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Green Finance for the SDGs: The Potential of Islamic Finance

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The financial industry can play a critical role in building a stable and prosperous economy when it is managed with accountability. This requires redirecting investments into economic activities that deliver a good balance between economic, environmental and social objectives in order to promote human well-being and mitigate global challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss, or inequalities. Many analysts are now taking a closer look at a ‘green economy’, which promotes economic growth while also achieving sustainability objectives.

The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) agenda and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change were two major turning points in advancing global action to promote the transition to a green economy and tackle climate change. Their implementation has contributed to the growth of environmental awareness and embedding sustainability in the financial industry, suggesting a paradigm shift in the way financial intermediation is conducted and monetary transactions are structured. In turn, new investment products and financial instruments labelled as green, climate-related or sustainable and responsible were developed. Among them are green bonds and green and Sustainable and Responsible Investment (SRI) sukuk.

Challenges and Opportunities in Implementing the SDGs

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) estimates a $2.5 trillion annual gap for achieving the SDGs while the implementation of renewable energy solutions requires an additional net investment of $1.4 trillion, or about $100 billion per year on average between 2016 (when the SDGs were adopted) and 2030 according to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA).

On the other hand, a recent report by the Global Commission on the Economy and Climate highlights that the transition to a low-carbon, sustainable approach to growth could lead to an economic boost of $26 trillion up to 2030 and help create more than 65 million new jobs.

This rising awareness has promoted the development of new asset classes that could be classified under the umbrella of sustainable finance. Activities labelled under this category take into account environmental and social considerations. Other related or sub-categories include climate finance, ethical finance, responsible finance and green finance.

What is Green Finance?

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) defines green finance as being finance for ‘achieving economic growth while reducing pollution and greenhouse gas emissions, minimizing waste and improving efficiency in the use of natural resources’.

For the past decade, the global green finance market has witnessed a rapid growth, with the development of financial instruments such as green labeled and unlabeled bonds; green loans; green investment funds; green insurance; and recently green sukuk. Although the first green bonds were issued in 2008, the market has significantly developed to mobilize financing for the 17 SDGs with more innovative structures, taxonomies and governing frameworks.

The Infrastructure Development Finance Company (IDFC) estimates green finance at $134 billion. According to Thomson Reuters, in 2019, a total of $185.4 billion in green bonds were issued, which are debt market instruments where the proceeds are allocated to green eligible projects that target climate mitigation and adaptation activities as well as other environmental issues involving energy, water, transport, water, waste, or construction.

Islamic Finance

Considered as an ethical, inclusive and socially responsible finance because it connects the financial sector with the real economy and promotes risk sharing, partnership-style financing and social responsibility, Islamic finance has emerged as an effective tool for financing development worldwide. This explains its increasing significance as an alternative mechanism in infrastructure financing. In an Islamic financial system, transactions must be asset-linked, which increases the financial sector’s stability, and be based on a set of Islamic legal contracts that promote profit and loss sharing. In addition, the principles of social justice, solidarity and mutuality are promoted and investments in sectors that are considered unethical are prohibited.

Islamic finance has the potential to bridge the finance gap required to achieve the SDG agenda and the transition to a green economy. This justifies its identification by participants of the third International Conference on Financing for Development in Addis Ababa in July 2015 as a promising alternative to traditional sources of funding and the recommendation for its utilization to realize the SDGs.

The Islamic financial industry comprises four key segments: Islamic banking, Islamic funds, takaful(Islamic insurance) and the sukuk market. While the four segments can contribute to financing the SDGs, the sukuk segment attracted greater attention recently with the development of green and SRI sukuk. Sukukalso enable the targeting of a wider, global investor base comprising both conventional and Islamic investors.

Sukuk

The Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) defines sukuk as certificates of equal value representing undivided shares in ownership of tangible assets, usufructs and services or (in the ownership of) the assets of particular projects or special investment activity.

