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The United States, Oil Market, Russia and the Arab World

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Man prefers to rule primarily because genetic traits and material evidence hold and compel it. The division of societies is due to his decisions.  On the other hand, guidance from time to time is causing maturity in its manners. It also helps in the aggressive occupation of human life from objects. The variability of hormones in the human body varies according to the geographical elements. From the 13th to the 18th century, such people performed many feats.  Circumstances and events made these hormones such that the search for dry shores from the sea began to determine destinations. Hormonal variability reduces the element of consistency in their destinations. All the changing factors from the passage to the passer-by are the reasons for their increase in difficulties. 

In these two great cultural powers, along with genes, the boundaries of regions also have a profound effect. Easterners are adherents of the doctrines of reconciliation and sentimentality, while Westerners are adherents of the doctrine of materialism and individualism.  Under Western society, people migrated in search of permanence (family system) and materialism, which made him an explorer of land and beaches, freeing him from the turmoil of the seas and the storms of gravity. The stillness and utility of the interior gave him a distinct name.  The pirates and looters were so busy preparing to become the Maharaja of the land that new inventions caught up with them. This skill extended their reach to the dry shores. 

Access to everything from sand dunes to steep mountains was no less important to them than museums.  The captives of fair skin and blonde hair began to lay their ground realities and laws of cultural values under their feet.  Unaware of their motives and intentions, the people of the East weakened their own siege in hospitality and sincerity.  A great empire of seals and infantry kept convincing them of their existence and power. In order to make this siege more complete and cohesive, the life-saving process was intensified. The transformational elements and materialists considered it their mission and duty to change the beliefs and ideologies of the people around them. 

The population of was primarily the guarantor of black property and rule, but under the circumstances the whites (changeists) seem to have taken over aggressively.  Despite distorting the facts, black people are still rarely seen as rulers. In this war, those who were trying to grab land resources and financial resources were and will continue to be engaged in playing games.  In this age of innovation, groups or individuals are chosen to wipe out old sketches from the pages of history, whether they have set their goals or have specific goals.Which only help them to choose easy ways to achieve their goals by following their beliefs and ideologies.  These groups are called think tanks. They collectively achieve individuality and design self-made intentions. 

Various research papers find ancient structures in various forms that the government acted against time.  Historically, they have been held in high positions and high office positions. Behind them has always been the idea of change and modernity.  History has shown that sometimes it fails to prove itself and raises voices against the system.  Think tanks can be considered as the only runners of the country and the biggest fugitives on the field.  The only source of support in the 50-year struggle to make the dollar a strong currency is material assets, of which oil is a key one.

The average annual price in the world market was 99.67$ in 2008, then 94.88$ in 2011. In 2020, the market fell to the point where 70 million barrels of oil were dumped on the chest of the navy.  His efforts sparked a new war in the oil fields at the beginning of the 20th century by seizing oil reserves in a great empire like Iraq. The 4451516 million barrels of oil producing country, while in 2019 (EIA) the total oil consumption in the world was 80622000  million barrels per day. 68% of this is met by ten countries while 44% by 14 countries of OPEC.According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), 80 million barrels per day will be used in 2018. The top three countries in the race to produce oil include major powers such as Saudi Arabia, the United States and Russia.After

The United States snatched second place from Russia in 2012 when the United States ended the Iraq war.At the same time, in 2013, Saudi Arabia also lagged behind the United States in daily oil production. The United States ranks first among the world’s five largest oil producers with 17.87 million barrels per day. Saudi Arabia 12.42 million barrels per day, Russia is third with 11.4 million barrels per day, Canada is fourth with 5.27 barrels per day and China is fifths with 4.82 million barrels.  Fifty years of planning and 2050 tags on Iraq’s wells are telling evidence that summonses under a 100-year policy Why were the robbers Profile deserts and mountains fascinate dry. In 2002,

 27,200 troops (Britain, Germany, France, Canada, Norway, Denmark, and Italy) invaded Afghanistan with 90,000 Americans.  Accumulated 100 years of opium poppy with Russia’s trade routes and Afghanistan’s mineral deposits. Worldwide, opium averages 29.14$ per gram, while Afghanistan still has an average rate of 0.10$ per gram.  In Sudan, the average rate per gram is 184.03$. The average rate in Afghanistan is 0.10$ per gram. If you take the purchase price from the international rate of 29.14$ per gram, it will fall to 29.04. It will be 29040 dollars. Its value in Pakistani rupees will be 851,763,569 rupees.The total population of the United States spends 400 billion annually on drug offenses alone. Illicit drugs (Marie Joanna) use 43.5 million people.  139.8 million people drink alcohol, which is more than 50% of the population. Prescription drugs include 9.9 million people.

