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Non-Muslim people in the terrorist organizations: A case of Russia

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According to the European Commission, more than 42,000 foreign fighters joined terrorist organizations between 2011 and 2016, around 5,000 of whom are believed to be from Europe (European Commission, July 2017, cited in Euronews, March 2019). The Republic of North Macedonia, France and Germany initiated the repatriation process of their citizens suspected to fight on the ISIS side. The policy of the countries may slightly vary. However, participation in ISIS is penalized. For example, the citizens of Germany have been prosecuted or placed into rehabilitation programs. The UK strips the citizenship from some British IS members who expressed a desire to return home, which has sparked huge human rights and legal debate. However, it is hard to differ former fighters from non-combatants and prove their guilt (Ibidem).

In the case of Russia, fight against world terrorism is one of the main policy goals (Military Doctrine of Russian Federation, December 30, 2014). Terrorist organizations, like “Taliban” or ISIS, are, naturally, prohibited and participation in their structures is strictly penalized. Nonetheless, Russian national group is the leading one fighting on the ISIS side (Soufan Group, cited in ura.ru, October 26, 2017). Nowadays, there is an increasing tendency among the Russians to join this kind of organizations. At the first time in 2013 Russian authorities confirmed the presence of their citizens fighting in the ISIS (Kavkaz Uzel, cited in Meduza, March, 2016). In 2015, according to the president of Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin, there are about 2.5 thousand of Russian citizens fighting in the so-called Islamic State structures (BBC, October 16, 2015). In 2018 Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) claimed a number of 5 thousand citizens (Segodnya, 2018). The MIA notices that terrorist organizations after the defeat in Syria are going to increase their world network with the nationals of the former Soviet republics. (TASS, March 29, 2019).

A characteristic feature of the both cases is that neither in Europe nor in Russia Islam is not a dominative religion. In addition, fight with the terrorism played a major role in Russian discourse on intervention in Syrian campaign. Worth to notice that the official Kremlin supports the governmental forces of Bashar-al-Assad. Naturally, there are Russian mercenaries on the both sides (Meduza, March, 2016). This paper is going to examine the motivation of non-Muslim Europeans with the focus on the Russians to join terrorist organizations, the recruitment methods and the attitude of Russian Federation towards this issue.  For the purposes of this research it is necessary to describe a significant example in which a European woman, who wanted to investigate the schemes of recruitment to terrorist organizations, was convinced to join ISIS.

The European victims

Anna Erelle, a journalist, an author of the book “In the Skin of a Jihadist” was recruited during her professional duties, conducting a dangerous experiment (hereafter: The Insider, February, 2019). She was preparing the interviews with the jihadi teenagers and their motivations to leave the families. For the purposes of the research, she decided to create a fake Facebook account of 20-year-old French woman of Moroccan origin, recently converted to Islam, who grew up without father. During the experiment she met some radicals from France, Belgium, England, until once a stranger started to be interested in her opinion jihadi fighters and religion. A stranger appeared to be a 40-year-old ethnic French who left “sinful” Europe. The contactor tried to gain authority in the issues of Islam interpretation. Anna Erelle notices that it was easy to attract a young woman for an experienced man with a huge age difference. However, in some time Anna became a victim of her own experiment. The communication with the ISIS member moved from text chats on Facebook into personal Skype meeting. The recruiter had a deep knowledge in psychology and good communicative skills. He tried to find out the victim’s preferences, the reason of her interest in Islam or ISIS. Her also promised to protect her, fulfill all the dreams, present a lot of money or weapons. The recruiter described to Anna her future rich and carefree life. The only condition was to marry him. Sometimes, he blamed het in egoism for not helping their Muslim brothers. In some time, Anna felt in love with the ISIS fighter, even his polygamic marriage with four official wives was not an obstacle. The relation had some features of unhealthy dependence. The potential fiancé attacked a victim with the attention. They had to contact each other few times a day. She had to report him about her movements. She sincerely worried about him, especially during ISIS military operations. The recruiter also told that after the marriage a woman has to be hidden form the rest of the society but belong to her husband only. He justified his attitude with the misinterpretation of Coran: the entire life is a game, you are allowed to do whatever you want. Despite all the controversies, Anna decided to accept his proposal and started a trip to Syria (Ibidem). It is necessary to underline that it was a journalist experiment from the very beginning, she had a critical view on the ISIS and did not expect to be involved so deeply and sincerely. Moreover, it seems to look that she had a stable job and education. Nonetheless, it did not prevent her from being a victim.

Anna was proposed to travel through the Netherlands, crossing the Turkish-Syrian border. It was required to buy a local phone and take selfies to prove her localization. Worth to notice that a French woman assisted her as the guide to Syria. However, Anna decided to go to Amsterdam, take a selfie and stop the experiment. Nowadays, she is being threatened by ISIS but still have some sentiments to her former “fiancé” (Ibidem).

