Saudi Vision 2030 represents another leap forward for Saudi women’s rights. It is the newest extension of the Saudization program. The program seeks to expand the percentage of Saudi nationals in the workforce including an increase from 22 to 30 percent of Saudi women in the workforce. (Khan, 2018)In August 2019, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman officially announced the extension of rights to Saudi women. This extension included: “the right to travel without a male relative’s permission, to receive equal treatment in the workplace and to obtain family documents from the government.” (Hubbard & Yee, 2019) Women will no longer need a guardians’ permission to accept employment under the new extension of rights which will greatly improve the well-being of Saudi women who were often forced to remain in abusive situations because of economic necessity.
The women’s rights movement has made great strides recently in Saudi Arabia and it will be interesting to continue to observe future developments. But there are still significant barriers facing Saudi women before they can truly be equal members of Saudi society. Certainly, women will face push back from more traditional male members of Saudi society and even from their female elders who still adhere to the more traditional Islamic view that honors women solely as wives and mothers. “It is a great breakthrough. It was bound to happen, but these changes are always done at a time when the people are more apt to accept the changes, otherwise they will fail.” – Hoda al-Helaissi, a member of the kingdom’s advisory Shura Council. (Hubbard & Yee, 2019)
There can be little doubt that Saudi Arabia’s Women’s Rights Movement has met some pretty significant milestones in the last decade in education, political activities, access to the workplace, driving, and lessening of male guardianship rules. Yet many other nations point to Saudi Arabia as a leader in human rights violations and particularly the oppression of women’s rights. Is it fair to continue to point to Saudi Arabia as a bad example? Is it truly that far behind other nations on women’s rights? There have been women heads of states for decades now, history records the following women who have been state leaders: Indira Gandhi – India, Golda Meir – Israel, Margaret Thatcher – United Kingdom, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir – Iceland, Benazir Bhutto – Pakistan, Mary Robinson – Ireland, Kim Campbell – Canada. (Wills, Smith, & Hicks, 2016)There are currently 13 nations that are led by a female politician: Iceland, Germany, New Zealand, Marshall Islands, Namibia, Bangladesh, Nepal, Estonia, Croatia, Norway, Ethiopia, Taiwan, and Lithuania. (Gallagher, 2019)
Saudi Arabia’s women’s rights movement still has a way to go to achieve the level of equality that is enjoyed by American and other westernized women; but it has momentum behind it, and it has achieved major milestones in recent years. It has been decades since the U.S. women’s rights movement has attained any significant new achievements. Saudi Arabia’s next ruler supports expansion of women’s rights and hopefully this support continues into the future.
The Saudi women’s rights movement has generated plenty of headlines over the last few years as they have gained more rights to access the work force, to vote, to drive, to more educational opportunities, and the lessening of male guardianship over women. But what has been the overall effect of these changes been to Saudi society? While these changes have been exciting to watch and show that even the most conservative of societies can evolve to embrace equality, their constitution – the Basic Law – has not been permanently amended to codify these changes as permanent. It would only take an accident, assassination, or Coup d’état to bring in a hardline regime that could erase all of the progress that has currently been made. Even the most hardline regime would face a difficult task if it were unequivocally proven that these changes have improved the economic, political, and social spheres of Saudi Arabia.
Multiple studies have proven that educating women and allowing a higher percentage of women into the workplace have resulted in improvements to a nation’s economic output and overall health of women. In regions, that have increased the equality of women in the workforce and education system, those nations have experienced corresponding decreases in maternal death rates and sharp declines in adolescent pregnancy rates.(International Monetary Fund, 2018) Additionally, nations that have pursued increased gender equality in their societies have experienced increases to their economic growth.