The sukuk market is one of the fastest growing segments in the Islamic financial industry with about 24.2% of the total global Islamic financial assets and new issuances amounting to $93 billionin 2018 according to the Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB).

Often qualified as Islamic bonds, sukuk represents an innovative instrument for financing green projects. Their asset-backing requirement facilitates their link to the real economy and therefore widens the scope of environmental sectors that can be financed. In addition, sukuk can be structured in various ways using single or hybrid Islamic contracts such as agency, partnership and leasing contracts. This flexibility facilitates financial innovation in addressing specific financing needs.

Green sukuk can contribute to achieving nine of the SDGs. These are Good Health and Wellbeing (SDG3), Quality Education (SDG4), Clean Water and Infrastructure (SDG6), Affordable and Clean Energy (SDG7), Decent Work and Economic Growth (SDG8), Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure (SDG9), Sustainable Cities and Communities (SDG11), Responsible Consumption and Production (SDG12) and Climate Action (SDG13).

We first saw the impact of sukuk in 2017 when the world’s first green sukukwas issued by Malaysian-based Tadau Energy to finance a solar power project in Malaysia. Since then, the market has developed significantly with the amount of green sukuk issuance reaching$5.38 billion at the end of 2019, representing 58 issues by nine issuers, mainly led by corporates in Malaysia and the GCC.

The green sukuk market development was also supported by the implementation of enabling frameworks such as the Malaysian Securities Commission’s SRI Sukuk Framework and the recent Indonesia green bond and green sukuk framework.

Towards Green and Blended Finance

The OECD defines blended finance as the strategic use of development finance for the mobilization of additional finance towards sustainable development in developing countries. This requires reconsidering other sources of financing while leveraging the limited public and development finance funds.

A good example to consider is Islamic social finance. The Islamic social finance sector broadly comprises traditional Islamic institutions such as zakat (almsgiving) and waqf (endowments), as well as Islamic microfinance. These segments usually target the bottom of the pyramid populations, who lack access to basic safety nets such as education, appropriate health systems, food and other basic needs.

Zakat and waqf are at the heart of the Islamic economic system as they promote the principles of social justice, solidarity, brotherhood and mutuality whereas microfinance enables small businesses that usually cannot access traditional financing modes, to access financing for small projects that generate income and therefore reduces their reliance on charity.

Zakat and awqaf institutions have played a significant role in the cultural, socio-economic and religious life of Muslims for centuries. Today, many scholars are calling for the revival of these institutions to address contemporary development challenges including environmental issues. Zakat and waqf could be used in green blended finance transactions to address several SDGs and develop inclusive green solutions for smallholder farmers, rural access to clean energy and cooking solutions, water treatment and sanitation solutions, etc.

In conclusion, the widespread transition to a green economy will ultimately require a sustained focus on continuing the growth of the global green finance market and further development of these key financial instruments as promising alternatives to traditional sources of funding.

This article is submitted on behalf of the author by the HBKU Communications Directorate. The views expressed are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect the University’s official stance.

Dr. Dalal is Assistant professor of Islamic finance at Hamad Bin Khalifa University (HBKU). She was previously a visiting academic at the Durham Centre for Islamic Economics and Finance, Durham University Business School and a visiting lecturer in a number of international universities. Dr. Aassouli worked at the International Islamic Liquidity Management Corporation in Malaysia where she assisted with the establishment of the IILM's sukuk programme. Before that she held several positions in Europe where she had exposure to the African, European and Latin American markets. Dr. Dalal holds Masters from NEOMA Business School, and Paris Dauphine University and a Ph.D. from ENS de Lyon in France. Her areas of research interest include Islamic finance in general and its implications for corporate finance, ethical finance, development finance, green finance, sustainable development and socially responsible investing

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Future Economy: Micro-Manufacturing & Micro-Exports

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Recovery now forces economies to emerge as dynamic entrepreneurial landscapes; today, the massively displaced working citizenry of the world may not return to old jobs, but with little help slowly shifting towards entrepreneurial startups as new frontiers to create economic independence and increased local grassroots prosperity. Today, the latest global influences of trendy entrepreneurialism optimizing available options like high quality “Micro-Manufacturing” and high value added “Micro-Exporting” now common discussions on the main streets of the world.  Although, this is not an easy task, but still very doable for so many and promises local uplifts. Smart nations are awakening to such bold notions and entrepreneurial driven agencies mandated to foster local economies are using virtual events to rise up with global rhythm and rich contents.