Target portrait

The ISIS ideology is primarily tapped two sets of motives: (1) the needs for security and stability, and (2) the needs for personal significance. The research team from the University of Maryland conducted the analysis of the pre-travel decision-making of fifty American ISIS volunteers. It was found that people experienced rejection and alienation in their communities wanted to escape their current life and find a new, positive identity. In addition, it was a chance to upgrade their socio-economic status. The research also contradicts the popular clam that the decision to break the social ties was made spontaneously. In the cases used in the study, almost three quarters of the victims were openly involved in the radical social networks and more than a half expressed radical views much earlier than they decided to join ISIS. However, these warning signs were neglected or unrecognized by the closest society (Jasko, Hassan, Kruglanski, Gunaratna, 2018).

The general portrait of the potential victim is similar to all the nationalities. However, in the case of non-Muslim population, particularly ethnic Russians, it is necessary to convince a person to accept voluntarily the values of foreign religion, culture and ideology.

The available Russian sources seem to suggest that the main targets are young people 16-30 years old, especially those who study or are professionally connected with oil or agriculture industry, IT, chemistry, physics, translation. These people have not got social and economic stability yet (like family or permanent job), suffer from depression or feel offended but the society. In addition, young adults perceive joining the terrorist organization as some kind of adventure and are not able to predict the consequences of this choice. Similar psychological premises allow to involve labor migrants into terrorism. Moreover, the potential targets are people newly converted to Islam. Another potentially endangered group are prisoners. Their main motivation is to restore social justice (Sputnik News, April 29, 2017; MK.ru, October 30, 2018). Moreover, ISIS is attractive for people with deviant behavior. A lack of traditional state institutions and different social norms that allow, for example, polygamic marriages, pedophilia or human slavery may be a decisive argument for some target groups. This kind of personality tends to seek violent videos with mass murders (Karachay-Cherkess Republic Police). It is necessary to underline that women are special target group. The recruiters seek for special psychological type of personality with a high level of suggestibility unable to have a critical view on the received information.  (Vesti.ru, February 5, 2017). Moreover, the additional trigger could be the experience of unsatisfactory romantic affairs in the past or will to find a husband abroad. A journalist Anna Erelle, whose story is mentioned above, is considered that the factor that attracts women is the presence of a strong man. For teenagers joining ISIS is a chance to become rich and famous. Furthermore, she is pointing out a negative impact of mass media in the creation of a positive image of terrorism. The attention of documentarists, made terrorism attractive. In addition, an unlimited possibility to share the photos in the social media show the “evidences” of “rich and careless” life in the ISIS (The Insider, February, 2019).

It is also necessary to underline that the strong governance inside ISIS does not allow people to leave it without consequences. The system of punishments and terror discourage a slightest resistance and force the victims to obey. Moreover, on the occupied territories joining the terrorists seems to be the only way to survive. People simply struggle from hunger and have no other job (Jasko, Hassan, Kruglanski, Gunaratna, 2018).

Recruitment methods

According to the Chairman of the Public Chamber for the Development of Public Diplomacy and the Support of Compatriots Abroad Elena Sutormina, the main recruitment channel is the Internet. The potential victims publish personal information in the social networks attracting the attention of the recruiters (RT, May 6, 2017). This could be, for example, a spoken language (preferably, oriental), studies at the university or hobbies. The students of Arab linguistics are contacted by their colleagues, native speakers, offering some help in learning language. Male recruiters try to make compliments to female students and continue communication (Ibidem). Shamil Sultanov, the president of the Russia-Islamic World Center for Strategic Studies, says that the ISIS most of all needs military specialists and programmers. Thus, IT student is a cheap workforce in comparison to a qualified specialist. Moreover, young unexperienced people perceive this kind of cooperation as a chance to find a well-paid job (Ibidem). A motivator tries to convince a victim in social injustice, underestimation of his/her abilities, promising an “opportunity” to change the world and become a part of “the chosen” group. Sometimes, persuasive effect is achievable due to hidden use of psychoactive substances against the victim during face-to-face meeting. However, the main aim of the recruiter is to make a target person to break social and family ties (Karachay-Cherkess Republic Police).In some cases, involving in terrorist organization is possible through friends or family members; public event or conference not necessarily connected with Islam. Moreover, another, not very obvious technique, is to provoke an interest of people to something new. For example, an ISIS member may not initiate the conversation but penetrate into a social group. His acquaintances might be curious about his religion, or unusual hobby etc. Human’s curiosity could be a good starting point for future recruitment as it was in the case of Anna Errele, described above (Karachay-Cherkess Republic Police).According to a victim, a recruiter could keep contact for a few years, talking on neutral topics. However, in some time the ISIS agent may provoke an interest to radical Islam and turn the communication in this way. In the case of females, male recruiters try to attract, gain authority, establish psychological dependence of the victim, convincing her to join ISIS (Rambler, May 16, 2019).

