New EU rules on short-stay visas apply worldwide from 2 February 2020. They make it easier for legitimate travellers to apply for a visa to come to Europe, facilitating tourism, trade and business, while providing more resources for countering irregular migration risks and threats to internal security.
Which non-EU countries do the new rules apply to?
The changes apply to travellers from all countries which need visas to travel to the EU. Currently, citizens from 105 non-EU countries or entities are required to have a visa (full list available online). Nothing changes for countries benefitting from visa-free travel to the EU because the new rules do not apply to their citizens.
Which destination countries are covered by the update?
The rules cover short-stay visas for the 22 EU countries that are part of the Schengen area (Austria, Belgium, Czechia, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden), as well as for four associated countries: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland.A uniform short-stay visa issued by one of these countries covers travel throughout the 26 Schengen countries for up to 90 days in any 180-day period.
Why change the EU visa rules now?
The European Parliament and the Council agreed the changes in June 2019.
The tourism and travel industry plays a key role in the European economy. EU Member States are among the world’s leading tourist destinations – the number of visa applications processed has increased considerably over the last 9 years and continues to expand. Since 2009, the number of applications for EU visas has risen by 57% – from 10.2 million to over 16 million in 2018. At the same time, visa application procedures have not changed since 2010 and there was a need to make them less cumbersome, while maintaining the same level of security and control.
Visa fees have not been adapted since 2006 and a €60 fee no longer covers the costs of processing applications, in particular due to inflation.
Finally, by creating a link between visa procedures and cooperation on readmission, the revision gives the EU new tools for a dialogue with partner countries about migration. This possibility is part of the EU’s ongoing efforts in favour of a comprehensive and effective migration policy.
What are the main benefits for travellers?
With the new rules, travellers now benefit from a simpler and more user-friendly visa application procedure:
Visa applications can be submitted up to 6 months before the intended travel (9 months for seafarers), instead of 3 months previously, allowing travellers to better plan their trips;
Multiple-entry visas with long validity (from 1 to 5 years) are now easier to obtain, saving frequent travellers time and money, as they will have to apply for a new visa less often;
In most cases, an application can be submitted directly in the traveller’s country of residence, and where possible filled in and signed electronically (only hard copies were accepted until now), which will also save travellers time, money and hassle.
What are the new rules for issuing multiple-entry visas?
Frequent travellers with a positive visa history are to be granted multiple-entry visa with a gradually increasing validity period from 1 year to a maximum of 5 years.
Travellers’ fulfilment of entry conditions will be thoroughly and repeatedly verified in all cases, and only persons with a positive visa track record will be issued multiple-entry visas with a long validity.
Multiple-entry visas allow the holder to travel repeatedly to the EU during the period of validity of the visa.
How long will it take for the visa application to be processed?
The maximum time for visa applications to be processed remains unchanged at 15 days. The processing time may be longer only in individual cases, for instance where further scrutiny of the application is needed, and take up to maximum 45 days.
With which consulate should applicants lodge their visa application?
The rules remain the same. Applicants must lodge their application at the consulate of the country they intend to visit. Applicants planning to visit several Schengen states must apply at the consulate of the country where they will spend the longest period. Applicants planning on visiting several Schengen states for equal lengths of stay must apply at the consulate of the country whose external borders they will cross first when entering the Schengen area.In case the Schengen state of destination has no consulate in the country where the applicant resides, the applicant should check whether it is represented by another consulate.
Do visa applicants have to submit their application in person at a consulate?
In most cases, visa applications can be submitted in the applicant’s country of residence (either at a consulate or at the premises of an external service provider) and, where possible, the application form can be filled in and signed electronically. Under the new rules, applicants have to appear in person only when fingerprints are to be collected (i.e. every 59 months).
Can the application be submitted via an external service provider?
Most Member States use external service providers to collect visa applications and supporting documents. The large network of “visa application centres” means that applicants do not usually have to travel too far to lodge their application. Member States remain fully responsible for processing and deciding on visa applications.
What are the requirements for applying for a short stay visa?