 Heroin averages 91.16$ per gram worldwide, compared to 2.40$ per gram in Afghanistan. There are 9.9 million users in the United States. The average price in New Zealand is 806.64$ per gram. If you buy from Afghanistan at 2.40$ per gram and subtract the international rate from. 91.16$ per gram, you get 88.76$ per gram. In New Zealand, the amount is 717.93$ per gram. Thus, it will be 7 lakh 17 thousand 9 hundred 30 dollars. Its price in Pakistani rupees will be 11 crore 44 lakh 23 thousand 6 hundred 83 rupees. Buy 2400 dollars per kg and sell it for 7 lakh.  What a wonderful deal to give. How much heroin and poppy have been stolen from Afghanistan by the United States, Britain, France, Germany, Canada and Norway in these 19 years? Worshipers of materialism and hiding in the shield of resources, these countries are helpless today. Wrote disgrace in their destiny.

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Hydrogen Could Be A Key Player In The Recovery And Resilience Plan

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Thanks to the contribution of vaccines, the Covid-19 pandemic is slowly beginning to abate and gradually lose its aggressiveness, with the consequent reduction of its impact on people’s health worldwide.

However, while the health effects of the pandemic appear to be fading, the negative economic effects of a year and a half of lockdown and forced closure of many businesses are being felt heavily at a global level and seem bound to last well beyond the end of the health emergency.

With a view to supporting and encouraging the “restart” and revival  of the economy, the European Union has launched a “Recovery and Resilience Plan”, allocating a huge amount of funds that shall be used in the coming years not only to help countries in difficulty with contingent measures, but also to stimulate economic and productive growth capable of modernising production models with specific reference to environmental balance, which is increasingly facing a crisis due to the use of non-renewable, highly polluting energy sources.

Italy will receive over 200 billion euros in European funds to develop its own projects to get out of the economic-pandemic crisis and rightly wants to use them not only to plug the leaks caused by the various ‘lockdowns’ in the national productive fabric, but also to implement a series of strategic projects capable of making not only the productive sectors, but also the public administration and the health and judicial systems more efficient.

In short, the “Recovery and Resilience Plan” that is currently coming to the fore may prove to be a powerful driving force for Italy’s development and modernisation.

The projects submitted by Italy to the EU institutions include an initial allocation of over 200 million euros – out of the 47 billion euros planned for the next decade – to promote research and development in the field of renewable energy and particularly in the hydrogen sector.

Why Hydrogen?

Hydrogen is potentially the most abundant source of “clean” energy in the universe. It is versatile, safe and reliable; when obtained from renewable energy sources, it produces no harmful emissions to the environment.

Nevertheless, it is not available in nature in its gaseous form – which is the only one that can be used as an energy source – as it is always bound to other elements, such as oxygen in water and methane as a gas.

The traditional processes used to “separate” hydrogen from oxygen in water and from methane use up large amounts of electricity, which makes the processes not only very expensive, but also highly polluting, with the paradox that, in order to produce a clean energy source, the environment is “polluted” anyway, especially if – as has been the case until recently – the electricity needed is produced with traditional non-renewable energy sources (coal, gas and oil).

The best source of hydrogen in gaseous form is the sea. Electrolysis can easily separate hydrogen from oxygen and store it in gaseous form for use as an energy source.

The electrolytic cells used to develop the process use up large amounts of energy and, fortunately for us, science is finding a way to produce it without polluting, using solar, wind and, above all, sea wave energy.

The use of marine energy creates a sort of “circular economy” for hydrogen production: from the practically inexhaustible primary source of ocean water, hydrogen can be extracted with the energy provided by wave and tidal motion.

Forty per cent of the world’s population live within 100 kilometres from the sea and this shows the potential of sea wave and tidal energy as an engine for sustainable development in economic, climate and environmental terms.