According to an anonymous source in the Russian special services, one of the main recruiters is so-called One-Legged Ahmed. In his scheme, people were first recruited via the Internet, invited and met in Istanbul. There, in a few days, One-Legged Ahmet with his companions produced fake documents, after people were transferred across the Turkish-Syrian border (Life News, cited in Liberty Radio, August 11, 2015).Moreover, ISIS does not only recruit people directly but provides propaganda campaign in the Russian language, using Internet and social media. One of the well-known resources orientated on the Russian-speaking audience is Furat Media. Currently their accounts are banned (The Guardian, cited in Komsomolskaya Pravda, July 13, 2015).

Russian countermeasures and implications

The basic countermeasure implemented by Russia is a wide-scale informational campaign. The ISIS and fight against terrorism forms a daily agenda of the major mass media. Documentaries, interviews with the victims, leaf-lefts form the police are dedicated to warn and prevent population from dealing with terrorism. However, in order to avoid terrorism propaganda mass media are obliged to put a clause “organization prohibited in Russia”, mentioning the acronym ‘ISIS’. Moreover, Russia tries to filter the information, censoring the Internet. In this way, using of social media for the purposes of terrorism made a pretext for Internet control by the Russian government. In 2016 Russian Federation introduced the law called “Yarovaya package” (after the name of Russian politician) which obliged messengers to identify their users, giving to special services the encryption keys and store user’s data on the territory of Russia (TASS, April 13, 2018). However, this decision was not successful enough and seemed to be a justification for Internet control. For example, the management of Telegram messenger resigned to cooperate with the government. The messenger was unsuccessfully blocked (Novaya Gazeta, April 13, 2018). In addition, according to the official narration, fight with the terrorism justifies the Russian presence in Syria (TASS, September 2017).

It is necessary to underline that Russian penal system pursuits people connected with the ISIS. The judicial processes on the people cooperated with the terrorism usually become demonstrative. The most known is the case of 23-year old Varvara Karaulova, a student of Moscow State University, arrested in summer 2015 on the Syrian-Turkish border by Interpol. She was recruited in the social media. A young woman decided to escape to Syria to her “husband”, one of the terrorist recruiters, with whom she was “married” via Skype. In 2016 Karaulova was sentenced to 4 years in general regime colony for an attempt to join ISIS. However, Russian penal code defines the sanction up to 10 years of sentence (Ria Novosti, April 16, 2019). Karaulova admits a kind of unhealthy psychological ties with her recruiter (Rambler, April 16, 2019). However, as some other sources claim that she was also recruiting other women, even during her detainment. Moreover, she was considered to be returned to Russia with a special mission from Allah. However, nowadays a girl regrets and feels ashamed with her ISIS past (Telegram-channel “Mash”, cited in Rambler, May 13, 2019).

Nonetheless, in some regions the persecution against people connected with ISIS was stopped. For example, there was a case in Chelabinsk when an anonymous man escaped through Kazakhstan and asked for permition to come back to Russia. According to the investigative organs, a man with a higher education was a victim of professional recruiters (74.ru, cited in Meduza, March, 2016).

Conclusion

The cases described above seem to suggest that human’s nature is universal. To sum up, the way of recruiting looks universal as well to the ethnic Russian as to other European, non-Muslim nationalities. The terrorists try to profile their victims, looking for some special types of personalities. The basic human needs for security and stability, and the needs for personal significance make a favorable ground for the recruitment. The available data show us an increasing number of the Post-Soviet states citizens, particularly the Russian ones, in the terrorist organizations. It allows us to make a prediction that this number is going to increase. In addition, unstable socioeconomic position of Russia may attract the potential victims. To put it into other words, for some groups of people ISIS is a chance to earn more money than in their motherland. However, the case of the French journalist described in this essay proofs that even professional curiosity could be a trigger to be sincerely involved into terrorist organization. Moreover, the level of education is not also a decisive factor that may prevent from the recruitment. It is possible due to the excellent knowledge of human psychology and use of persuasive techniques by the recruiters. A special strategy is used towards the females. In this case, the most vulnerable are young unmarried girls with negative experience of romantic affairs in the past who want to find a “defender”, an older strong man. It is also hard to underestimate the role of mass media that provoke an interest to ISIS, presenting “careless” lifestyle of its fighters. Countermeasures implemented by the Russian government, described above, are natural reaction on the danger. They, obviously, reduce the potential number of victims, however, they are not sufficient enough. Moreover, it seems to look that in the case of Russia, terrorism prevention is only a pretext to control society and provide a kind of censorship in the Internet and mass media. In addition, fight with the terrorism is used in the propaganda purposes as a justification of the Russian presence in Syria, supporting the legitimate government of Bashar al-Assad.