The rules have not changed. In order to apply for a short stay visa to the EU, applicants must present:
A filled in and signed visa application form;
A passport issued in the last 10 years and valid for at least 3 months after the end of the stay;
An identity photograph;
Proof of possession of adequate and valid travel medical insurance;
Supporting documents relating to the purpose of the stay, evidence of means of support during the stay and accommodation.
Applicants must also pay the visa fee and, where applicable, have their fingerprints collected.
Do visa applicants need a travel medical insurance when travelling to the EU?
Yes, visa applicants must present a valid travel medical insurance when applying for a visa, as it was already the case under the previous rules.
What is the amount of the visa fee? What will the increased visa fee be used for?
The visa fee increases from €60 to €80. This increase is the first one since 2006 and it brings the fee in line with the level where it would be today if it had been aligned to the general EU-wide inflation rate since 2006.
The €60 fee no longer adequately covered the administrative costs (such as staffing, premises and equipment) for offering adequate service to the constantly growing numbers of applications. The increase in the visa fee will ensure there are sufficient financial resources to maintain a wide consular coverage worldwide and reinforce consular staff, speed up the application process and provide better quality service for travellers, upgrade IT equipment and software, and improve the capacity to detect potential security and irregular migration risks.
Importantly, for regular travellers, the fee increase will be partly offset by the new rules on long-validity visas: these travellers may actually save money under the new provisions, since they have to apply for visas less often.
Will the visa fee also increase for countries benefiting from lower fees under Visa Facilitation Agreements?
No. The increase of the general visa fee has no impact on the lower visa fee (€35) set in the Visa Facilitation Agreements concluded between the EU and a number of third countries, such as Armenia, Azerbaijan and Russia.
How does the revised visa fee compare to the fees charged by other countries?
By international standards, the €80 visa fee remains low. As a comparison, applying for a tourist visa to the United States costs €143 and €126 for China. Travellers to Australia have to pay €90 for their visa, while those going to New Zealand will be charged €146. A visa to Canada costs €68, to India €95, and to the UK €112 (January 2020).
Are there any visa fee waivers and reductions?
Yes, the visa fee is still waived for children below 6 years old, as was already the case under the previous rules. The visa fee for minors between the age of 6 and 12 years remains half of the general fee, and thus increases by €5 (to €40). In addition, it is now possible for Member States to waive the visa fee for minors between the age of 6 and 18 years.
How will the cooperation on readmission be linked to EU visa policy?
Over the past years, the EU has been stepping up activities to support Member States in returning people who have no right to stay in Europe. Even though readmission of own nationals is an obligation under international law, Member States have experienced difficulties in returning irregular migrants.
The revised visa rules introduce a new mechanism linking visa policy and cooperation on readmission. This will bring an important element into the EU’s discussions with partner countries.
Under the new rules, the Commission will conduct a regular assessment of how non-EU countries cooperate on readmission, taking into account indicators such as:
The number of return decisions issued to citizens of a given non-EU country;
The number of actual returns as a percentage of the number of return decisions issued;
The number of readmission requests accepted by the non-EU country as a percentage of the number of requests submitted to it; and
The level of practical cooperation in the different stages of the return procedure, including as regards the assistance provided in the identification of persons irregularly staying in the EU and the timely issuance of travel documents.
Member States which encounter substantial and persistent readmission problems with a given non-EU country may also notify the Commission of such a situation. In such cases, the Commission must assess the notification within one month.
On this basis, the Commission, together with Member States, can establish a more restrictive and temporary implementation of certain provisions of the Visa Code for the processing of visa applications from nationals of the country in question, such as the processing time, the length of validity of visas, the level of the visa fee and the fee waivers.
If a third country cooperates sufficiently on readmission, and taking account of the Union’s overall relations with the third country concerned, the Commission may also propose a more generous implementation of certain provisions of the Visa Code (lower visa fee, quicker processing times and multiple-entry visas with longer validity to be agreed upon by Member States in the Council).