Nowadays modern, non-invasive tools are available to extract electricity from sea waves, such as the “penguin”, a device manufactured in Italy, which – placed 50 metres deep – produces electricity without harming marine flora and fauna.

Another example of Italian scientists’ intelligence and creativity is the Inertial Sea Wave Converter (ISWEC), a device housed inside a 15-metre-long hull which, occupying a marine area of just 150 square metres, is able to produce 250 megawatts of electricity a year, thus enabling to cut emissions into the atmosphere by 68 tonnes of CO2.

With these devices and the other ones that technology will develop over the next few years, it will be possible to power electrolytic cells for the production of hydrogen in gaseous form on an industrial scale, at levels that – over the next 15 years – will lead to the production of at least 100,000 tonnes of “green” hydrogen per year, thus enabling to reduce air pollution significantly, with positive effects on the economy, the environment and the climate.

In the summer of 2020, the European Union launched a project called the “Hydrogen Strategy”, with a funding of 470 billion euros, intended for research and production projects capable of equipping EU countries with electrolysis tools to produce at least one million tonnes of “green” hydrogen by the end of 2024.

The fight against CO2 emissions continues unabated: in the United States which, after Trump’s Presidency, has reaffirmed its commitment to reducing emissions; in China which, in its latest five-year plan, has forecast a 65% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere by the end 2030; in Europe, which has always been at the forefront in the creation of devices for producing wave and tidal energy and exports its technologies to the United States, Australia and China.

According to the Hydrogen Council, an association of over 100 companies from around the world that share a common long-term vision for a transition to hydrogen, in the future Europe and China will compete and cooperate in the production of sea wave and tidal energy and in the related production of “green hydrogen”.

With its 14th five-year plan, China, in particular – after having been for decades, during its whirling economic development, one of the main sources of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere and of global pollution – has undertaken the commitment “to develop and promote the harmonious coexistence between man and nature, through the improvement of efficiency in the use of resources and a proper balance between protection and development”, as clearly stated by its Minister of Natural Resources Lu Hao.

It might sound like the sweet-talk and set phrases of a politician at a conference.

In the case of China and its Minister of Natural Resources, however, words have been turned into deeds.

As part of the Roadmap 2.0 for Energy Saving Technology and New Energy Vehicles, China has set a target of one million fuel cell vehicles and two million tonnes of hydrogen production per year by the end of 2035.

The China Hydrogen Energy Industry Development Report 2020 forecasts that, by the end of 2050, hydrogen energy will meet 10 per cent of energy requirements, while the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles will rise to 30 million and hydrogen production will be equal to 60 million tonnes.

With a view to giving substance to these prospects, China has established the “National Ocean Technology Centre” in Shenzhen and developed – with the Italian “International World Group” – the “China-Europe cooperation project for energy generation and hydrogen production from sea waves and from other renewable energy sources”.

These are concrete projects in which – thanks to Italian creativity and Chinese rationality and pragmatism – we must continue to invest and work, not least to give the third industrial revolution a cleaner face than the coal-stained one of the second industrial revolution.

These projects appear to be in line with those envisaged both at European and Italian levels by the ‘Recovery and Resilience Plan’, which should guide us out of the economic doldrums of the pandemic. They deserve to be financed and supported as they can not only contribute to the recovery and revival of the economy, but also to the reconstruction of a cleaner and more liveable world (thus showing that good can always come out of evil).

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The ‘energy crisis’ and its global implications

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A particular news caught my attention this morning regarding energy crises. Before going into the depth of the news, I would like to introduce you to the concept of energy crisis and its global implications.  As introduced by Garrett Hardin in 1968; the tragedy of commons that the resources of world are limited, if the resources are used excessively soon there will come a time when they will become scarce. These resources can only be sufficient through cooperation of people among each other; there’s no other solution. The tragedy of commons is the best way to explain the concept the energy crises.

Now, the population world is growing at an exponential rate and with the growing population there is a need to provide a better lifestyle to the upcoming generations.  In a struggle for raising that standard of living, more and more resources of developed world are being utilized. The McKinsey Global Institute forecasted that by 2020 developing countries will demand 80 percent more energy which proved to be true as is evident in recurrent fuel shortages and price hike globally. A MIT study also forecasted that worldwide energy demand could triple by 2050.

