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The Splitting of East-Pakistan from West-Pakistan in 1971: The Role of India



After the termination of British government in the Indian sub-continent (200 long-years) marked the birth of two nations-Pakistan, and India. Pakistan celebrate their independence on 14 August, 1947, and India celebrate their independence on 15 August, 1947. Pakistan had two parts one was East-Pakistan ( now is Bangladesh ) and West-Pakistan ( the current Pakistan in which we are living ); it was Muslim majority areas, 65 million people  were in East-Pakistan and 58 million people in West-Pakistan, 147610 square kilometers and 881913 square kilometers respectfully. India was Hindu majority area that get independence from British reign on 15 August, 1947.  During the partition Pakistan received very low resources and facilities from the Indian due to the dishonest distribution of resources and facilities and especially of man-power (skillful and educated people) had also gone on the Indian account. So on the initial stages Pakistan roots remain weak (Mansergh, Winter, 1965/1966).

As we know that Pakistan had two parts East-Pakistan and West-Pakistan which were separated by about 1000 miles;

there is a lot of reasons  about the separation of East-Pakistan from West-Pakistan, first reason was that East-Pakistan was very far away from West-Pakistan and all surrounded by Indian territory. The second reason is that these people have different culture and language although have similar religion. The third reason, West-Pakistani leaders have humiliated East-Pakistani in every aspect either that are resources or facilities, they discriminated East-Pakistani every time, they don’t have serious concerns to solve their problems; in which one of them is the 1970 “Bhola Cyclone” had caused the death of 500,000 people. In that Cyclone, infrastructure, transport, and other serves were totally damaged and the central government of Pakistan had blamed for the slow response and misuse of funds. The fourth and most important reason was the “War of Power” between “Zulfiqar Ali Butto” and “Sheikh Mujibur Rahman”. The fourth reason was very problematic and very huge that escalated the Indo-Pak 1971 War(story of Pakistan, multimedia journey, n.d.).

Political instability in East-Pakistan and people response

In Decembers 1970 Awami league win the remarkable victory and get clear majority with 160 in the National Assembly and 298 of the 310 seats in the provincial Assembly of East-Pakistan. The PPP won only 81 seats in the National Assembly, but were the winning party in Punjab and Sindh. By this majority the next Prime Minister was Sheikh Mujeeb Rahman but that’s didn’t happened because Butto don’t want to share power with Mujeeb. General Yahya Khan tried to share power between Butto and Mujeeb and they didn’t success. Actually they were pro Butto(story of Pakistan, multimedia journey, n.d.).

Due high level of chaotic and instable situation in East-Pakistan civil insurgency started against Pak-Army. Mukti Bahini and other guerrilla groups incentivized and trained by Indian Army against Pak-Army. Most of the East-Bengali military fled to India and joined Mukti Bahini and other several guerrilla groups and labeled themselves Bengali liberation force. On 25 March 1971 “Operation search light” was started by Pak-Army against the Bengali Nationalist movement, to curb them and arrested Sheikh Mujeeb Rahman and transferred into secret place; so that’s created a more chaotic and dangerous situation. Due to this act Bengali military and civil people joined Mukti Bhini like guerilla groups and showed a hard resistance to Pak-Army.

India Propaganda against Pakistan Army

It was the time to tackle accounts with Pakistan with huge cost. When people of East-Pakistan started hatred from West-Pakistan that created an uncertain situation and that uncertain situation was utilized by Indian Government very properly. They started diplomatic, political and economical and logistical support to the people of Eest-Pakistan. Mukti Bhini (the guerillas resistance movement) and several other guerilla forces were trained and equipped by Indian Army. For the defamation of Pak-Army Indian forces were wearing Pak-Army uniforms and raped Bengali women and girls. That’s type of acts created a lot of hates in the hearts of East-Pakistan people. In Mukti Bhini a lot of Indian career military officers and soldiers, they perform atrocities and massacre in the East-Pakistan and then blamed Pak-Army.A thousands of Awami league miscreants were trained and backed by RAW and Indian military. The guerilla movements became the “liberation of Bangladesh” from West-Pakistan. A lot of atrocities and genocides were done by Mukti Bhini, and Awami league miscreants and blamed Pak-Army for this acts. These all things were politically hijacked by Sheikh Mujeeb Rahman and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi for its own personal interests (Mohammad Zubair Iqbal ,Shabir Hussain, 2018).