Maria Bevz holds B.A and M.A degrees in International Relations (University of Warsaw). She specializes in security and strategic studies. Her research interests are: military conflicts, non-military threats, atrocity crimes and justice, international relations on the post-Soviet space.

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Terrorism

A question mark on FATF’s credibility

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While addressing a political gathering, India’s external affairs minister  S. Jaishanker made a startling lapsus de langue “We have been successful in pressurizing Pakistan and the fact that Pakistan’s behaviour has changed is because of pressure put by India by various measures. “Modi made personal efforts on global forums like G7 and G20 to keep Pakistan on the list”.

He was addressing the BJP leaders’ training programme on the Modi government’s foreign policy. Jaishanker is suave person. He generally avoids filibusters and gung-ho statements.

Jaishanker lauded Modi also for pushing back China from Doklam and Ladakh. To quote his statement, he said, ‘“One was in Doklam where China had to go back and the second is when they tried infringing LAC (the Line of Actual Control) in Ladakh’.

Lies galore

Doklam

India’s view of Doklam is debatable. China thinks India was the aggressor. India intervened and stopped China road work at ostensibly Bhutan’s request (India has no border with China at Doklam). India’s intransigence at Doklam opened China’s eyes. China began to suspect what India has up its sleeve.

Stobden in a newspaper article last year `China’s past border tactics, especially in Central Asia, offer India a clue’ points out, `If India falls for some kind of Chinese position over Aksai Chin, Beijing will then shift the focus to Arunachal to emphatically claim 90,000 sq km from India. Ceding Aksai Chin would fundamentally alter the status of J&K and Ladakh’.

No more integral part. Just `might is right’ or `jis ki lathi us ki bhains‘ (he who has the staff, has the cow).

With tacit US support, India is getting tougher with China. The 73-day standoff on the Doklam Plateau near the Nathula Pass on the Sikkim border was actuated by implicit US support. .

 Being at a disadvantage vis-à-vis India, China was compelled to resolve the stand-off through negotiations. China later developed high-altitude “electromagnetic catapult” rockets for its artillery units to liquidate the Indian advantage there, as also in Tibet Autonomous Region. China intends to mount a magnetically-propelled high-velocity rail-gun on its 055-class under-construction missile destroyer 055.

The Chinese government released a map to accuse India of trespassing into its territory, and in a detailed statement in the first week of August, it said “India has no right to interfere in or impede the boundary talks between China and Bhutan.”

India and China have one of the world’s longest disputed borders and areas — which include 37,000 sq km of uninhabited Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh with 1.4 million residents and over 84,000 sq km.

Meanwhile, their Armies have been modernising at a frenetic pace. The two sides are also carrying out one of history’s biggest conventional military build-ups along their borders. Doklam adds yet another flashpoint along the disputed borders of the two Asian giants.

Ladakh (Galwan) clashes

These clashes were at best a storm in a teacup. Both China and India have signed agreements not to use firearms. As such, India’s hullabaloo was much ado about nothing. Jaishanker like so many other Indian politicians keep projecting the issue as a “victory, nonetheless.

AT a height of 14,000 feet (Galwan Valley), the world’s first and second most populated countries and two nuclear powers engaged in violence. Thankfully for the planet they brawled with fisticuffs and threw stones at each other besides using barbed-wire-enveloped bludgeons to pummel each other.

In the battle that took place over several hours, India lost 20 lives, including an officer commanding (colonel). New Delhi claimed China lost 43 men as per radio intercepts.

India claimed that China’s aim is to “dominate Durbuk-DBO road, strengthen its position in the Fingers area, halt the construction of link roads in Galwan-Pangong Tso [salt lake] and negotiate de-escalation on its terms.” This is the assertion of Maj Gen (Dr) G.G. Dwivedi.

India alleged that not only have the Chinese changed the status quo at the Fingers, the mountain spurs along the lake, but also built substantial structures in the contested region of the Line of Actual Control. The hills protrude into the lake like fingers, and are numbered one to eight from west to east.

According to India, the LAC lies at Finger 8, but China points to Finger 4. The May 27 images by Planet Labs showed dozens of new structures, most likely tents that came up between Finger 8 and Finger 4 on the north bank of Pangong Tso, one of the main points of contention in the current standoff. The Indian Express (June 6) claimed this satellite imagery shows how the Chinese have changed the status quo on Pangong bank.