Besides petrol, there is also a rise in demand for natural gas with only few reliable reserves all over the world. The natural gas reserves are mostly unreliable because they are usually found in deep oceans and mere accessibility can cost a lot of expense. Henceforth, the supply is limited, the price has fluctuated greatly and recent technological development has reduced dependence upon natural gas by providing alternatives such as fuel efficient or electric cars. Similarly, electricity supply systems are also not very reliable because there have been power blackouts in the United States, Europe and Russia. There have also been chronic shortages of electric power in India, China, and other developing countries.

If we specifically observe the Iraqi oil crises to understand the whole energy crises shebang, then according to today’s news in TRT World, in Iraq alone, $150bn of stolen oil cash smuggled out since 2003. Iraqi oil exports are even 30-40% below prewar levels. The acting president of Iraq is furious because insane amount of corruption is being carried out in Iraq where substantial quantity of oil is being smuggled. President Barham Saleh presented a legislation to parliament, where, under law any transaction over $500,000 would be scrutinized. This step, if materialized, can be very crucial in preservation of oil reserves in Iraq after the Saddam Hussein regime.

In United States, presidents have constantly been avoiding energy problems because they are very controversial. The recent Texas electricity outrage was a one that had been warned about. Before the Arab Oil Embargo Nixon in 1970’s was reluctant about energy and said ‘as long as the air conditioners are working normally, there is no energy crisis’ but after this incident Nixon began to change his tone and said on television that “energy is number one issue”. Then came Carter, who got a number of legislations passed on the issue of energy even when his own party was against it. In the 1970’s the prevalent thought for United States was that the world would run out of energy resources very soon so they started investing more in nuclear armament as an alternative. In 1990’s the combined cycle plants that used natural gas to create electricity were really efficient and economical that even gas at a high price could be competitive, also ethno-industry was crated at that time.

Then, the threat of climate change is also one of great relevance in the context of energy crises. The nonrenewable energy resources such as oil, water and coal must be used carefully and lack of which can be hazardous. It can cause drought, famine, disease, mass migration that will eventually lead to a conflict such as explained in the tragedy of commons theory. The now developed nations exploited natural resources to build its wealth. The resources such as wood, coal, oil and gas where on one hand are very economical, on the other hand they can be the originators of carbon emissions. Climate change also led to loss of biodiversity as well as environmental hazards.

Even though the developed world i.e. north provides a significant amount of assistance to the global North i.e developing countries, they cannot be a replacement for the shortage of resources. Also, they also face extreme price hike in the energy resources even though the developing nations are the ones owning the resources such Iraq for oil. Besides expensive resources, these developed nations also give rise to domestic and political tensions in the third world countries. Organizations like Al-Qaeda have openly declared their intent to attack oil facilities to hurt the interests of US and its close allies.

All in all, the pertaining threat of energy crisis has global implications. One person’s’gain is another person’s loss but this can be made inevitable if cooperation takes places. Sharing is caring and in this context sharing can prevent from future wars and hurricanes, floods and droughts and famines. The extent of seriousness of the problem must be taken into consideration not only be academicians but by policy makers as well.

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Stay in Oil or Race to Green Energy? Considerations for Portfolio Transformation

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Oil and gas (O&G) companies face a conundrum: capture the remaining value in hydrocarbons, or decide if, when and how much to invest in new, low-carbon energy business models.

The global O&G industry has the opportunity to redeploy as much as $838 billion, or about 20% of cumulative capital expenditures over the next 10 years, to further optimize their hydrocarbon business and/or pursue new growth areas including new energy ventures.

Of low carbon business models, market sentiment is currently strongest for renewable power with growing interest in green hydrogen and carbon capture as well.

Why this matters

In the wake of COVID-19 disruptions and an accelerating energy transition, O&G companies face a conundrum: stay and capture the remaining value in hydrocarbons or embrace new energy business models. Deloitte’s new “Portfolio transformation in oil, gas and chemicals” research series provides valuable insights into portfolio transformation and offers key considerations for companies making capital allocation decisions and exploring future business models.

Finding the right recipe for portfolio transformation

While companies understand the imperative to change, they are grappling with how much to invest and most vexing, in which green technologies? After all, while the high-growth phase of the oil market may have come to an end, oil demand is still projected to remain above 87 million barrels per day by 2030, even in accelerated energy transition scenarios.