1971 War

It was direct confrontation between Indian and Pakistani Army. It was a full scale war. Due to the Mukti Bhini and Awami league miscreants local insurgency were on the top in East-Pakistan and Pakistani forces were trying to eliminate the insurgents. The environment was very favorable to foreign forces to intervene on the name of violation of human rights by Pak-Army in East-Pakistan. The war lasted just for just 13 days, and one of the shortest war in history. The military confrontation between India and Pakistan occurred from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dhaka on 16 December 1971. It is estimated that between 300,000 and 3, 00,000 civilian were killed in Bangladesh and about 3900 Indian soldiers died, 9851 wounded and 93,000 Pakistani were taken “Prisoners of the War” but this figure is very suspicious some reports says that this figure is round about 34000 soldiers were taken Prisoners of War. In this war Pakistan suffered a lot of damages because Indian military had cut up the logistic line and blockade seas and Air-ways; that is the backbone of any Army in any war. There was none supply chain of ammunition, military soldiers and foods, everything was under controlled of unified forces of Mukti Bhini and Indian military. The reason of the loose of war, that Pakistani Army were surrounded from all sides by Indian military and guerilla forces and second reason Pak-Army were less in numbers compare 200,000 Indian Army. Citizens and intellectuals were main target of this mass genocide by Mukti Bhini and Indian Military. The fall of the city to the Indian Army on 16 December 1971 marked the creation of the independent state of Bangladesh. Dhaka became the capital of Bangladesh (JENKINS, july, 1974).


In this whole article I have reached on two points; the first is that whenever you behave your most friendly and dearest friend discriminately and dislikely that will turn down you and will behave you in the same manner like you have towards them. The second thing is that foreigners will take advantage of the situation. Its mean that third party will properly utilize your hostility for its own interests. So thoroughly never underestimate the power of a common and weak people they can create very big problem in the future. That’s all were happened in East-Pakistan. The result was separation of East-Pakistan from West-Pakistan.

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South Asia

Bulldozing Dissent in India



State brutality and hostility have emerged as the defining factors in BJP’s (Bharatiya Janata Party)  policy toward Indian Muslims. From mob lynching and punishment on beef consumption to imposing a ban on the ‘hijab’ in universities, BJP continues to find novel ways and means to target Muslim society and enforce the concept of Hindu supremacy in India. While deliberate marginalisation of Indian Muslims is not new and remains an important part of India’s policy towards its minorities, the intensity of this campaign is soaring with every passing day. 

Recently, two senior BJP members made disparaging remarks against the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), brushing aside the sentiments of the state’s largest minority. The comments drew criticism from around the world, creating a diplomatic row for India.While PM Modi decided to remain silent on the issue, the concerned BJP members had to be suspended from the party given the intense backlash from several countries, especially the Gulf states.

On the other hand, the remarks also sparked a wave of anger in the Indian Muslim communities, who registered their grievances by holding protests on the streets in various parts of the state.  However, to deal with its own citizens, India resorted to using force and refused to let the Muslims protest peacefully, depriving them of their fundamental democratic rights. Amidst the demonstrations after Friday prayers, clashes between protesters and police broke out in several parts, the most notable one occurred in Uttar Pradesh (UP). Two teenagers lost their lives, and several were injured. The Indian police also arrested approximately 300 individuals taking part in the protests.  

The most concerning event that followed afterwards was bulldozing the houses of Muslim activists who were either present at the demonstrations or were apparently the organisers. The demolitions were justified on the pretext that they were illegal establishments. In reality, these criminal activities were done on the behest of the Chief Minister of UP, Yogi Adityanath, who is an ardent RSS (Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh) follower – the most projected political figure in BJP (after Narendra Modi) and a torchbearer of Hindutva politics.  

It has been observed that the frequency of the use of bulldozers to demolish personal property is increasing in Muslim-majority areas in India. CM Adityanath himself is considered the pioneer and advocate of this ‘bulldozer strategy’, which is now frequently being executed throughout India by other BJP leaders. His ardency with the idea of demolishing Muslim houses can be sensed from the fact that bulldozers are displayed at BJP rallies to demonstrate them as a symbol of state power. Mrityunjay Kumar,  Adityanath’s media advisor later tweeted a photo of a bulldozer with the caption, ‘Remember, every Friday is followed by a Saturday,’ which conveys the government’s unapologetic stance on its actions and the intent to use such equipment without hesitation. 