The Indian media alleged that China took over 640 kilometres of Ladakh territory. On the other hand the Chinese media insists that it is India which violated the Line of Actual Control.

The Chinese assertion was confirmed by Prime Minister Narender Modi. While addressing an all-party conference Modi said: “Neither have they [Chinese]” intruded into our border, nor has any post been taken over by them [China]. One wonders what was the point in whipping up of war hysteria by the Indian media. What a contradiction between Jaishankar’s and Modi’s statements.

FATF manipulated through India’s defence-purchases clout from influential countries

India leveraged its military purchases to keep Pakistan under the grey List. Amid Ladakh border standoff, India’s defence ministry approved purchase proposals amounting to an estimated Rs 38,900 cores. They included procurement of 21 MiG-29s, upgrading Indian Air Force’s existing MiG-29 aircraft, procurement of 12 Su-30 MKI aircraft. The MiG-29 procurement and up-gradation from Russia will cost Rs 7418 crore.

A bird’s-eye view of India’s defence deals

Rafale

India signed a formal agreement to buy 36 Rafale fighter jets from France’s Dassault for a reported 7.9 billion euros (8.8 billion dollars), one of its biggest defense deals in decades.7 Apr 2021. The five Rafale fighter jets which landed in Ambala on 29th July, 2020 would

Resurrect the Number 17 Golden Arrows squadron of the Indian Air Force. It will take

the IAF’s squadron strength to 31. When all the 36 Rafale jets are delivered by 2022,

it will take it to 32 squadrons. The state-of-the-art 4.5 Generation Rafale jet can reach almost double the speed of sound, with a top speed of 1.8 Mach. With its multi-role capabilities, including electronic warfare, air defence, ground support and in-depth strikes, the Rafale lends

air superiority to the Indian Air Force.

Armed Forces $130 billion modernization plan

The plan includes acquisition of a wide variety of arms and armament that includes missiles, warships, drones, fighter jets, surveillance equipment and creation of architecture for Artificial Intelligence.

Recent India and US Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement for Geo[1]spatial Cooperation (BECA) deal on 27 October, 2020 in Delhi envisages digitising military applications. Broadly, there are four important aspects in the field of Battle field digitisation, which in military parlance is termed as Network Centric Warfare.

MiG upgradeIndia will upgrade 59 of its MiG-29 aircraft and buy 21 more from Russia for about $1 billion.

Artillery, tanks and missiles

India will buy Excalibur artillery rounds for M777 ultra light howitzersfrom the United States, Igla-S air defence systems from Russia and Spike anti-tank guided missiles from Israel.

The Army will buy ammunition for its T-90 tanks, BMP-2 vehicles, air defence guns, artillery guns and small arms, as well as rockets, missiles and mortars. The Air Force will buy air-to-air missiles, air to-ground missiles, smart bombs, chaffs, flares and precision-guided munitions.

 Russia worth $800 million to buy weapons and spare parts.

India-US Guardian Drones Deal:

The US and the Indian Government signed a

$ 2-3 billion deal for the Guardian drones in 2018. The US Government has

cleared the sale of 22 predator Guardian drones to India. The drones are

manufactured by General Atomics.

 India-US Defence Deal of Naval Guns:

In November, 2019 a deal of $1.0210 billion with the US was sealed to obtain 13 MK45 Naval guns and related

equipment. The MK-45 Gun System will help India to conduct anti-surface

warfare and anti-air defence missions.

India-US Apache Contract:

India and the US have signed $930 million agreement for 6 Apache Helicopters for Indian Army. The contract was made in the year 2015 by the Indian Air Force for 22 Apache helicopters. Out of 22 helicopters, 17 have already been delivered to India and the rest will be delivered in the year 2023.

MH-60 Romeo Helicopters Deal:

Indian Navy will procure 24 Sikorsky MH-60R helicopters.

FATF’s double standards

It is questionable why supporting ongoing freedom movement in the occupied Kashmir is “terrorism”, but not India’s support to militant groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and erstwhile East Pakistan. India portrays the freedom movement in Kashmir as `terrorism’. The conduct of Indian diplomats amounted to state-sponsored terrorism. For one thing, India should close the `Free Balochistan’ office on her soil, and stop resuscitating propaganda skeletons of pre-Bangladesh days.

Unlike Kashmir, East Pakistan was not a disputed territory. It was an integral part of Pakistan. But, India harboured, nurtured, trained and armed Bengali ‘freedom fighters’ on Indian soil. Ina video, India’s army chief Manekshaw confessed that prime minister Indira Gandhi forced him to attack the erstwhile east Pakistan.