 Therefore, the blueprints and new models of today on upskilling SME exporters and reskilling for better-designed manufacturing, nation-by-nation and city-by-city are mobilization ready ideas to optimize abandoned talents. Nevertheless, such upskilling and reskilling of masses demands already skilled leadership of most of the gatekeepers of local economic development venues. 

Furthermore, global competitiveness has raised the bar and now only high quality value added goods and services traded for the wide-open world. The conveyer belts of technology and zoomerang culture of virtual connectivity flourishes platform economies. Missing are the advanced skills, complex problem solving and most importantly national mobilization of entrepreneurialism on digital platforms of upskilling to foster innovative excellence and exportability. SME and Startups must advance on global thinking, optimize access, and maximize image and quality superiority to reach the farthest markets with deeper pockets.

This is not an easy task. Methodical progressions needed. Study how Pentiana Project tabled advanced thinking on such trends during the last decade. Export Promotion Agencies, Chambers of Commerce, Trade Associations and most SME and midsize economic developments bodies all called for bold and open debates. For fast track results, follow the trail of silence and help thought leadership to engage in bold and open debates and give them guidance to overcome their fears of transformation.

Small enterprises must now open to new world of 200 nations and 10,000 cites

Micro-Exporters: Upskilling Startups to think like global exporters; the pandemic recoveries across the world coping with a billion displaced all have now critical needs of both upskilling and reskilling. Upskilling is the process of learning new skills to achieve new thinking. Reskilling is the process of learning new skills to achieve new performances. What is exporting, how to start at micro-levels and how to expand globally with technology are new challenges and promising options.

Micro-Manufacturers: Reskilling Startups to think like smart manufacturers; the real goals for startups to enlarge and base thinking on reskilling for “real value creation” becomes mandatory. How to start by thinking better, design quality with creative global age strategies and advance?  Advanced Manufacturing Clusters in various nations will greatly help, but understanding of global-age expansion of value offerings with fine production is a new art and commercialization to 200 nations a new science.

The future of economies, The arrival of Virtual leadership and Zoomerang culture is a gift from pandemic recovery, although at infancy, the sector will not only grow but also alter global commerce for good. Once successful the traditional advertising and marketing models dying, direct access live interaction is now far superior to mass-mailing and social media screaming.  The zoomerang impact of global thought leadership now forcing institutions to become armchair Keynote speakers and Panelists to deliberate wisdom from the comfort of their homes round the clock events has arrived.

The Difficult Questions: Nation-by-nation,when 50% of frontline teams need ‘upskilling’ often 50% of the back-up teams need ‘reskilling’ so how do you open discussions leading to workable and productive programs? Each stage challenges competency levels and each stage offers options to up-skill for better performances. Talent gaps need fast track closing and global-age skills need widening. New flat hierarchical models provide wide-open career paths and higher performance rewards in post pandemic recovery phases. When executed properly such exercises match new skills and talents with the right targeted challenges of the business models and market conditions. The ultimate objective of “extreme value creation” in any enterprise must eliminate the practices of ‘extreme value manipulations”.