Whats worse, the state machinery deliberately orchestrates the scenes of Muslim houses being turned to rubble to instil a fearful impact. Its purpose is to deter the Muslim communities from protesting against the ‘saffronized’ state. Such images are meant to signal that the state will not tolerate such kind of opposition in the BJP-led India and will not hesitate to exercise the use of force against such segments. The prime objective is to bulldoze their courage to stand against oppression in the future. 

Another way to look at this violence is the long-term dynamics of Indian politics. While it is apparent that Narendra Modi will contest the next Indian elections for BJP, it is fairly evident that an alternative leadership is preparing to succeed him in the future. The potential candidates are replicating his past machinations to strengthen their personal and political statures. Akin to Modi’s Gujarat massacre, his party members are recreating events that can bear similar impacts in order to emerge as radical leaders in accordance with BJP’s vision.  This includes intense and targeted verbal and physical attacks on Muslims. Hence, the use of force against Muslims will likely be a prominent factor for capitalising on the majoritarian Hindu vote bank.  

Lack of accountability, persistent silence of key leadership and the embedded political objectives are fanning dangerous flames in an already fraught environment for Muslims in India. The repressive attitude toward Indian Muslims has now been institutionalised at the state level and suggests that life will only worsen for them. India’s belligerent policy and confrontational actions will fuel further divisions in a society that has become extremely polarised along religious lines. Political interests are overshadowing national interests and the trend is likely to continue.

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South Asia

This week’s deadly earthquake is a reminder of the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan



Damage is seen in the Spera district, in Khost province after a devastating earthquake hit eastern Afghanistan in the early morning of 22 June 2022. © UNICEF Afghanistan

Afghanistan can’t catch a break. This week’s deadly earthquake is the latest chapter in a worsening humanitarian crisis. It has also shone a light on the shortcomings of the Taliban’s ability to deal with the myriad of problems in the poverty stricken country. This represents an opportunity for the international community to play a larger role in helping Afghanistan to recover and rebuild.

This comes as a magnitude six earthquake hit Afghanistan’s remote Paktika province on Wednesday. The Taliban have claimed that at least 1,000 people have died, with over 1,500 injured. The number of casualties is expected to rise over the coming days. The remoteness of the province and heavy rain has hampered rescue efforts in what is the deadliest earthquake in two decades.

For Afghans this is the latest in a line of tragic events that are causing untold suffering. Since the Taliban takeover in August last year, Afghanistan has endured a worsening humanitarian crisis. Decades of conflict, natural disasters, poverty, drought and the coronavirus pandemic have meant that most Afghans are now facing a rapidly deteriorating situation under the Taliban.

The United Nations Development Program has stated that Afghanistan is facing ‘universal poverty’, with 97 per cent of Afghans living below the international poverty line. Acute malnutrition has risen dramatically across the country, with 95 per cent of Afghans now experiencing food insecurity. Well over 80 per cent of families are facing high unemployment, creating a situation where they cannot feed their children and where those children are either sold for money to buy food or forced to work or beg for pitiful sums. The healthcare system has also collapsed, with doctors and nurses not being paid and with medicine in short supply.

The Taliban rightly deserves criticism for this situation through poor governance and the mismanagement of what government funds are available. It has become quickly apparent that the Taliban are incapable of dealing with either the humanitarian crisis or effectively responding to the earthquake in Paktika. The Taliban’s supreme leader, Haibatullah Akhundzadah has pleaded with the international community to “to help the Afghan people affected by this great tragedy and to spare no effort”.

The situation in Afghanistan also raises uncomfortable questions about the role of the international community in causing the current crisis. The country has long been heavily reliant on foreign aid, and this was no different under the NATO-led occupation. The chaotic withdrawal of both international forces and humanitarian aid agencies resulted in much needed funds leaving with them.

Additionally, the implementation of harsh sanctions and the freezing of remaining Afghan assets by the United States has effectively hamstrung the Taliban’s ability to help those most affected by the crisis and to respond to disasters such as the recent earthquake. For these reasons, the Taliban’s claim that international sanctions and the freezing of Afghan assets is acting as a collective punishment on all Afghans has some merit.

In a positive development, the United Nations and aid agencies are on the ground providing support to those affected by the earthquake and have been undertaking operations to tackle the humanitarian crisis for some time.  This includes providing tonnes of medical supplies and teams of medical professionals, and the roll out of food and tents for starving and displaced Afghans.