Can nationals of non-EU countries which do not cooperate on readmission still apply for and obtain a visa to travel to the EU?
More restrictive implementation of certain procedural rules and the general rules on the issuing of multiple-entry visas will not call into question applicants’ basic right to submit an application for a visa or to be granted a visa.
When the Commission, together with the Member States, decides that the mechanism should be triggered, the restrictive implementation of certain rules will be adapted to the particular situation in each non EU-country. This could have an impact on the processing time, the length of validity of the visa to be issued, the level of the visa fee to be charged and the fee waivers.
Will the new rules affect the UK after the end of the transition period?
No. In 2019, the Visa Regulation was amended to grant UK nationals visa-free travel to the EU after the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union. This means that UK nationals will remain visa-free when travelling to the EU for short stays, so the revised visa rules will not apply to them.
Is America in decline?
“America is battling political polarisation and social division at home as well as facing an unfolding national climate crisis. With China growing in strength, many have begun to ask: is America in decline?” – British ‘The Economist’ has put the question sometimes ago. The war in Ukraine and the struggle for national liberation in Africa are signs of American economic decline and cracks in the global capitalist system, answers the Spanish ‘Rebelion’.
Since the end of World War II, the United States has been an economic and military superpower, but in recent decades it has experienced economic decline and a decline in its global influence. Part of the weakening of the United States is due to growing competition from other powers such as China and Russia, as well as the formation of powerful alternative power blocs such as BRICS.
It is also driven by internal problems such as inequality, economic crises and political polarization. The US economy is affected by rising inflation, which is a consequence of economic sanctions against Russia imposed by the Biden administration.
The conflict in Ukraine began as a struggle for control of the country between pro-Russian and pro-Western forces, but behind this struggle we can detect deeper economic and political interests. Donbass is the epicenter of the conflict, it has valuable natural resources and is an important industrial center.
The war hit the Ukrainian economy hard and further weakened the US position in the region. This situation is an example of America’s economic decline and its inability to maintain its influence on the world stage. India and China will become new competitors on the international stage, and economic power and wealth will gradually shift towards Asia.
One must keep in mind the fact that global power is always relative, and that countries with economic, political and military power require voting rights and decision-making powers. Power is determined by the relationships between the parties involved. That is, power is not something that an actor has in isolation, but is constructed in relation to other actors. For example, a country may have economic power, but this power is only significant in comparison to other countries that have less economic power.
Moreover, power is not something fixed, it can change over time and depending on the relationships between actors. In this sense, the center of economic and political power is shifting towards Asia, where great powers are consolidating, which will definitely have to be taken into account in the future. Another important point is the strengthening of BRICS as a group of great continental powers that argue and compete for new spaces.
The past few decades have geopolitically represented the rise of China as a great power. This implies the distribution of power at the international level. China is emerging as a great power to be reckoned with in the future. Its ability to build consensus and propose solutions to old conflicts is especially important. China has also grown its economy to the same size as that of the United States.
China promotes the project of multipolarity, which is perceived as necessary for the balance of the world. In short, the rise of China is changing the distribution of power at the international level.
Despite everything, the military-political force continues to remain a real force in the international arena. At the same time, the United States each time approves a record amount of military budget, which demonstrates the importance of its foreign policy. The United States has more than 730 military bases deployed around the world and 200,000 soldiers at these bases.
An important issue is tensions over Taiwan, which is the benchmark for North American military policy to reduce China’s influence. In addition, the AUKUS (Australia-UK-United States) countries are helping to rearm Taiwan, train its armed forces, and build relationships with other militaries such as the Japanese and the Philippine.
Under current conditions, the United States is carrying out powerful militarization in the Asia-Pacific region, promoting large-scale rearmament and increasing the nuclear threat in this region. That is why total and global war does not seem to be a distant prospect. Tensions over Taiwan are a prime example of how rivalry between superpowers can spark conflicts on an unimaginable scale that threaten to destroy all of humanity.
