Bangladesh can invest only under the Government route. Similar restrictions are also placed on Pakistani entities and individuals.
The revised policy is designed taking cue from other European nations like France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Under the revised policy the government has narrowed the scope of investment, by placing it under strict governmental scrutiny in order to protect Indian interests.
Under Para 3.1.1 (a), “A non-resident entity can invest in India, subject to the FDI Policy, except in those sectors which are prohibited.” The change in the policy now brings investment from all those countries which share land borders with India or where the beneficial owner of an investment is situated in any such country or is a resident, under the government route.
Government approval is required not just for the future investments but also for the transfer of ownership of existing FDIs.
Paragraph 3.1.1 (b) reads, “In event of transfer of ownership of any existing or future FDI in an entity in India, directly or indirectly, which results in beneficial ownership falling within the restriction of clause (a), such subsequent change shall also require prior government approval.
Additionally, the use of the word ‘or’ between ‘directly’ and ‘indirectly’ in the norm makes the amendment inclusive and covers all modes through which any investment may be made.
While this decision will help India monitor hostile and opportunistic takeover of Indian companies, the fear of such takeovers is not just from neighbouring countries but from the world at large. The change in policy, which is narrowly focused on China, still leaves room for such actions from other parts of the world, though they are highly unlikely.
Analysis of the Amendment – Is it foolproof?
It is pertinent that the above changes have been made to FDI, and not to Foreign Portfolio Investment (FPI). To the contrary, the recent HDFC bank stake increase was made through the FPI route.
In October, 2019, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), had reclassified FDI and FPI with a view to widen the scope of regulation. The new rules state that any investment below 10% stake through any route will be classified as FPI. This means, even direct investments below 10% stake will be classified as FPI, thus escaping the change in paragraph 3.1.1, which is only for FDI.
Moreover, there are certain aspects in which the norms are unsettled. The norms do not define what “beneficial ownership” means. Neither is the term defined in the FEMA or the Companies Act, 2013. Adding on, the regulation does not list the countries in particular. This leads to ambiguity regarding the fact that, whether investments from Hong-Kong will be treated differently or same as the investments from mainland China. Foreign Exchange Management (Establishment in India of a branch office or a liaison office or a project office or any other place of business) Regulations, 2016 treat the two differently.
After the dissolution of the Foreign Investment Promotion Board, it is also unclear as to who will be responsible for granting the required permission for foreign investments.
Impact of the amendment on the economy
These pre-emptive changes have been made to take care of round – tripping of investment. However, there will be other significant impacts of the decision, especially on startups.
While the move to prevent China from taking advantage of the economic predicament is welcomed, it may have far-reaching implications on Indian startups, for whom Chinese investment has been paramount. Chinese investment is the stimulus for the impressive growth of Indian startups and of late Chinese venture capital funds and giants like Alibaba and Tencent have ramped up their investment in this sector to an extent that without their investment the future of Indian startups looks bleak. Currently at least 18/23 Indian unicorns, such as Paytm, Snapdeal, OYO, Ola are backed by Chinese investors.
The notification can be an impediment to growth. The new policy would force companies who depend on investments from China, to find new investors in this time when there would be none. The flow of capital from Europe and the US would also dry up due to their own economies heading towards a recession. The change in policy will not only affect the growth-stage startups but also unicorns who depend on such investment to keep the cash flowing.
While we agree that some measures are necessary to prevent India’s advantage being taken, a sectoral implementation of the policy would have been better. Given the plight of the Start-up industry in India, a liberal approach for this sector of the economy would have been more beneficial.
The restriction on investments will also impact the Make in India plan, as it had been luring Chinese manufacturers to set their units in the country and reducing imports to reduce the balance of trade deficit. However, as there are no exemptions mandated by the government in this regulation, it could very well dampen such initiatives.
China and WTO: The new conundrum
A Chinese spokesperson claimed that the barriers India has set, violate WTO’s principles of non-discrimination and are in contravention with the general trend of liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment.
However, China’s claims can be refuted by the fact that there is no denial of permission to invest, rather a change in the approval process. The policy does not result in any restriction of Chinese investment and hence cannot be considered as an impediment to facilitation of trade.
Way Ahead: Suggestions and Conclusion
It is the government’s duty to take every possible step to protect the interest of Indian companies. While the prompt actions of the Indian government are appreciated, it is expected that another notification by the government clears the ambiguity in relation to the list of countries, who a beneficial owner is and specifying the authority for granting permissions.