Negative impact of rigorous compliance

The managers of financial institutions in Pakistan are implementing the FATF conditions without understanding their purpose. They are harassing honest investors. For, instance, the manger of the national Saving Centre Poonch house Rawalpindi refuses to issue an investment certificate unless the applicant submits a host of documents. These documents include a current bank statement, source-of-income certificate besides bio-data along with a passport-size photograph. They call for the documents even if the applicant submits a cheque on his 40-year-old bank account.

Concluding remarks

The Financial Action Task Force has,  ostensibly,  noble objectives. It provides a `legal’, regulatory, framework for muzzling the hydra-headed monster of money-laundering. It aims at identifying loopholes in the prevailing financial system and plugging them. But, it has deviated from its declared objectives. It has become a tool to coerce countries, accused of financing terrorism or facilitating money-laundering.

The FATF is more interested in disciplining a state like Pakistan, not toeing US policies, than in checking money-laundering. The tacit message is that if Pakistan does not toe Indian and USA’s Afghan policy, and lease out air bases for drone attacks, then it will remain on FATF grey list. 

Pakistan is a bête noire and India a protégé at the FATF only because of stark geo-political interests. Otherwise the money laundering situation in India is no less gruesome than in Pakistan. India has even been a conduit of ammunition to the Islamic State study conducted by Conflict Armament Research had confirmed that seven Indian companies were involved in the supply chain of over 700 components, including fuses or detonating cords used by the so-called Islamic State to construct improvised explosive devices.

Political considerations, not FATF’s primary objectives, override voting behavior at the FATF..

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Terrorism

Politically expedient definition of “terrorism” to put Pakistan under watch list

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pakistan-terrorism

The writer is of the view that there is no universally-acceptable definition of “terrorism”. Influential countries in the United Nations utilize their leverage to get an individual or an entity declared a “terrorist”. “Freedom fighters” are called “terrorists” by their adversaries. He wonders whether it was fair to declare some religious or welfare organisations “terrorists’. And, to use this dubious “declaration” as justification to impose financial difficulties on Pakistan. He expressed ennui on apathy of international organisations towards India’s support, for example to Mukti Bahini that Pakistan considered a “terrorist’ organisation. The views expressed are personal.

The Financial Action Task Force is supposed to plug money laundering. It is not meant to dubiously declare a person or entity terrorist to impose financial restrictions on it. According to an Islamabad-based think tank Tabadlab, Pakistan sustained a total of US$ 38 billion in economic losses due to FATF’ decision to thrice place the country on its grey list since 2008. In a way, the whole Pakistani nation was punished by declaring some religious outfits “terrorists”.

 Dubious “terrorism” label

Jammu and Kashmir is a disputed state, notwithstanding India’s occupation of some parts of it. Flouting international resolutions declaring Kashmir a disputed territory, India annexed the part under its illegal occupation a centrally controlled territory ruled by New Delhi.

Kashmiris started a movement for freedom.

In the course of time some religious organisations in Pakistan began to support the freedom movement in India. India calls the freedom movement “terrorism, and by corollary whosoever supports it. Hafiz Mohammad Saied runs a few non-government welfare oganisations. Former president Musharraf’s, in an interview pointed out that Saeed’s organisations are the best in Pakistan. Through its leverage with the USA and some other countries, India managed to get Saeed designated a terrorist by the United Nations. Without substantial incriminating evidence, Saeed was portrayed as the mastermind of Mumbai attacks. The fact however remains that the Mumbai trials lacked transparency.

To create financial difficulties for Pakistan, India through its “friends” managed to get Pakistan on Financial Action Task Force watch list for inability to take adequate action against Hafiz Saeed.

Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Thomas Hammarberg (2008) observed that “arbitrary procedures for terrorist black-listing must now be changed”. There is no definition of terrorism. Mukti Bahini in former East Pakistan was freedom fighters to India but terrorists to Pakistan. Cuban terrorists were decorated n the USA as “freedom fighters”.

Political expediency not fairness is the basis of the “terrorism” definition. To the USA Taliban were freedom fighters as long s they fought the erstwhile Soviet Union in Afghanistan. The US began to subsequently regard them as “terrorists” when they allegedly sheltered international “terrorists”. The Taliban were designated terrorists under resolutions 1267 and 1373. The US used its influence to the hilt to get them so declared.  

According to principles of penology, an offence has to be first defined before it is made punishable. In the absence of a global, universally acceptable definition of the word ‘terrorism’, any figment of imagination could be stretched to mean terrorism.

Unless the word ‘terrorism is defined, it will not be possible to distinguish it from a freedom movement, protest, guerrilla warfare, subversion, criminal violence, para-militarism, communal violence or banditry. A nation cannot be punished for individual acts of terrorism, according to principles of natural justice and penology.

