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Coronavirus and return of boundary

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A simple look at the atmosphere of the world in recent days shows the return of boundary again. Boundaries have now become supporters of geographical areas against coronavirus in various forms and scales. Yes, the boundaries have returned again, not only at the national level (between countries) but also at lower scales (the boundary between provinces and cities). Prior to the spread of coronavirus, there were two approaches to boundary control. The first approach, which has even more supporters, believes that with the advent of globalization, boundaries have disappeared and we live in a world without boundaries. The second approach is that boundaries will not disappear and will not go away and that a world without boundaries is not only possible but also unthinkable. With the return of boundaries due to coronavirus, it seems that the latter approach could again become the dominant discourse in the field of boundary studies. To understand this approach one needs to be able to understand the nature of existence and function of boundaries.

The existential nature of boundaries: Boundaries are spatial-geographic phenomena that act as the reality of all our threads. They shape our spaces of presence and activity in various ways, separating and connecting us with others. They are so close to us that they sometimes merge into us and make us less likely to feel the need to study them and ask them philosophical questions. What are the boundaries? Why do boundaries form? Are boundaries specific to humans? And questions like that …. To answer these questions, which are based on the philosophical nature of boundaries, requires extensive understanding in the field of boundary studies. To answer these questions, scholars have offered different and sometimes conflicting views on the philosophical nature of boundaries. Despite the different perspectives, it can be said that the concept of boundary is derived from difference. The difference between two people, two phenomena, and two countries that are in contact, resulting in a common chapter or point of contact between them is called the boundary between them. These separating lines are the factors that represent the philosophical nature of the formation of boundaries and form the basis for the creation of boundaries in its various shapes, types and levels. The factors that shape the existence of the boundary at different scales are:

– The inherent difference between humans (groups, countries, etc)

– Identity differences between people (groups, countries, etc.)

– Security of people (groups, countries, etc.)

– Separation of human interests (groups, countries, etc.)

– Separation of human territory (groups, countries, etc.)

– Separation of sovereignty (groups, countries, etc.)

The existence of boundaries is based on the existence of human beings, so we can say that boundaries do not disappear at all, and the discussion of a world without boundary is no more a legend. Because the factors that shape the existential nature of the boundary do not disappear. For example, the security of each individual, each group, and each country takes precedence over the security of others, and so the boundaries are an integral part of geographical space. But what has changed in geography that has led to the notion that boundaries have disappeared? It should be noted that what has changed are the functions of boundaries. Boundaries generally have two types of functions as follows:

A) Intrinsic function: This part of the boundary functions is derived from the inherent nature of the boundaries and is present at all boundaries at different scales including the national scale and does not change over time and does not disappear permanently until there is a need for the country to preserve its existence in the political arena of the world. The most important of these inherent functions of boundaries are: security function; identity function; land separation function; interest separation function; separation of sovereignty function; separation of ownership function.

B) Acquired function: The functions described in this section are given in accordance with the time, needs and goals of the country, technological developments, etc., as time passes or changes in goals and existing needs or technologies change, fade, or disappear completely. The most important of these acquired functions of the borders are: barrier function; legitimization function; economic function; nationalization function and etc.

In sum, coronavirus reminds us again that boundaries at different scales are integral to geographic spaces, because the intrinsic functions of the boundaries are not eliminated but are more stable than ever before and only the acquired functions of the borders have been changed so that the actors can systematically manage their relationships with other actors by managing them. With the slightest challenge to shatter its existential nature (such as coronavirus, which has shattered the security nature of boundaries), they will return stronger and more complex than ever before, turning the global space into a confined space.

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New Social Compact

Coronavirus Social Distancing Does Not Mean Emotional Distancing

Dr. Arshad M. Khan

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As we continue to observe social distancing, we also have to keep reminding ourselves, social distancing does not mean emotional distancing.   In other words, we must continue supporting friends, neighbors, those in need of help.  If we have hoarded food with panic buying and others are running short, now is the time to share.

Actualizing man’s natural impulse for generosity is frequently a religious tenet.  Congregations at Sikh temples purchase, prepare and offer food to all comers.  The Buddhist monk carries an empty bowl filled over the course of the day for his victuals.  Zakat is one of the five pillars of Islam.  It requires a distribution of 2.5 percent of annual income in excess of needs.