Another aspect that has to be taken care of is the booming startup industry in India, which is heavily dependent on Chinese firms for funding. In the already collapsing economy, smaller startups who are not financially strong need more capital injection to stay afloat. Whilst altering rules for FDI and FPI, the government should lay a clear roadmap and provide some relief or alternate measures.
The government should also consider excluding sectors which have prospects to create a huge number of jobs and companies with existing 100% Chinese ownership. An exemption of investments by ‘pooled companies,’ in which Chinese companies do not have controlling capacities would also be beneficial.
India being an attractive investment destination for Chinese investors, is vulnerable to hostile takeovers at this point. Therefore, although this decision hinders and is an impediment for all such investments, it surely will go a long way to protect hostile takeovers. In toto, the regulation is a welcomed move.
*Navya Bhandari and Ayush Mehta are pursuing 5 year law from National Law Universiry Jodhpur.
Iran has an integral role to play in Russian-South Asian connectivity
Iran is geostrategically positioned to play an integral role in Russian-South Asian connectivity. President Putin told the Valdai Club during its annual meeting in October 2019 that “there is one more prospective route, the Arctic – Siberia – Asia.
The idea is to connect ports along the Northern Sea Route with ports of the Pacific and Indian oceans via roads in East Siberia and central Eurasia.” This vision, which forms a crucial part of his country’s “Greater Eurasian Partnership”, can be achieved through the official North-South Transport Corridor (NSTC) and tentative W-CPEC+ projects that transit through the Islamic Republic of Iran.
The first one refers to the creation of a new trade route from Russia to India through Azerbaijan and Iran, while the second concerns the likely expansion of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC, the flagship project of China’s Belt & Road Initiative [BRI]) westward through Iran and largely parallel to the NSTC. W-CPEC+ can also continue towards Turkey and onward to the EU, but that branch is beyond the scope of the present analysis. The NSTC’s terminal port is the Indian-backed Chabahar, but delays in fully developing its infrastructure might lead to Bandar Abbas being used as a backup in the interim.
CPEC’s Chinese-backed terminal port of Gwadar is in close proximity to Chabahar, thus presenting the opportunity of eventually pairing the two as sister cities, especially in the event that rumored negotiations between China and Iran result in upwards of several hundred billion dollars worth of investments like some have previously reported. The combination of Russian, Indian, and Chinese infrastructure investments in Iran would greatly improve the country’s regional economic competitiveness and enable it to fulfill its geostrategic destiny of facilitating connectivity between Russia and South Asia.
What’s most intriguing about this ambitious vision is that Iran is proving to the rest of the world that it isn’t “isolated” like the U.S. and its closest allies thought that it would be as a result of their policy of so-called “maximum pressure” against it in recent years. While it’s true that India has somewhat stepped away from its previously strategic cooperation with Iran out of fear that it’ll be punished by “secondary sanctions” if it continued its pragmatic partnership with the Islamic Republic, it’s worthwhile mentioning that Chabahar curiously secured a U.S. sanctions waiver.
While the American intent behind that decision is unclear, it might have been predicated on the belief that the Iranian-facilitated expansion of Indian influence into Central Asia via Chabahar might help to “balance” Chinese influence in the region. It could also have simply been a small but symbolic “concession” to India in order not to scare it away from supporting the U.S. anti-Chinese containment strategy. It’s difficult to tell what the real motive was since American-Indian relations are currently complicated by Washington’s latest sanctions threats against New Delhi in response to its decision to purchase Russia’s S-400 air defense systems.
Nevertheless, even in the worst-case scenario that Indian investment and infrastructural support for Iran can’t be taken for granted in the coming future, that still doesn’t offset the country’s geostrategic plans. Russia could still use the NSTC to connect with W-CPEC and ultimately the over 200+ million Pakistani marketplaces. In theory, Russian companies in Pakistan could also re-export their home country’s NSTC-imported goods to neighboring India, thereby representing a pragmatic workaround to New Delhi’s potential self-interested distancing from that project which could also provide additional much-needed tax revenue for Islamabad.
Iran must therefore do its utmost to ensure Russia’s continued interest in the NSTC regardless of India’s approach to the project. Reconceptualizing the NSTC from its original Russian-Indian connectivity purpose to the much broader one of Russian-South Asian connectivity could help guarantee Moscow’s support. In parallel with that, Tehran would do well to court Beijing’s investments along W-CPEC+’s two branch corridors to Azerbaijan/Russia and Turkey/EU. Any success on any of these fronts, let alone three of them, would advance Iran’s regional interests by solidifying its integral geo-economic role in 21st-century Eurasia.