First Three Steps:  In order to mobilize a startups revolution along with a small medium business economy, start by identifying 1000 to 10,000 high enterprises anxious to grow for national global markets. To quadruple exportability, select a small leadership team, from local trade Associations, Economic Development Bodies and Chambers of Commerce responsive to calls of upskilling and reskilling as critical steps. Suggest roundtable discussions to reach local, national or global audiences to spread the message. Explore such superior level debates to mobilize local businesses.  Most importantly, such mobilizations are not new funding dependent they are deployment hungry and execution starved. Futurism is workless, uplifting mental powers towards better value-added production of goods and services will save economies.  Optimize zoomerang culture and use virtual events to raise the bar on thought leadership. The world is moving fast and best to join the pace.

The rest is easy

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Portugal’s crisis management: “Economic patriotism” should not be tied to ideological beliefs

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The economic policy of the Hungarian government has provoked fierce criticism in the last decade, as it deviated from the neoliberal mainstream and followed a patriotic path, putting Hungarian interests in the foreground. While many link this style of political economy to the conservative position of the Orbán-government, in Portugal, a left-wing administration followed a similarly patriotic line to overcome the symptoms of the Eurozone crisis, showcasing that economic patriotism is not tied to ideologies, but is merely responsible thinking.

The catastrophic path of austerity

According to the theory of austerity, the government by implying austerity measures, “puts its finances in order”, hence the state does not become indebted and consequently investors’ confidence in the economy returns. However, if we think about what we really mean by austerity (tax increases, wage cuts, budget constraints, etc.), even the theory itself sounds counterproductive. Not surprisingly, this theoretical counter productivity has been demonstrated in practice in several cases.

One of the best examples is the case of Portugal, which along with Greece and other Southern-European nations was probably hit the hardest by the financial crunch. While all of the “GIPS” (Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain) entered a steer recession, Portugal somehow managed to overcome it more successfully than its regional peers, but before that, it felt the bitter taste of neoliberal structural reforms.

Although the case of Portugal was not as traumatic as the ones of its Southern-European counterparts, in order to keep its debt under control, stabilize its banks and introduce “growth-friendly” reforms, Lisbon negotiated a € 78 billion bailout package in 2011, in exchange for a rigid austerity program aimed at the 2011-2014 period, orchestrated by the European Commission (EC), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European Central Bank (ECB), the infamous “Troika”.

The neoliberal recipe did not differ much from that of Greece, and the then ruling Passos Coelho conservative government faithfully followed the structural reforms demanded by the “group of three”: working hours increased, number of bank holidays fell, holiday bonuses were abolished, wages and pensions have also been cut by 20 per cent, while public spending on health and education was drastically cut, and due to escalating privatizations, public assets have also been sold off quickly.

Despite the fact that by 2014 the country’s budget deficit as a share of the GDP had fallen to 4.5 per cent from the staggering11.2 per cent recorded in 2011 and the current account showed a surplus – as domestic demand fell apart, forcing companies to export –Portugal was still on the brink of social and economic collapse.

Public debt soared to more than 130 per cent of the GDP, tens of thousands of businesses went bankrupt, unemployment rose to 17 per cent and skyrocketed to 40 per cent amongst the youth. As a result, many talented Portuguese fled abroad, with an estimated 150,000 nationals emigrating in a single year.

The post-2015 turnaround

Things only began to change in 2015, when the Portuguese elected Anotnio Costa as Prime Minister, who was the mayor of Lisbon under the years of the crunch. Shortly after his election, Merkel encouraged the center-left politician to follow the neoliberal prescription proposed by the “Troika”, while her Finance Minister, Wolfgang Schäuble, underlined that Portugal would make a “serious mistake” if it decided not to follow the neoliberal doctrine and would eventually be forced to negotiate another rescue package.

Not being intimidated by such “threats”, Costa ditched austerity without hesitation, restored working hours, cut taxes and raised the minimum wage by 20 percent in the course of just two years. Obviously, his unpopular position made him crush with Brussels, as his government allowed the budget deficit to reach 4.4 per cent, compared to the agreed 2.7 per cent target. However, in May 2016, the Commission granted Costa another year to comply, and since then Portugal has consistently exceeded its deficit targets.