How much to redeploy? $838 billion may be a starting point

To determine how much capital to redeploy, O&G companies could start with capital that is not earning the desired return. Deloitte analyzed 286 listed global companies and revealed that in a base case scenario, these companies could have the opportunity to optimize up to 6% of future O&G production which may not generate a 20% return at an average oil price of $55 per barrel. In other words, about $838 billion, or about 20% of future capital expenditures (CAPEX) across the global industry could be redeployed to optimize these projects and/or pursue promising green ventures. The findings suggest that the opportunity to redeploy will not decrease, but rather increase if oil prices stay above pre-pandemic levels. Among the company groups, supermajors, on average, have a potential to redeploy up to 36% of their future CAPEX.

Where to invest? Solar and wind most frequently mentioned

After performing text analytics and sentiment analysis on thousands of news articles to glean a directional sense of which low-carbon and new energy solutions are attracting the most media attention, the study found renewable power (solar and wind) had the highest share (47% among all green energy models). The tide also seems to be turning for green hydrogen (8% share of mentions).

“A confluence of factors, including climate, the pandemic, supply-demand imbalances, changing trends in end-markets, and growing appetite for sustainability investments, has given oil, gas and chemicals companies the need to progress faster around portfolio transformation. Many companies are eager to act but are seeking guidance on the speed and extent to which they expand into new, potentially high-growth areas, be it in new regions, markets, products or technologies. By taking a strategic, purpose-driven approach, companies can sustainably and profitably build a future-ready portfolio.”- Amy Chronis, vice chairman and U.S. oil, gas and chemicals leader, Deloitte LLP

Debunking myths: Turning hindsight into foresight to navigate portfolio transformation

While many O&G companies have transformed their portfolios over the years, not every change has been successful. The Deloitte analysis dispels conventional wisdom about strategic shifts and offers insights and important considerations about portfolio building in the O&G industry.

Myth 1: Agility and flexibility always deliver gains

  • Reality: Of the more than 286 upstream and integrated companies analyzed, only 16% of companies that made frequent changes to their portfolios delivered top-quartile financial performance.

Myth 2: Being big and integrated guarantees success

  • Reality: Only 28% of big (revenues above $10 billion) and integrated companies figured in the top-quartile.

Myth 3: Oil has lost its luster

  • Reality: Oil still delivers significant value for many. Two-thirds of oil-heavy portfolios deliver above-average performance.

Myth 4: Every “green” shift is profitable and scalable

  • Reality: Of portfolios that have become greener, 9% delivered top quartile financial performance, underscoring the importance of a strategic, purpose-driven approach to portfolio transformation.

Myth 5: Shale’s pain makes onshore conventional plays an obvious choice

  • Reality: Between 18-45% of non-shale portfolios analyzed delivered below-average performance.

Keys to building a future-ready O&G portfolio

There are four components of a forward-looking portfolio: growth engines, cash generators, profit maximizers, and divestment of value strains. Optimizing the energy transition is not just about selecting the correct technologies in which to invest; it also involves upgrading business models to incorporate new metrics, dynamic planning and AI-based analytics to become more agile. Companies should also consider strategic alliances to maximize their strengths and gain from others.

Chemicals and specialty materials (C&SM) face similar urgency for transformation

As the chemicals industry navigates its own portfolio transformations, focus is key. Deloitte’s analysis of more than 200 chemical companies over a 20-year period showed that focused companies — those that prioritize certain end-markets and product categories and derive at least 60% of the total revenue from that category — outperformed diversified chemical companies. In fact, focused chemical companies organically grew revenues at twice the rate, generated 70% higher return on invested capital (ROIC), and delivered 60% higher shareholder returns.

The top-performing chemical companies typically change their portfolio mix more frequently than others —usually changing their portfolio once every business cycle and remaining focused on their over-arching business strategy, be it low cost, differentiated products, or exceptional service.

Keys to building a future-ready C&SM portfolio

The study recommends C&SM companies make critical portfolio choices that create value. The ongoing disruption in end markets requires leaders to make conscious decisions about their competitive advantage and play in products and service categories where they can build and maintain that advantage. Moreover, given the growing emphasis on sustainability, chemical companies should consider investing in recycling technologies and incorporating renewable and recyclable materials in their product offerings.

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