The struggle for national liberation in Africa reflects the growing desire of African peoples to control their natural resources and build their own economies. For decades, colonial and neo-colonial powers have exploited African resources for their own purposes, pushing local populations into poverty. These conflicts represent a movement of resistance to exploitation, a call for self-determination and economic and social justice.
The struggle for African liberation is a reminder that the global capitalist system is not invulnerable and that marginalized peoples must come together to build a more socially just world.
The war in Ukraine and the liberation struggle in Africa are symptoms of US economic decline and tensions in the global capitalist system. These conflicts are a call to action and a reminder that we can shape a more just and humane future, ‘Rebelion’ stresses.
Shoigu: Moscow and Tehran are reaching a new level of interaction
Russian delegation headed by Russian Defence Minister General of the Army Sergei Shoigu arrived in Tehran for talks with the military leadership of the Islamic Republic of Iran (photo).
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran held a formal greeting ceremony for the Russian delegation outside its main building, which was attended by a guard of honour and a military band.
Mohammad Bagheri, Chief of Staff for the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, greeted the Russian Minister of Defence.
Russian Defence Minister Sergei Shoigu has discussed topical issues of Russian–Iranian military cooperation during talks with Chief of General Staff of the Iranian Armed Forces Mohammad Bagheri on Tuesday.
‘I consider our meeting as another step towards strengthening the strategic partnership between Russia and Iran. Today we have an opportunity to discuss thoroughly topical issues of bilateral military cooperation,’ Sergei Shoigu said.
The head of the Russian defence ministry stressed that ‘Iran is Russia’s strategic partner in the Middle East’.
According to the Russian Defence Minister, Russian-Iranian relations in the military sphere tends to develop actively and positively.
‘Recently, the intensity of meetings has increased significantly, both at the highest level and at the level of the leadership of military departments. We see in this a common view of building a world order based on equality of rights for all participants in international relations,’ the Russian Defence Minister said.
Sergei Shoigu suggested discussing topical issues of bilateral military cooperation mentioning that ‘this is, of course, both Syria and Afghanistan, and current situation in Karabakh’.
In addition, continued the Russian Defence Minister, ‘there are a lot of other issues to be discussed today and tomorrow. These include educational issues, exchange of experience, exchange of delegations, joint naval exercises,’ the Russian Defence Minister said.
‘We are aimed at implementing the entire range of planned activities, despite opposition from the United States and its Western allies. Sanctions pressure on Russia and Iran are demonstrating their futility, while Russian-Iranian interaction is reaching a new level,’ Sergei Shoigu said during discussions with Iranian Minister of Defence and Armed Forces Logistics Mohammad-Reza Gharaei Ashtiani on Wednesday.
At the same time, he expressed readiness ‘for further joint action in the field of strengthening stability and security in the Middle East’.
‘We note with delight,’ the head of the Russian Defence Ministry stated, ‘that the Iranian-Russian communication is progressing particularly intensely today’. According to him, this is largely due to the trusting relations that have developed between the leaders of Russia and Iran.
The Russian Defense Minister stressed that ‘the high dynamics of the meetings confirms the general mood for further strengthening of strategic partnership in the defence sphere and military cooperation’.
He invited his counterpart to discuss a number of issues of mutual interest during the talks.
Sharp deterioration of the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh
The Azerbaijani Defense Ministry announced the beginning of a limited anti-terrorist operation in Nagorno-Karabakh. The ministry said the operation aims to ensure the implementation of the trilateral agreement between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia of 2020 and the disarmament and withdrawal of Armenian troops from the territory.
Yerevan said that Baku seeks to “complete the policy of ethnic cleansing” and that Armenia doesn’t have any troops stationed in Nagorno-Karabakh. Russia called on the sides to stop the bloodshed and try to work things out diplomatically.
Azerbaijani anti-terrorist measures
On September 19, Azerbaijan announced it was starting to carry out limited anti-terrorist measures in Nagorno-Karabakh.
The country’s Defense Ministry said it plans to ensure the implementation of the trilateral statement of the leaders of Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia of November 9, 2020, as well as suppress “large-scale acts of provocation in the Karabakh economic region.” The goal of the measures, according to the Azerbaijani ministry, is also the disarmament and withdrawal of Armenian troops from the area and the neutralization of their military infrastructure.