Tourism also largely assisted the post-15 recovery, to which the government placed great emphasis, so that in 2017 the number of visitors rose to a record high, reaching 12.7 million. Concurrently, Portugal has significantly improved the international reputation of its businesses and products, which contributed to increasing the country’s export revenues and attracting foreign investment.

Furthermore, Costa has raised social spending and at the same time planned to invest state revenues in transport, environmental infrastructure and energy, initiatives that could be extremely beneficial, as they would not only significantly improve the country’s sustainability, but also boost job creation, something that yet again indicates how important public investment is to an economy.

Additionally, Portugal has become an undervalued tech-hub, with plenty of start-ups offering good employment opportunities in addition to fostering innovation. The government with several initiatives, seeks to create a business-friendly ecosystem for them, under which they can thrive and boost the economy to the largest extent. It is thus not surprising, that Portugal has been the fastest growing country in Europe when it comes to the number of programmers.

Finally, one of the Costa’s top priorities, has been to lure back emigrated Portuguese who moved abroad during the crisis. To this end, tax cuts are offered to Portuguese citizens who choose to return home.

In a sum, since Costa stepped into office, Portugal has undergone a rapid recovery: economic growth has returned, unemployment has fallen radically, the public debt was also set on a downgrading path, while the budget remained well-balanced despite the increased spending, with Costa himself explaining that “sound public accounts are compatible with social cohesion”. Even Schäuble acknowledged Portugal’scrisis management, by actually calling Mário Centeno – the finance minister of the Costa government – the “Cristiano Ronaldo” of finance ministers.

Of course, not everything is bright and wonderful, as the country has emerged from a large crisis, the effects of which cannot be eliminated in just a few years. Public debt is still amongst the highest in the EU and several other challenges lie ahead for the South-European nation, especially by taking into consideration that the world economy just entered yet another crisis.

Furthermore, according to many, it was not Costa who led the recovery, but Portugal passively benefited from a strong recovery in Europe, falling oil prices, an explosion in tourism and a sharp drop in debt repayment costs. Indeed, it has to be taken into account that Portugal entered the recession in a relatively better position than many of its spatial counterparts and the relatively high quality of its domestic institutional infrastructure and policy-adaptation capacity aided the previous government to efficiently complete the memorandum of understanding (MoU) as early as 2015. Nevertheless, this is not a sufficient reason to discredit the post-2015 government’s efforts and justify the harsh austerity measures implied by the Troika. Taking into account that austerity never really provided decent results, it becomes evident that Costa’s policies were quite effective.

Economic patriotism should not be connected to ideologies

While in the case of Hungary and Poland “economic patriotism” has been fiercely criticized despite its prosperous results, this spite tendency has been an outcome of strong politicization in economic policy analysis. Even though the political context is verily important, it is also crucial to interpret economic policy independently, in order to take away valuable lessons and identify mistakes. Political bias is not a fortunate thing, as it is absolute and nullifies debate and hence development.

The case of Portugal is a perfect example, as it provides sound evidence, that a patriotic economic policy can be exercised by governments from all across the political spectrum and that the notion should not be connected to political and ideological beliefs. The left-wing Costa-government with its policy-making demonstrated that a solution always exists and that requires a brave, strong and decisive government, that pursues its own plan in the interests of the ‘patrie’, regardless of its positioning.

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The Question Of Prosperity

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Galloping economic woes, prejudice, injustice, poverty, low literacy rate, gender disparity and women rights, deteriorating health system, corruption, nepotism, terrorism, political instability, insecure property rights, looming energy crisis and various other similar hindrances constrain any state or country to be retrograded. Here questions arise that how do these obstacles take place? How do they affect the prosperity of any country? No history, geography, or culture spawns them. Simply the answer is institutions that a country possesses.