From our partner Tehran Times
The phenomenon of land grabbing by multinationals
Since 2012 the United Nations has adopted voluntary guidelines for land and forest management to combat land grabbing. But only a few people know about the guidelines, which aim to protect small farmers particularly in Third World countries.
When multinational investors buy up fields for their huge plantations, the residents lose their livelihood and means of support and will soon only be sleeping in their villages. If they are lucky, they might find work with relatives in another village. Many also try their luck in the city, but poverty and unemployment are high. What remains are depopulated villages and the huge palm oil plantations that have devoured farmland. People can no longer go there to hunt and grow plants or get firewood. The land no longer belongs to them!
Land grabbingis the process whereby mostly foreign investors deprive local farmers or fishermen of their fields, lakes and rivers. Although it has been widely used throughout history, land grabbing – as used in the 21st century – mainly refers to large-scale land acquisitions following the global food price crisis of 2007-2008.
From 2000 until 2019 one hundred million hectares of land have been sold or leased to foreign investors and the list of the most affected countries can be found here below:
Such investment may also make sense for the development of a country, but it must not deprive people of their rights: local people are starving while food is being produced and turned into biofuels for export right before their eyes.
In 2012, after three years of discussion, the UN created an instrument to prevent such land grabbing: the VGGTs (Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests in the Context of National Food Security:
Detailed minimum standards for investment are established, e.g. the participation of affected people or how to safeguard the rights of indigenous peoples and prevent corruption. Formally, the document provides a significant contribution to all people fighting for their rights.
The document, however, is quite cryptic. The guidelines should be simplified and explained. Only in this way can activists, but also farmers and fishermen, become aware of their rights.
Others doubt that much can be achieved through these guidelines because they are voluntary. After all, the UN has little or no say in the matter and can do no more than that. If governments implemented them, they would apply them as they will.
In Bolivia, for example, there are already laws that are supposed to prevent land grabbing. In the Amazon, however, Brazilian and Argentinian companies are buying up forests to grow soya and sugar cane, often with the approval and agreement of corrupt government officials. Further guidelines would probably be of little use.
At most, activists already use the guidelines to lobby their governments. Together with other environmental and human rights activists, they set up networks: through local radio stations and village meetings, they inform people of the fact that they right to their land.
Nevertheless, in many countries in Africa and elsewhere, there is a lack of documentation proving land ownership. Originally, tribal leaders vocally distributed rights of use. But today’s leaders are manipulated to pressure villagers to sell their land.
The biggest investors are Indians and Europeans: they are buying up the land to grow sugar cane and palm oil plantations. This phenomenon has been going on since 2008: at that time – as noted above – the world food crisis drove up food prices and foreign investors, but also governments, started to invest in food and biofuels.
Investment inland, which has been regarded as safe since the well-known financial crisis, must also be taken into account. Recently Chinese companies have also been buying up thousands of hectares of land.
In some parts of Africa, only about 6% of land is cultivated for food purposes, while on the remaining areas there are palm oil plantations. Once the plantations grow two or three metres high, they have a devastating effect on monocultures that rely on biodiversity, because of the huge areas they occupy. There is also environmental pollution due to fertilisers: in a village, near a plantation run by a Luxembourg company, many people have suffered from diarrhoea and some elderly villagers even died.
Consequently, the implementation of the VGGTs must be made binding as soon as possible. But with an organisation like the United Nations, how could this happen?
It is not only the indigenous peoples or the local groups of small farmers that are being deprived of everything. The common land used is also being lost, as well as many ecosystems that are still intact: wetlands are being drained, forests cleared and savannas turned into agricultural deserts. New landowners fence off their areas and deny access to the original owners. In practice, this is the 21st century equivalent of the containment of monastery land in Europe that began in the Middle Ages.
The vast majority of contracts are concentrated in poorer countries with weak institutions and land rights, where many people are starving. There, investors compete with local farmers. The argument to which the advocates of land grabbing hold -i.e. that it is mainly uncultivated land that needs to be reclaimed – is refuted. On the contrary, investors prefer well-developed and cultivated areas that promise high returns. However, they do not improve the supply of local population.
Foreign agricultural enterprises prefer to develop the so-called flexible crops, i.e. plants such as the aforementioned oil palm, soya and sugar cane, which, depending on the market situation, can be sold as biofuel or food.