In September 2015, 193 UN member nations, including Saudi Arabia, signed on to the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). As described by UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon the SDG is “a roadmap to ending global poverty, building a life of dignity for all and leaving no one behind. It is also a clarion call to work in partnership and intensify efforts to share prosperity, empower people’s livelihoods, ensure peace and heal our planet for the benefit of this and future generation” and includes 17 specific goals to meeting sustainable development. The fifth goal is “Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.”(Kutesa, 2015) Some of the most significant gains in the Saudi women’s right movement have in fact been achieved since the implementation of SDG: suffrage (2015), head of Saudi stock exchange (2017), access to sports stadiums (2018), driving ban eliminated (2018), and women must be notified of a divorce petition (2019). (Deutsche Welle, 2019)
The reforms that have been implemented by the Saudis have been so recent that there is not a lot of long-term analysis of the effects from the progress in women’s rights. The early studies though are showing promising results up to this point. The brightest area for Saudi women is in education. The five-year plan launched in 2014 earmarked $21.33 billion for the education sector and established the King Abdullah Sponsorship Programme (KASP) for Saudi students to attend higher education programs overseas. Currently, Saudi women represent 1/3 of students in the program. Their percentages rise the higher the degree is – 41.91% of Saudi PhD students are women. (Alsubaie & Jones, 2017)While Saudi Arabia still ranks 105th globally for equality of education, it has also been ranked fifth for making progress towards equality. It is not just women attending higher education that has increased. There has also been an exponential increase in the number of Saudi women who are lecturers at the university level. In academic year 2003/2004, there were approximately 4700 Saudi women lecturers. (Alsubaie & Jones, 2017) In five short years, that number had increased to 19,600. Saudi male students are seeing Saudi women in leadership positions in their education and that can only lead to future opportunities for women as these men go out into the workplace and bring their positive experiences with them.
As the education of women has steadily increased, Saudi women are becoming more visible in the workplace. In just three years (2009-2012), the number of Saudi women in the workforce has increased from 48,000 to over 200,000. Saudi women’s participation in the workforce is not just improving the overall economic outlook for the KSA, women’s participation is having a direct effect on the macroeconomics of their homes and their local communities. Women have different spending patterns than their male counterparts. Saudi women tend to spend their earnings “to promote their children’s health and education.” (Saqib, Aggarwal , & Rashid, 2016)Socially, allowing women to work automatically grants them greater freedom – financial independence from families and husbands, something they lacked in the past. “Divorced or widowed women increasingly seek out employment to support themselves, instead of relying on their extended families” or the government welfare system.(Kelly, 2009).
Finally, Saudi Arabia adopted the Protection from Abuse Act in 2013; a clear sign that the women’s rights movement had finally highlighted the domestic violence problem that was easily hidden behind the veils and abayahs worn whenever women were out in public. The most significant fact that is revealed by passing this important piece of legislature is a simple one – Saudi women and girls are worthy of protection. They are important members of their society and Saudi men will not be allowed to continue to abuse them. Of course, even with this important law in place, domestic abuse continues. But combining the legal repercussions of this law with the importance of their right to drive and go out in public, Saudi women have to ability to get to police stations to report abuse and to get to women’s shelters to seek help and find safety from their abusers.(Alhabdan, 2015)Economic independence has been an effective defense against domestic violence. Saudi women who work outside the home and have an independent income stream are less likely to remain in an abusive relationship. One of the most commonly sighted reasons that keep Saudi Arabian women in an abusive relationship is the fear of poverty. (Alhabdan, 2015) So here is to hoping the still-limited progress in terms of women’s freedom from abuse will continue strongly within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Biden’s Opportunity To Reset Relatons With The Muslim World Begins In Istanbul
When President Obama delivered his famous speech at Cairo University in June of 2009, it was an historic moment. The symbolism of a sitting U.S President speaking to Muslims, and not about them, was refreshing and enormously impactful. America’s first African American President opened his speech with “I’ve come here to Cairo to seek a new beginning, between the United States and Muslims around the world, one based on mutual interest and mutual respect.”
It appeared to many the world was changing and with American leadership, the global community was embarking on a new era of understanding between East and West.
Obama’s speech hit all the right notes: he acknowledged the contributions of Muslims throughout history. He recognized the common humanity between Muslims and people of other faiths. He disavowed the narrative of an inevitable civilizational divide. And he emphasized the need to support democratic reforms in the Muslim world. He reiterated the right of Palestinians to a dignified living, promised to leave “Iraq to Iraqis,” and sought to prioritize diplomacy over war in places like Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Iran.
A year and half later Obama’s message would be tested by the Arab Spring. As Muslim communities across the Arab world rose up against autocratic rule demanding freedom and democracy, the Obama White House struggled to support the people. The optimism that followed his Cairo speech had fizzled.