Institutions ramify into two types: inclusive and extractive. Inclusive political institutions make power broadly distributed in country or state and constrain its arbitrary exercise. Such political institutions also make it harder for others to usurp rights and undermine the cornerstone of inclusive institutions, which create inclusive economic institutions that feature secure property rights, an unbiased system of law, and a provision of public services that provide a level playing field in which people can exchange and contract; it also permits the entry of new businesses and allow people to choose their career. On the contrary, extractive political institutions accord clout in hands of few narrow elite and they have few constrains to exert their clout and engineer extractive economic institutions that can specifically benefit few people of the ruling elite or few people in the country.

Inclusive institutions are proportional to the prosperity and social and economic development. Multifarious countries in the world are great examples of this. Taking North and South Korea; both countries garnered their sovereignty in same year 1945, but they adopted different ways to govern the countries. North Korea under the stewardship of Kim Il-sung established dictatorship by 1947, and rolled out a rigid form of centrally planned economy as part of the so-called Juche system; private property was outlawed, markets were banned, and freedoms were curtailed not only in marketplace but also in every sphere of North Korea’s lives- besides those who used to be part of the very small ruling elite around Kim Il-sung and later his son and his successor Kim Jong-Il. Contrariwise, South Korea was led and its preliminary politico-economic institutions were orchestrated by the Harvard and Princeton-educated. Staunchly anticommunist Rhee and his successor General Park Chung-Hee secured their places in history as authoritarian presidents, but both governed a market economy where private property was recognised. After 1961, Park effectively taken measures that caused the state behind rapid economic growth; he established inclusive institutions which encouraged investment and trade. South Korean politicians prioritised to invest in most crucial segment of advancement that is education. South Korean companies were quick to take advantage of educated population; the policies encouraged investment and industrialisation, exports and the transfer of technology. South Korea quickly became a “Miracle Economy” and one of the most rapidly growing nations of the world. Just in fifty years there was conspicuous distinction between both countries not because of their culture, geography, or history but only due to institutions both countries had adopted.

Moreover, another model to gauge role of institutions in prosperity is comparison of Nogales of US and Mexico. US Nogales earn handsome annual income; they are highly educated; they possess up to the mark health system with high life expectancy by global standards; they are facilitated with better infrastructure, low crime rate, privilege to vote and safety of life. By contrast, the Mexican Nogales earn one-third of annual income of US Nogales; they have low literacy rate, high rate of infant mortality; they have roads in bad condition, law and order in worse condition, high crime rate and corruption. Here also the institutions formed by the Nogales of both countries are main reason for the differences in economic prosperity on the two sides of the border.

Similarly, Pakistan tackles with issues of institutions. Mostly, pro-colonial countries are predominantly inheritors of unco extractive politico-economic institutions, and colonialism is perhaps germane to Pakistan’s tailoring of institutions. Regretfully, Pakistan is inherited with colossally extractive institutions at birth. The new elite, comprising civilian-military complex and handful aristocrats, has managed to prolong colonial-era institutional legacy, which has led Pakistan to political instability, consequently, political instability begot inadequacy of incentives which are proportional to retro gradation of the country.

Additionally, a recent research of Economic Freedom of the World (WEF) by Fraser Institute depicts that the countries with inclusive institutions and most economic freedom are more developed and prosperous than the least economic free countries; countries were divided into four groups. Comparing most free quartile and least free quartile of the countries, the research portrayed that most free quartile earns even nine times more than least free quartile; most free quartile has two times more political and civil rights than least free quartile; most free quartile owes three times less gender disparity than least free quartile; life expectancy tops at 79. 40 years in most free quartile, whereas number stands at 65.20 in least free quartile. To conclude this, the economic freedom is sine quo non for any country to be prosperous, and economic freedom comes from inclusive institutions. Unfortunately, Pakistan has managed to get place in least free quartile.

In a nutshell, the institutions play pivotal role in prosperity and advancement, and are game changer for any country. Thereby, our current government should focus on institutions rather than other issues, so that Pakistan can shine among the world’s better economies. For accomplishing this highly necessary task government should take conducive measures right now.

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