Pakistan is an Islamic Republic.  It is a poor developing country.  Yet as described in a recent BBC News story, the generosity of common people is helping day laborers survive during the coronavirus crisis when the country is in lockdown.

Day laborers as the term implies pick up jobs by the day, the daily income feeding them and their families.  Under lockdown, work has stopped and such jobs have vanished with dire consequences for those who depended upon them.

So it is that people can be seen standing around grocery stores attempting to fulfill their zakat obligations through offers of food or money to those in need.  What could have become a disastrous choice of either dying from hunger or the coronavirus has been averted.

Pakistan is one of six countries in the world where zakat is mandated and collected by the government from those having bank accounts and tax returns.  These resources have been converted swiftly into rations of basics like lentils, flour and oil, and distributed to those in need.  Collecting zakat happens also to identify those who are not obliged to offer it; in other words, the poor. 

Add to this the efforts of countless individuals on a person-to-person basis, and, although a poor developing country, Pakistan contributes over 1 percent of GDP to charity — a figure that compares well with much wealthier countries like Canada (1.2 percent) or the UK (1.3 percent).  Moreover, this duty to help is ingrained in the peoples’ psyche, and 98 percent are involved in one form or another, if not with cash, then in kind, or through volunteering their time.

India’s charitable contributions as a percent of GDP amount to half of Pakistan’s.  Its day laborers’ macabre Hobson’s choice of death by coronavirus or starvation in the lockdown led the politically acute Mr. Modi to go around apologizing to these 450 million voters for his extreme measure.  He has also introduced a $22 billion stimulus package last week that promises to deliver basics like lentils and grains to India’s 800 million poor for three months. 

Zakat is an Arabic word meaning ‘that which purifies’.  If money is filthy lucre, then it certainly does.  More so, generosity imparts a sense of well-being.

Does this sense of well-being from charitable giving translate into happiness?  It so happens the 2020 World Happiness Index rankings (Figure 2.1) were published on March 20.  Pakistan’s ranking rose from 75 to 66 while India fell further from 125 to 144 out of 153 countries in total.  This year the Happiness Report also ranks cities for happiness (Figure 3.1).  Again the Pakistani major cities of Karachi (ranked 117) and Lahore (122) are far above India’s capital Delhi (180) scoring close to #186 at dead last.

It seems we must always be wary of emotional distancing.  Unlike Cain, we are our brothers’ keepers. 

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New Social Compact

Landscape ahead seems gloomy

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Many conspiracy theories are circulating in the media, and each one having its strong logic is very difficult not to believe. Similarly, blame games are ongoing in the media. Everyone is so confident that his allegations are the facts. Social media is also causing a lot of terror, fear, and panic. It is complicated for an ordinary person to judge what truth is?

Based on available information and consensus, I am convinced that the COVID-19 is not a natural virus; it was a human-made product developed in the laboratory. Many questions arise in my mind, and I believe many other people might have similar queries in their minds. Who conceived this idea? And Why? What were the aims and objectives in his/ her mind? Who has funded? Who has conducted the research and developed it? How was it transported and spread among the humankind? Is someone or group was used as a tool for launching contagious virus?

A movie was released in 2011, telling the story of contagious virus spreading in China, creates a lot of queries itself. Transfer of Coronavirus from Bates to the human body is also hard to believe as the people are drinking bats soup for ages. Moreover, Wuhan is not the city famous for Sea-food or bats consumption.  Many similar conflicting theories are available on the internet.

Pandemic has already victimized 1,056,163individuals, and the death toll has reached 55,766, while the total number of recovered persons has also reached 223,901 (statistics subject to change over time). 203 Countries, regions, and territories have been infected, only a few countries either having no capability to test or deliberately hiding the information.

The worrisome is that it is still growing and spreading; the number of new cases is increasing rapidly, while the death toll is also on rise. How long will it remain on increasing? When to overcome it? What will be our future?