In the historical context, the term meant different things to different individuals and communities. The oldest ‘terrorists’ were holy warriors who killed civilians. Recent examples of religious terrorists are Aum Shinrikyo (Japanese), Rabbi Meir Kahane and Baruch Goldstein and Yigal Amir (Jews).

The Jewish-controlled media describes Hezbollah and Hamas as ‘religious terrorists’. In the first century A.D Palestine, the Jews publicly slit the Romans’ throats, in the seventh century India, the thugs strangulated gullible passersby to please the Hindu Devi Kali, and the 19th century adherents of Narodnaya Volya (People’s Will) mercilessly killed their pro-Tsar rivals.

Most historians believe that the term ‘terrorism’ received international publicity during the French reign of terror in 1793-94.

It is now common to dub one’s adversary a ‘terrorist’. Doing so forecloses possibility of political negotiation, and gives the powerful definer the right to eliminate the ‘terrorist’.

India’s self confessed “terrorism

Former East Pakistan was not a disputed state like Jammu and Kashmir. Yet, India tried tooth and nail to stoke an insurgency in East Pakistan. Confessions of former Research and Analysis Wing’s officers and diplomats bear testimony to India’s involvement in bloodshed in East Pakistan. B. Raman (A RAW officer), in his book The Kaoboys of R&AW: Down Memory Lane makes no bones about India’s involvement up to the level of prime minister in Bangladesh’s insurgency.

Elements in the definition: Points to ponder

There is a cliche “One man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter”. “Terrorism” is focused from narrow angles. Some definitions focus on the terrorist organizations’ mode of operation. Others emphasize the motivations and characteristics of terrorism, the modus operandi of individual terrorists.

In their book Political Terrorism, Schmidt and Youngman cited 109 different definitions of terrorism, which they obtained in a survey of leading academics in the field. From these definitions, the authors isolated the following recurring elements, in order of their statistical appearance in the definitions[1]: Violence, force (appeared in 83.5% of the definitions); political (65%); fear, emphasis on terror (51%); threats (47%); psychological effects and anticipated reactions (41.5%); discrepancy between the targets and the victims (37.5%); intentional, planned, systematic, organized action (32%); methods of combat, strategy, tactics (30.5%).

Former RAW officer RK Yadav’s disclosures

 In a published letter, Yadav made  startling revelation that India’s prime minister Indira Gandhi, parliament, RAW and armed forces acted in tandem to dismember Pakistan. It is eerie that no international agency declared India a “terrorist” for its nefarious activities. His  confessions in his letter are corroborated  are corroborated by B. Raman in his book The Kaoboys of R&AW. He reminds `Indian parliament passed resolution on March 31, 1971 to support insurgency. Indira Gandhi had then confided with Kao that in case Mujib was prevented, from ruling Pakistan, she would liberate East Pakistan from the clutches of the military junta. Kao, through one RAW agent, got hijacked a Fokker Friendship, the Ganga, of Indian Airlines hijacked from Srinagar to Lahore.

Why the hullabaloo about insurgency in Kashmir if India’s intervention in East Pakistan was justified.

Kulbushan Jadhav role

Jadhav was an Indian Navy officer, attached to RAW. His mission was to covertly carry out espionage and terrorism in Pakistan. Pakistan also alleged there were Indian markings on arms deliveries to Baloch rebels pushed by Jadhav.

To India’s chagrin, India’s investigative journalists confirmed from Gazettes of India that he was commissioned in the Indian Navy in 1987 with the service ID of 41558Z Kulbhushan Sudhir. A later edition of the Gazette showed his promotion to the rank of commander after 13 years of service in 2000. His passport, E6934766, indicated he traveled to Iranfrom Pune as Hussein Mubarak Patel in December 2003. Another of his Passports, No. L9630722 (issued from Thane in 2014), inadvertently exposed his correct address: Jasdanwala Complex, old Mumbai-Pune Road, cutting through Navi Mumbai. The municipal records confirmed that the flat he lived in was owned by his mother, Avanti Jadhav. Furthermore, in his testimony before a Karachi magistrate, Karachi underworld figure Uzair Baloch confessed he had links with Jadhav. India’s prestigious Frontline surmised that Jadhav still served with the Indian Navy. Gazette of India files bore no record of Jadhav’s retirement. India told the International Court of Justice (ICJ) that Jadhav was a retired naval officer. But, it refrained from stating exactly when he retired. The spy initially worked for Naval Intelligence, but later moved on to the Intelligence Bureau. He came in contact with RAW in 2010.

India portrays the freedom movement in Kashmir as `terrorism’. What about India’s terrorism in neighbouring countries? Will the world take notice of confessions by India’s former intelligence officers and diplomats?

Through Jhadav India wanted to replay the Mukti Bahini experience in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.