Baku intends to ensure the “restoration of constitutional order in the Republic of Azerbaijan” and the security of civilians, civil servants and Azerbaijani military personnel.
The Azerbaijani Defense Ministry said civilian facilities wouldn’t be targeted, but the positions held by the formations of the Armenian Armed Forces, their long-term firing points, as well as military equipment and structures will be liquidated.
The Azerbaijani Defense Ministry also said that it had informed the command of the Russian peacekeeping contingent and the leadership of the Turkish-Russian Monitoring Center about its plans. Defense Minister Zakir Hasanov also notified his Turkish counterpart Yasar Guler about the situation. Guler said Turkey is standing by Azerbaijan.
Situation on the ground
Baku stated that Armenian forces are firing their artillery guns at the positions of the Azerbaijani army located in the area of the Agdam District. Azerbaijani forces are retaliating.
To evacuate people from the dangerous areas in Nagorno-Karabakh, Azerbaijan has set up humanitarian corridors and pick-up points on Lachin road and in some other places. The civilian population was urged to stay away from military installations.
Azerbaijan also denied reports circulating in the Armenian segment of global social networks about the shelling of civilian facilities in Karabakh by Azerbaijani units. Baku added that “only legitimate military targets are being put out of commission.”
Yerevan stated that Armenia doesn’t have any troops stationed in Nagorno-Karabakh, while “Azerbaijani official reports and news media continue to make false claims” to the contrary. According to the Armenian Defense Ministry, as of 2:00 p.m., the situation on the country’s borders was relatively stable.
Armenia said it believes that “Azerbaijan has unleashed another large-scale act of aggression against the people of Nagorno-Karabakh, seeking to complete the policy of ethnic cleansing.”
Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan convened a meeting of the Security Council to discuss the situation. He said the situation on Armenia’s borders is stable and Yerevan does not plan to take rash steps. Also, according to Pashinyan, Russian peacekeepers should respond to the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh.
A protest is taking place outside the Armenian government building in downtown Yerevan. About 500 protesters are blaming the country’s leadership including Pashinyan for policies that have led to the current situation in Nagorno-Karabakh.
Statements from Russia
Russia is deeply alarmed by the sharp escalation of the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh, Russian Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Maria Zakharova said. Moscow calls on the conflicting sides to stop the bloodshed and return to a political and diplomatic settlement.
Despite the escalating situation, Russian peacekeepers continue to carry out their mission. Russia assumes that the security of the peacekeeping contingent “will be unconditionally ensured by all sides.” Zakharova denied allegations that Azerbaijan had warned Russian peacekeepers ahead of today’s “anti-terrorist operation.”
“This has no basis in reality. The information was communicated to the Russian contingent a few minutes before the start of hostilities,” the spokeswoman said.
According to Zakharova, Russia also is currently in talks on the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh, including with Azerbaijan. The ministry will make a statement on the results of these talks, she said.
Zakharova also noted that all steps for the peaceful resolution of the Karabakh problem are laid out in the trilateral statements of the leaders of Russia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, which were adopted in the period from 2020 to 2022. According to the spokeswoman, Russia and other international mediators have recently begun to establish serious conditions for progress in the peaceful resolution of the Nagorno-Karabakh problem, including humanitarian aid to the people of Nagorno-Karabakh.
In response to calls by Armenia for Russian peacekeepers and the UN Security Council to take measures to stop hostilities, Zakharova reminded Yerevan in a statement on Telegram that Armenia had officially recognized Nagorno-Karabakh as a part of Azerbaijan.
Baku will end its anti-terrorist activities in Nagorno-Karabakh if Armenian fighters lay down their weapons, Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev said in a phone call with US Secretary of State Antony Blinken, according to the presidential press service.
“The head of state said that anti-terrorist activities would end if weapons were laid down,” the press service said in a statement.