But more needs to be done. The international community, particularly countries who withdrew from Afghanistan last year, can provide much needed equipment and supplies so recovery operations can continue in Paktika. If these country’s still do not wish to recognise the Taliban, then these funds can be provided to UN aid agencies at ground-level.

Furthermore, the international community needs to play a larger role in alleviating the humanitarian crisis. This can be achieved by unfreezing frozen government assets, which belongs to Afghans, so development projects can continue, and civil servants, teachers and healthcare workers can be paid.

Through this funding, the international community can attempt to leverage the Taliban to adequately fund the education, financial and health sectors so people are paid and so these sectors can strengthen to reliably assist those in need. This leverage can also convince the Taliban to allow women to re-enter the workforce and participate in social life, something that will go a long way to ensuring that families earn enough to feed themselves.

The recent earthquake has highlighted the dire humanitarian and economic situation Afghanistan is in and it is up to both the Taliban and the international community to fix it.

While the international community doesn’t have to recognise the Taliban, it is equally responsible in ensuring that the crisis ends so innocent Afghans can rebuild their lives with dignity.

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South Asia

Pakistan: World Refugee Day



photo: UNIC Mexico/ Luis Arroyo

World Refugee Day is an international day designated by the United Nations to honor refugees around the globe. It falls each year on June 20 and celebrates the strength and courage of people who have been forced to flee their home country to escape conflict or persecution. World Refugee Day is an occasion to build empathy and understanding for their plight and to recognize their resilience in rebuilding their lives.

Taking refuge is an old phenomenon, and even during WWI and WWII, the refugee crisis became very serious. In the last few decades, the geopolitics has deteriorated, and once again the people were forced to take refuge in the safer part of the world. Unfortunately, the Muslim world was the victim and most of the refugees were Muslims. However, the Ukraine war is the first-ever war in Europe after several decades, and the refugee crisis in Europe seems a new one. There are around 6 million Ukrainian refugees, and there are 44 European countries, or 27 EU member countries, sharing this burden collectively. Whereas, Pakistan hosted up to 5 million (at peak) Afghan refugees alone.

Pakistan joins the international community in commemorating World Refugee Day. While observing this Day, we express our solidarity with refugees all around the world. This Day behaves us to reflect on the drivers of forced displacements and to reaffirm our commitment to finding sustainable solutions for refugee situations, including through conflict prevention and resolution. This Day is also an occasion to reiterate our collective resolve for refugee protection under the principle of international burden- and responsibility-sharing.

Pakistan has shouldered the responsibility of one of the largest and most protracted refugee situations in the world for over four decades. Pakistan continues to host more than 3 million Afghans. Another 0.4 million Rohingyas have also found refuge in Pakistan. There are refugees from Syria, Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, India and etc. The people of Pakistan have demonstrated exemplary generosity, hospitality, and compassion towards the refugees in the country, showcased in Pakistan’s inclusive policies on health, education, and livelihoods, including during the COVID-19 response.

As new situations emerge around the globe, the long-standing Afghan refugee situation must not be forgotten by the international community. There is a need for renewed international commitment, especially in the context of COVID-compounded socio-economic and health challenges, through regular, predictable, and adequate financing for Afghan refugees including their safe and dignified return. It is equally important to undertake necessary measures for the stability and sustainable socio-economic development of Afghanistan, in order to avert the possibility of any future refugee exodus from the country.

On this Day, Pakistan pays special tribute to UNHCR – the United Nations refugee agency – for its commendable work in support of refugees and host communities throughout the world. Pakistan looks forward to further strengthening its valuable partnership with UNHCR. We call on the international community to support the Organization in its efforts toward durable solutions for refugees worldwide.

Genetically, Pakistan is an open-minded society and due to its own diversity, can accommodate all races, cultures, and religions, and can be integrated with others conveniently. Pakistan has been hosting refugees from various parts of the world and has integrated them perfectly. Pakistan hosts the world’s second-largest number of refugees in its territory. However, the economic burden is beyond Pakistan’s capacity, the international community is urged to generously extend a helping hand in sharing the burdens with Pakistan. Instability in the region imposed wars, and natural disasters are growing in this part of the world, which may cause more unrest in the neighboring countries and force more people to take refuge in Pakistan. Europe and America have strict policies, but, Pakistan is still a more flexible and convenient destination for international refugees. The constitution of Pakistan is more friendly and accommodative. The visa regime and border controls are also rather flexible and friendly.

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