The direct death toll due to the virus may be limited, but the post-pandemic consequences may become more severe, and for a prolonged period, even the infection is brought under control. The economic activities are halted, the routine life is disturbed, and factories are closed. Pandemic may cause irreparable damage to the economy.  Industry will suffer, businesses will suffer, and the whole global economy may suffer. Individual might lose jobs, SMEs may be closed down. Poverty may reach peaks never witnessed before in the history.

The landscape of geopolitics looks gloomy. Some of the nations might be wiped out entirely, and some might lose the status quo while some other countries may climb up. Loss of lives, wealth, resources, in addition to some unexpected challenges, may come across. It is rather too early to predict something definite, but it is understood that if we do not take appropriate actions in time, the late repentance may not rescue us.

There is no cure, no vaccine for COVID-19. The only thing possible is to contain its spread is limiting social contacts and quarantine. Those who are having good health with strong immunity may recover soon. The weak, sick, aged people and people with low resistance may be severe victim of COVID-19. Medical facilities, like ventilators, are vital for rescuing victims.

All governments are struggling hard to contain Coronavirus, but facing limitations of resources. At the public level, we all individuals also have a responsibility to keep social distance, practice hygienic lifestyle, and eat healthy food. All of us have a responsibility to implement the precautions to ourselves and upon our dependents, minors, elders, relatives, neighborhoods, etc. We should help the needy individuals in our close circle or knowns and communities. Nations who can afford must help the needy countries around the globe and extend material, financial, and moral support to the nations who deserve it. Keeping the politics aside, we should be more generous, kind, and support all humankind to struggle against the pandemic.

Media may also play a constructive role by educating masses, training, and propagating preventive measures. The press must eliminate fake news, misinformation, and negativism. Fear and panic may not be promoted, as panic may further complicate the situation.

Contagious virus COVID-19 is a real threat to humankind, and we may fight against it collectively, smartly and bravely.

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New Social Compact

Coronavirus: An Act Of God Or Humans

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Corona virus started in Wuhan China and has spread all over the world; almost thousands of people have been killed due to this deadly virus. China though has been able to control the situation and Wuhan is turning back to its hustle bustle. But the spread of this deadly virus has changed the social and economic realities of this modern world. Around 200 countries have been affected  due to corona virus  , from New York to Islamabad states are locking down cities to curb the spread of this deadly virus , but still humans are clueless what is happening to them .

During this panic situation many conspiracies have been emerging and fake news with mix of facts are on rise. Many around the world are blaming the China and USA; the term Bio-Weapons is being used all around the world. American President Trump has termed virus as Chinese virus several times while addressing media and some Chinese state officials have pointed toward CIA is involve in spreading this virus in Wuhan.

A novel recently was being circulated which mentioned that in 2020 a lungs virus will affect whole world, many think that this virus is manmade and has been deliberately spread for greater objectives , many argue that this is part of USA strategy to stop the rise of china , after the spread of virus Chinese’s citizens are being seen as a source of virus . At the moment people around the globe are divided into two very groups, one believe that this is an act of humans, as the south Korean movie released in 2018 also predicted the same virus and same scenario, mere coincidence or a deliberate effort .Though the history of humans and envoy could be the source of new weapons of war, Bio-weapons are also a reality   and have been developed.

These viruses are part of nontraditional security threats which every state is facing at the moment, the dynamics of warfare in modern world are changing.  A virus originated from Wuhan has locked down the whole world, around 30000 plus have been killed and around 1 million are diagnosed positive. Italy  is on the top of the list of most affected nations around the globe , they have lost around 10000 people since virus spread , Iran  , Spain , USA also are among the top affected states . Somehow  those who have believe in that this virus is an act of humans are way large in number as due to media humans are programmed to think in this way .

Then after that there are also official versions from china that this virus has spread from Wuhan’s animal market where 57 old women contracted it from pangolin and she was termed as patient zero by Chinese government. According to Chinese official version this virus is an act of nature and china will make sure to deflect corona virus blame.

Whoever Man or God did , this virus and its impact would change the future of our world  , in coming days it impact on global economy and security would be seen in different ways , this virus has many hidden lessons which will uncover themselves in coming days . The one most important observatory fact is that this world is truly heading toward Globalization, all the states are going through same problems due to this virus and a collective effort would help to resolve this issue from New York to Islamabad.

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