The pledge to establish a “new beginning” was neglected during Obama’s presidency and then destroyed by President Trump’s divisive policies. Since his inauguration, Trump has taken a wrecking ball to America’s relationship with Muslims at home and around the world. He claimed that “Islam hates us,” and on his first day in office fulfilled his campaign promise to ban visitors from several Muslim-majority countries. On election day this year, he tweeted warning that his rival, Joe Biden, will increase “refugees from terrorist nations.” President Trump’s one serious claim of progress toward Middle East peace, the Abraham Accords, was viewed by many as little more than a last-ditch effort to deliver a foreign policy victory for Trump in time for his reelection bid. The Accords willfully left out the Palestinians, the most crucial stakeholders in the conflict, leaving a hollow agreement with few guarantees for a lasting peace.
More than a decade after the Cairo speech, the divide between East and West seems to have only deepened. Muslims feel the world is at war with them – fueled not only by American military actions but by the continued persecution of Muslims in Burma, Kashmir, China and elsewhere. There is a sense that Islam’s most revered symbols are under attack, and that Muslim identity is suspect in the eyes of many in the West.
However, the picture is not entirely dark. As the Trump era comes to a close, there is an opportunity for President-elect Biden to pick up where Obama left off in 2009: a chance to reset the partnership between America and the Muslim world. This opportunity passes straight through Istanbul. If in 2009 Egypt represented “the heart of the Arab world”, to reset ties with the Muslim world today, Biden will need Turkey.
The centrality of Turkey to the Muslim world and The East today is undisputed. Tens of thousands of Muslim dissidents and human rights defenders from Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Syria, Iraq, and Libya have taken refuge in Turkey. Istanbul has become a hub of diaspora intellectual activism. Because of a leadership vacuum in the Muslim world, Turkey continues to emerge as the champion of Muslims under persecution, and that role resonates with Muslims around the world.
Turkey took the lead in launching the Alliance of Civilizations in 2005 to combat extremism and broker deeper understanding between Muslim societies and the West, this project now comprises 146 members including member states and international organizations. The pluralistic Islam practiced in Turkey today is more representative of Muslim communities around the world and starkly different from the Wahhabi-influenced regimes of the Arabian Gulf, with whom Trump became very friendly during his tenure.
Turkey is also a critical NATO ally, with the second largest military contribution. Trump’s continual attacks on NATO have challenged and weakened the world’s strongest military alliance. Biden will need Turkey’s assistance to strengthen NATO to meet new regional challenges, especially with Russia, as well.
Although Turkey’s human rights record is not perfect and its democracy has been tested since the failed military coup of 2016, the government has shown commitment to democratic principles, and its institutions and civil society continue to be lightyears ahead of Egypt, Saudi Arabia and elsewhere in the Middle Eastern.
Turkey today can be the bridge between the West and the Muslim World, mending the deepened rift and launching that new beginning promised by Obama eleven years ago. When Biden used the word inshallah, which means “God-willing” in Arabic, during a presidential debate, Muslims in America and abroad took note. Muslim American turnout in critical battleground states like Michigan was decisive in his favor. Biden should capitalize on the momentum of his gesture to re-engage with the Muslim world and repair America’s image around the world. The destination of his first foreign trip could even be to Istanbul, to listen and to signal change. It would represent the metaphoric start of a new chapter.
Covid-19 Vaccine: A Mutual Partnership between Morocco and China
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and the Kingdom of Morocco (1958), a strong and rapid strategic development of mutual ties categorized contemporary collaboration.
On August 31th 2020, King Mohammed VI held telephone talks with Xi Jinping, President of the People’s Republic of China, which falls within the framework of the existing friendship between the two countries, which was strengthened through the signing of the Joint Declaration on the Establishment of the People’s Republic of China. A strategic partnership was signed by the King and Chinese President during the royal visit to Beijing in May 2016.
The phone talks between King Mohammed VI and the President of the People’s Republic of China touched on the development of bilateral relations in all fields, especially political dialogue, economic cooperation, and cultural and humanitarian exchanges. King Mohammed VI and President Xi Jinping also discussed the partnership between the two countries in combating “Covid-19”.
According to Moroccan Newsmedia, Minister of Health Khalid Ait Taleb is expressed his satisfaction with the signing up of a cooperation agreement between Morocco and China National Biotec Group Limited (CNBG) on the COVID-19 vaccine trials. This shared Moroccan-Chinese collaboration will allow the Kingdom of Morocco to be among the prior served in terms of the vaccine against the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, he added, under his Majesty, The Kingdom of Morocco would be able to take part in creating vaccines in sense of the exchange of Chinese expertise. Though, to strengthen the Sino-Morocco strategic partnership, to boost both countries’ international solidarity and promote health cooperation.