Aliyev also stated that Armenian units had to disarm. He stressed that civilians and infrastructure facilities weren’t the target of the anti-terrorist activities and the Azerbaijani Armed Forces were only destroying legitimate military targets.
The Azerbaijani president pointed out that his administration had repeatedly invited representatives of Karabakh’s Armenian population to engage in dialogue to discuss reintegration but they had refused. Still, in Aliyev’s words, they were once again invited to dialogue after the local anti-terrorist activities had been launched.
Aliyev noted that Azerbaijan was forced to start the local anti-terrorist activities in the region “to put an end to the provocative and inflammatory actions of the Armenian side.” In this regard, he mentioned that an Armenian sabotage and reconnaissance group had laid mines in Karabakh, which resulted in the death of civilians and law enforcement officers, while Azerbaijani army units had come under mortar and small-arms fire.
“President Ilham Aliyev emphasized that these activities, as well as the move to hold the so-called presidential election in the Karabakh region of Azerbaijan on September 9, were the continuation of deliberate provocative steps by Armenia and the so-called separatist entity that it created and supports, aimed against Azerbaijan’s sovereignty,” the statement said.
According to the Azerbaijani presidential press service, Blinken expressed concern about the situation, called for a ceasefire and said that the US supported direct dialogue between Baku and the Armenian population of Karabakh.
At least seven Nagorno-Karabakh civilians died and 35 were injured as a result of military hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh, the Armenpress news agency reported, citing data of Nagorno-Karabakh human rights commissioner Gegham Stepanyan.
“Thirty-five civilians were injured: 13 children, 15 women and seven men. Seven civilians died,” the news agency said. It was earlier reported that the mayor of Martuni, Aznavur Saghyan, was among the dead.
On September 19, tensions flared up again in Nagorno-Karabakh. Baku announced it was launching what it described as “local anti-terrorist measures” and demanded the withdrawal of Armenian troops from the region. Yerevan, in turn, said there were no Armenian forces in Karabakh, calling what was happening “an act of large-scale aggression.” Residents of the Armenian capital took to the streets to protest outside the Armenian government building, blaming the country’s leadership and Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan for the situation.
The command of the Russian peacekeeping contingent in Nagorno-Karabakh reported the evacuation of civilians and called on the parties to the conflict for an immediate ceasefire. The Russian Foreign Ministry called on the conflicting sides to prevent civilian casualties and stop the bloodshed, as well as to return to the implementation of the trilateral agreements between the leaders of Russia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Moscow is calling on the sides to return to compliance with the trilateral agreements of Russia, Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh, the Russian Foreign Ministry said in a statement.
“The most important thing now is to immediately return to compliance with the trilateral agreements signed at the top level in 2020-2022, which lay out all measures for a peaceful solution to the Nagorno-Karabakh issue,” the ministry said in a statement, also urging the sides “to stop armed hostilities and to do everything possible in order to protect the population of Nagorno-Karabakh and defend its interests.”
“Due to a rapid escalation of armed hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh, we strongly call upon the conflicting sides to immediately stop bloodshed, cease hostilities and prevent casualties among the civilian population,” the ministry said.
“Currently, the Russian peacekeeping force is assisting the civilian population [of Nagorno-Karabakh], including providing medical aid to them, and is dealing with matters of evacuation,” the ministry said.
A full ceasefire agreement between Azerbaijan and Nagorno-Karabakh has been reached through the mediation of Russian peacekeepers, the Russian Defense Ministry said in a statement.
“A ceasefire agreement between the Azerbaijani side and representatives of Nagorno-Karabakh has been reached through the mediation of the command for Russia’s peacekeeping mission,” the statement reads.
According to the Russian Defense Ministry, “the agreement will be implemented in coordination with the command for the Russian peacekeeping contingent.”
The ministry said earlier that Russian peacekeeping forces in Nagorno-Karabakh continued to perform their mission amid rising tensions, providing all possible assistance to civilians. According to the ministry, a total of 2,261 civilians, including 1,049 children, are currently staying at the peacekeepers’ base camp.
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