But there is more! If company X of State Y buys food/fuel producing areas, it is the company that sells to its State Y and not the host State Z that, instead, assigns its future profits derived from international State-to-State trade to the aforementioned multinational or state-owned company of State Y.
Furthermore, there is almost no evidence of land investment creating jobs, as most projects were export-oriented. The British aid organisation Oxfam confirms that many land acquisitions took place in areas where food was being grown for the local population. Since local smallholders are generally weak and poorly educated, they can hardly defend themselves against the grabbing of the land they use. Government officials sell or lease it, often without even paying compensation.
Land grabbing is also present in ‘passive’ Europe. Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Lithuania and Bulgaria are affected, but also the territories of Eastern Germany. Funds and agricultural enterprises from “active” and democratic Europe, i.e. the West, and the Arab Gulf States are the main investors.
We might think that the governments of the affected countries would have the duty to protect their own people from such expropriations. Quite the reverse. They often support land grabbing. Obviously, corruption is often involved. In many countries, however, the agricultural sector has been criminally neglected in the past and multinationals are taking advantage of this under the pretext of remedying this situation.
No let-up in Indian farmers’ protest due to subconscious fear of “crony capitalism”
The writer has analysed why the farmers `now or never’ protest has persisted despite heavy odds. He is of the view that the farmers have the subconscious fear that the “crony capitalism” would eliminate traditional markets, abolish market support price and grab their landholdings. Already the farmers have been committing suicides owing to debt burden, poor monthly income (Rs. 1666 a month) and so on.”Crony capitalism” implies nexus between government and businesses that thrives on sweetheart deals, licences and permits eked through tweaking rules and regulations.
Stalemate between the government and the farmers’ unions is unchanged despite 11 rounds of talks. The farmers view the new farm laws as a ploy to dispossess them of their land holdings and give a free hand to tycoons to grab farmers’ holdings, though small.
Protesters allege the new laws were framed in secret understanding with tycoons. The farmers have a reason to abhor the rich businesses. According to an a January 2020 Oxfam India’s richest one per cent hold over four times the wealth of 953 million people who make up the poorest 70 per cent of the country’s population. India’s top nine billionaires’ Inc one is equivalent to wealth of the bottom 50 per cent of the population. The opposition has accused the government of “crony capitalism’.
Government has tried every tactic in its tool- kit to becloud the movement (sponsored y separatist Sikhs, desecrated Republic Day by hoisting religious flags at the Red ford, and so on). The government even shrugged off the protest by calling it miniscule and unrepresentative of 16.6 million farmers and 131,000 traders registered until May 2020. The government claims that it has planned to build 22,000 additional mandis (markets) 2021-22 in addition to already-available over 1,000 mandis.
Unruffled by government’s arguments, the opposition continues to accuse the government of being “suit-boot ki sarkar” and an ardent supporter of “crony capitalism” (Ambani and Adani). Modi did many favours to the duo. For instance they were facilitated to join hands with foreign companies to set up defence-equipment projects in India. BJP-ruled state governments facilitated the operation of mines in collaboration with the Ambani group just years after the Supreme Court had cancelled the allotment of 214 coal blocks for captive mining (MS Nileema, `Coalgate 2.0’, The Caravan March 1, 2018). Modi used Adani’s aircraft in March, April and May 2014 for election campaigning across the country.
“Crony capitalism” is well defined in the English oxford Living Dictionaries, Cambridge and Merriam –Webster. Merriam-Webster defines “crony capitalism” as “an economic system in which individuals and businesses with political connections and influence are favored (as through tax breaks, grants, and other forms of government assistance) in ways seen as suppressing open competition in a free market
If there’s one”.
Cambridge dictionary defines the term as “ an economic system in which family members and friends of government officials and business leaders are given unfair advantages in the form of jobs, loans, etc.:government-owned firms engaged in crony capitalism”.
A common point in all the definitions is undue favours (sweetheart contracts, licences, etc) to select businesses. It is worse than nepotism as the nepotism has a limited scope and life cycle. But, “crony capitalism” becomes institutionalized.