The issue of discovering an anti-“Covid-19” vaccine still raises several controversies, and altercations especially since the kingdom of Morocco issued its participation in the clinical trials of the Chinese vaccine, but without giving any details about how these trials were conducted, or, knowing its initial outcomes.
Accordingly, despite those who attempt to question it, China’s vaccines constitute a trendy choice because they are affordable and can be distributed in a substantial and more successful capacity. Yet, several states which face similar economic issues, people, and ambiance-based impediments are likely to see China’s vaccines as the obvious choice. That does not mean it will be the sole state they do trade with, as several of the states have more than one trade partner.
Though, Chinese vaccines have a competitive price and making capacity, allowing developing countries like Morocco a way out of the pandemic as fast as possible. Unlike European companies, is not only about business; China has also agreed to give billions of vaccines.
China has timely released the latest vaccines information, China’s vaccines are gaining international steam and a growing number of states are following up to obtain them. Whilst the achievements of Moderna and Pzifer are widely lauded, in the end, these companies only complete a part of the jigsaw in ending the COVID-19 crisis. Not everyone has the privilege or infrastructure to buy them. Therefore, the accomplishment of SinoVac, CanSino, and SinoPharm are set to play a significant role in making a difference for billions of people around the world.
According to Jamal Eddine Bouzidi, a doctor specializing in chest diseases, allergies, and immunology, president of the Moroccan Association for Fighting Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases, pointed out: “They say that the Chinese vaccine is purely safe, but to make sure of that.” You must wait for a long time because there are side effects that may appear after a period of up to two years or after months at least. Therefore, we might say that it is 100% safe. “
He added, “All vaccines that are produced around the globe go through many phases in the laboratory, then they are analyzed and checked on mammals and followed by humans. And when tested on humans, they also go through three stages; and during each stage, the number” of people subject to testing, so that the effects are discovered. Side effects of the vaccine and its effectiveness. “
Under such circumstances, The Moroccan minister noted that the vaccine, according to the statements of Chinese officials, is successful at a rate of between 97 and 98 percent, and is given in two doses with a difference of 14 days, and the antibodies are manufactured within a month and can sustain in the blood to defend the body for two years. “The vaccine experiments will originally involve volunteers as of next week,” the official said.
Ait Taleb highlighted that the agreements reached will allow Morocco to have its vaccine as soon as possible with the help of our Chinese health expertise. The signing of the agreements will allow Morocco to launch its first experience of clinical trials.
Meanwhile, Al-Bouzidi considered that what is being said is the “only guess”, indicating that the near-term side effects of this vaccine are high temperature, a little fatigue, slight pain at the injection site, and some tremors. The long-term symptoms are not yet known.
As acknowledged by Chinese officials, “Jun Mao” said the signing of the agreements paves the “excellence of strategic relations between China and Morocco in terms of cooperation against COVID-19, which is entering a new phase.” The Chinese diplomat Mao reaffirmed that Rabat and Beijing’s commitment to deepening their cooperation through the clinical trials. He said he hopes the newly-signed agreement will yield “decent results” as soon as possible for the peoples of the two countries.
In conclusion, China has big expectations for the Kingdom of Morocco as the latter has an extreme pond of resources to spur its anticipated vision and China’s economic growth. As a superpower, China’s motive in partnership with Africa through the creation of more legality and impartial world order places the East Asian giant is a powerful stand to provide more substantial aid to Africa under win-win cooperation.
The Muslim world’s changing dynamics: Pakistan struggles to retain its footing
Increasing strains between Pakistan and its traditional Arab allies, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates, is about more than Gulf states opportunistically targeting India’s far more lucrative market.
At the heart of the tensions, that potentially complicate Pakistan’s economic recovery, is also India’s ability to enhance Gulf states’ capacity to hedge their bets amid uncertainty about the continued US commitment to regional security.
India is a key member of the Quad that also includes the United States, Australia and Japan and could play a role in a future more multilateral regional security architecture in the Gulf.