Doval doctrine: In line with India’s security czar Ajit Doval’s Doctrine, RAW aims at fomenting insurgency in Pakistan’s sensitive provinces. Doval is inspired by India’s nefarious efforts which resulted in the secession of East Pakistan. Naila Baloch’s `free Balochistan’ office has been working in New Delhi since 23 June 2018. BJP MLAs and RAW officers attended its inauguration.

Involvement in Afghanistan

India too trained Afghan Northern Alliance fighters. India’s ambassador Bharath Raj Muthu Kumar, with the consent of then foreign minister Jaswant Singh, `coordinated military and medical assistance that India was secretly giving to Massoud and his forces’… `helicopters, uniforms, ordnance, mortars, small armaments,  refurbished Kalashnikovs seized in Kashmir, combat and winter clothes, packaged food, medicines, and funds through his brother in London, Wali Massoud’, delivered circuitously with the help of other countries who helped this outreach’. When New Delhi queried about the benefit of costly support to Northern Alliance chief Massoud, Kumar explained, “He is battling someone we should be battling. When Massoud fights the Taliban, he fights Pakistan.”

Concluding remarks

It is questionable why supporting ongoing freedom movement in the occupied Kashmir is “terrorism”, but not India’s support to militant groups in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and erstwhile East Pakistan. India portrays the freedom movement in Kashmir as `terrorism’. What about India’s terrorism in neighbouring countries? Will the world take notice of confessions by India’s former diplomats. The conduct of Indian diplomats amounted to state-sponsored terrorism. For one thing, India should close the `Free Balochistan’ office on her soil, and stop resuscitating propaganda skeletons of pre-Bangladesh days.

Unlike Kashmir, East Pakistan was not a disputed territory. It was an integral part of Pakistan. But, India harboured, nurtured, trained and armed Bengali ‘freedom fighters’ on Indian soil.

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Terrorism

U.S.: From mass airstrikes to targeted terrorist attack

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The U.S.-led military operation “Inherent Resolve” has begun in August 2014. Its ostensible purpose was a struggle with the gaining ground ISIS at that moment. As the operation develops, Australia, France, Great Britain, Saudi Arabia, the Netherlands, Belgium and other countries joined the American airstrikes.

United forces, with purposes to show power and strengthen its influence in the region carried out more than three thousand airstrikes in the first year, resulting in thousands of victims among civilians. It is worth to note that member states of the coalition didn’t try to hide the fact that their actions caused the death of thousands of people. In 2018, British authorities justified civilian deaths by the fact that militants used them as human shields and it was impossible task to minimize losses.

According to “Airwars”, the British non-government organization, from 2014 till 2019 up to 13,190 civilians were killed in Iraq and Syria as a result of the international coalition actions.

However, despite all the “efforts” and the Pentagon’s loud statements about the fight against international terrorism, the fact of the continuously growing territory controlled by the militants testifies the opposite. In addition, since 2015, facts of provided by Washington direct support to terrorists have begun to be revealed. U.S. and its allies produced weapons were repeatedly found in the territories liberated from jihadists. So, for example in 2017 during armed clashes with government troops militants used anti-tank TOW-2 and SAMS air defense systems of the U.S. production. Also, American medicines, communication tools and even component kits for UAVs were found in positions abandoned by terrorists.

The negative reaction of the international community began to rise in this context and Washington had no choice but to change the strategy of its activity in Syria. The practice of mass airstrikes was replaced by targeted terrorist attacks against government forces by their backed militants.

For implementing of such kind of actions, U.S. retained its military presence in Homs province where their military base Al-Tanf is deployed. A huge amount of evidence U.S. servicemen training armed groups fighters is widely accessible. Moreover it’s known that 55 km zone around Al-Tanf has been inaccessible to government troops for years and Syrian army attempts to enter the area were suppressed by the U.S. airstrikes.

At the same time, IS militants have been spotted moving in this region without encumbrance and used the base as a safe zone for regrouping. Terrorists slipped in Deir ez-Zor, Palmyra, as well as Daraa and As-Suwayda from this area. In addition, the U.S. has created the Jaysh Maghawir al-Thawra group to fight government forces in the eastern section of the border between Syria and Iraq. Initially, the armed group was created to fight against government troops, but after a number of defeats they started to protect the area around the Al-Tanf.

Up to the date Washington continues to insist on Bashar al-Assad government “illegitimacy” and actively supports so-called moderate opposition. Pursuing its selfish economic and political goals, the United States counters to the international law, completely ignoring the tens of thousands victims among civilians and millions of refugees flooded Europe. Although the role of the White House and its allies in supporting terrorist groups is difficult to overestimate, the United States obviously will not consider it enough.

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