Modi earned the title “suit-boot ki sarkar” when a non-resident Indian, Rameshkumar Bhikabhai virani gifted him a Rs. 10 lac suit. To save his face, Modi later auctioned the suit on February 20, 2015. The suit fetched price of Rs, 4, 31, 31311 or nearly four hundred times the original price. Modi donated the proceeds of auction to a fund meant for cleaning the River Ganges. `It was subsequently alleged that the Surat-based trader Laljibhai Patel who bought the suit had been favoured by being allotted government land for building a private sports club (BJP returns ‘favour’, Modi suit buyer to get back land, Tribune June21, 2015).
Miffed by opposition’s vitriolic opposition, Ambani’s $174 billion conglomerate Reliance Industries Ltd. Categorically denied collusion with Modi’s government earlier this month. Reliance clarified that it had never done any contract farming or acquired farm land, and harboured no plans to do so in future. It also vowed to ensure its suppliers will pay government-mandated minimum prices to farmers. The Adani Group also had clarified last month that it did not buy food grains from farmers or influence their prices.
Like Modi, both Adani and Ambani hail from the western Indian state of Gujarat, just, who served as the state’s chief for over a decade. Both the tycoons are reputed to be Modi’s henchmen. Their industry quickly aligns its business strategies to Modi’s nation-building initiatives. For instance, Adani created a rival regional industry lobby and helped kick off a biannual global investment summit in Gujarat in 2003 that boosted Modi’s pro-business credentials. During 2020, Ambani raised record US$27 billion in equity investments for his technology and retail businesses from investors including Google and Face book Inc. He wants to convert these units into a powerful local e-commerce rival to Amazon.com Inc. and Wal-Mart Inc. The Adani group, which humbly started off as a commodities trader in 1988, has grown rapidly to become India’s top private-sector port operator and power generator.
Parallel with the USA
Ambani and Adani are like America’s Rockefellers and Vanderbilt’s in the USA’s Gilded Age in the second half of the 19th century (James Crabtree, The Billionaire Raj: a Journey through India’s New Gilded Age).
Modi government’s tutelage of Ambanis and Adanis is an open secret. Kerala challenged Adani’s bid for an airport lease is. A state minister said last year that Adani winning the bid was “an act of brazen cronyism.”
Threat of elimination of traditional markets
Farmers who could earlier sell grains and other products only at neighbouring government-regulated wholesale markets can now sell them across the country, including the big food processing companies and retailers such as WalMart.
The farmers fear the government will eventually abolish the wholesale markets, where growers were assured of a minimum support price for staples like wheat and rice, leaving small farmers at the mercy of corporate agri-businesses.
Is farmers’ fear genuine?
The farmers have a logical point. Agriculture yield less profit than industry. As such, even the USA heavily subsidies its agriculture. US farmers got more than $22 billion in government payments in 2019, the highest level of farm subsidies in the last 14 years, and the corporate sector paid for it. The Indian government is reluctant to give a permanent legal guarantee for the MSP. In contrast, the US and Western Europe buy directly from the farmers and build their butter and cheese mountains. Even the prices of farm products at the retail and wholesale levels are controlled by the capitalist government. In short, not the principles of capitalization but well-worked-out welfare measures are adopted to sustain the farm sector in the advanced West.
Threat of monopsonic exploitation
The farmers would suffer double exploitation under a monopsony (more sellers less buyers) at the hands of corporate sharks. They would pay less than the minimum support price to the producers. Likewise, consumers will have to pay more because the public distribution system is likely to be undermined as mandi (regulated wholesale market) procurement is would eventually cease to exist.
Plight of the Indian farmer
The heavily indebted Indian farmer has average income of only about Rs. 20000 a year (about Rs. 1666 a month). Thousands of farmers commit suicide by eating pesticides to get rid of their financial difficulties.
A study by India’s National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development found that more than half of farmers in India are in debt. More than 20,000 people involved in the farming sector died by suicide from 2018-2019, with several studies suggesting that being in debt was a key factor.
More than 86 per cent of India’s cultivated farmland is owned by small farmers who own less than two hectares of land each (about two sports fields). These farmers lack acumen to bargain with bigger companies. Farmers fear the Market Support Price will disappear as corporations start buying their produce.
Modi sarkar is unwilling to yield to the farmers’ demand for fear of losing his strongman image and Domino Effect’. If he yields on say, the matter of the farm laws, he may have to give in on the Citizenship Amendment Act also. Fund collection in some foreign countries has started to sustain the movement. As such, the movement may not end anytime soon. Unless Modi yields early, he would suffer voter backlash in coming elections. The farm sector contributes only about 15 per cent of India’s $2.9 trillion economy. But, it employs around half its 1.3 billion people.
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