Designed as the backbone of an Indo-Pacific strategy intended to counter China across a swath of maritime Asia, Gulf states are unlikely to pick sides but remain keen on ensuring that they maintain close ties with both sides of the widening divide.
The mounting strains with Pakistan are also the latest iteration of a global battle for Muslim religious soft power that pits Saudi Arabia and the UAE against Turkey, Iran, and Asian players like Indonesia’s Nahdlatul Ulama, the world’s largest Islamic movement.
A combination of geo- and domestic politics is complicating efforts by major Muslim-majority states in Asia to walk a middle line. Pakistan, home to the world’s largest Shiite Muslim minority, has reached out to Turkey while seeking to balance relations with its neighbour, Iran.
The pressure on Pakistan is multi-fold.
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan charged recently that the United States and one other unidentified country were pressing him to establish diplomatic relations with Israel.
Pakistani and Israeli media named Saudi Arabia as the unidentified country. Representing the world’s second most populous Muslim nation, Pakistani recognition, following in the footsteps of the UAE and Bahrain, would be significant.
Pakistan twice in the last year signalled a widening rift with the kingdom.
Mr. Khan had planned to participate a year ago in an Islamic summit hosted by Malaysia and attended by Saudi Arabia’s detractors, Turkey, Iran and Qatar, but not the kingdom and a majority of Muslim states. The Pakistani prime minister cancelled his participation at the last moment under Saudi pressure.
More recently, Pakistan again challenged Saudi leadership of the Muslim world when Foreign Minister Shah Mahmood Qureshi complained about lack of support of the Saudi-dominated Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for Pakistan in its conflict with India over Kashmir. The OIC groups the world’s 57 Muslim-majority nations. Mr. Qureshi suggested that his country would seek to rally support beyond the realm of the kingdom.
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, on a visit to Pakistan earlier this year, made a point of repeatedly reiterating his country’s support for Pakistan in the Kashmir dispute.
By openly challenging the kingdom, Mr. Qureshi was hitting Saudi Arabia where it hurts most as it seeks to repair its image tarnished by allegations of abuse of human rights, manoeuvres to get off on the right foot with incoming US President-elect Joe Biden’s administration, and fends off challenges to its leadership of the Muslim world.
Pakistan has not helped itself by recently failing to ensure that it would be removed from the grey list of the Financial Action Task Force, an international anti-money laundering and terrorism finance watchdog, despite progress in the country’s legal infrastructure and enforcement.
Grey listing causes reputational damage and makes foreign investors and international banks more cautious in their dealings with countries that have not been granted a clean bill of health.
Responding to Mr. Qureshi’s challenge, Saudi Arabia demanded that Pakistan repay a US$1 billion loan extended to help the South Asian nation ease its financial crisis. The kingdom has also dragged its feet on renewing a US$3.2 billion oil credit facility that expired in May.
In what Pakistan will interpret as UAE support for Saudi Arabia, the Emirates last week included Pakistan on its version of US President Donald J. Trump’s Muslim travel ban.
Inclusion on the list of 13 Muslim countries whose nationals will no longer be issued visas for travel to the UAE increases pressure on Pakistan, which relies heavily on exporting labour to generate remittances and alleviate unemployment.
Some Pakistanis fear that a potential improvement in Saudi-Turkish relations could see their country fall through geopolitical cracks.
In the first face-to-face meeting between senior Saudi and Turkish officials since the October 2018 killing of journalist Jamal Khashoggi in the kingdom’s consulate in Istanbul, the two countries’ foreign ministers, Prince Faisal bin Farhan and Mevlut Cavusoglu, held bilateral talks this weekend, on the sidelines of an OIC conference in the African state of Niger.
“A strong Turkey-Saudi partnership benefits not only our countries but the whole region,” Mr. Cavusoglu tweeted after the meeting.
The meeting came days after Saudi King Salman telephoned Mr. Erdogan on the eve of a virtual summit hosted by the kingdom of the Group of 20 (G20) that brings together the world’s largest economies.
“The Muslim world is changing and alliances are shifting and entering new, unchartered territories,” said analyst Sahar Khan.
Added Imtiaz Ali, another analyst: “In the short term, Riyadh will continue exploiting Islamabad’s economic vulnerabilities… But in the longer term, Riyadh cannot ignore the rise of India in the region, and the two countries may become close allies – something that will mostly likely increase the strain on Pakistan-Saudi relations.”
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