The World Economic Forum, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)and Rabobank, together with a growing roster of private and public sector partners have come together to launch the Food Action Alliance (FAA). The FAA brings together the international community to tackle an urgent historic challenge: to reshape the way we think, produce, supply and consume food.
The FAA is a coalition of organizations and initiatives who through collective action significantly strengthen the impact of agricultural value chains to produce food efficiently, sustainably and accessibly, in support of a transition to healthier diets and improved environmental outcomes. The FAA builds on the extensive experience of World Economic Forum’s New Vision for Agriculture initiative.
It mobilizes a next generation of multistakeholder partnerships that build on existing synergies and complementary capacities to deliver food systems that are efficient, sustainable, inclusive, nutritious and healthy in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It does so by providing a framework for collective knowledge and action on systemic issues such as on food security and nutrition, inclusive growth and decent jobs, environmental sustainability and climate resilience – affecting the sustainability of global food systems.
Partners of the FAA include African Development Bank (AfDB), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Bayer AG, Bharat Krishak Samaj (Farmers’ Forum India), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Grow Africa, Grow Asia, IDH – The Sustainable Trade Initiative, Indigo Ag, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rabobank, Royal DSM, Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU), UPL, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), WWF International and the World Economic Forum.
“Partners in the Food Action Alliance believe that fragmentation within the current food system represents the most significant hurdle to feeding a growing population nutritiously and sustainably. We urgently need new business models and innovative partnerships to transform the way food is produced, supplied and consumed,” said Sean de Cleene, Member of the Executive Committee and Head of Food Systems Initiative, World Economic Forum.
To achieve a vision for efficient, sustainable, inclusive, nutritious and healthy food systems, the FAA brings together stakeholders from all sectors – government, business, farmer associations, international organizations, civil society and academia – to mobilize a country driven agenda towards meeting the SDGs. Ishmael Sunga, Chief Executive Officer of the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) said: “Putting farmers at the heart of discussions for solutions and actions is key to implement pathways for food systems transformation. Partners in the Alliance have the potential to significantly support economic development, decent jobs, sustainable and resilient agriculture practices, benefiting millions of smallholder farmers.”
The current food system is not structured to cope with a rapidly growing population, climate shocks and the rise of hunger and obesity. Under business-as-usual scenarios, an estimated 637 million people will be undernourished while health systems could face a bill of $1.2 trillion every year from 2025 for treating medical conditions related to obesity. Today’s agricultural supply chain, from farm to fork, accounts for between 21% to 37% of greenhouse gas emissions.
The food system is inefficient in many respects. For example, around one-third of food, accounting for around $1 trillion, is wasted across the supply chain. Many farming methods that are successful in increasing output – and therefore farmer incomes – deplete natural resources such as soils and forests, making them unsustainable in the longer term.
“We need wider and deeper collaboration along the food value chain to de-risk investing in agriculture. This will in turn allow financial system partners and investors to come in and provide the much-needed access to finance. The Food Action Alliance brings these players together in coalitions, which can jointly create solutions for people, planet and markets,” said Wiebe Draijer, Chairman of the Managing Board, Rabobank.
The Food Action Alliance will play a key role in advancing the goals toward the United Nations 2021 Food Systems Summit, which will bring together the international community raising the urgency for food system transformation to the highest level. Agnes Kalibata, President, AGRA and the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the 2021 Food Systems Summit said: “We need transformative thinking and action to achieve the goals we have set for ourselves by 2030 – for people, for the environment and for our shared future. By demonstrating concrete business models and pathways to transforming food systems, the Food Action Alliance is a great example of a new approach that can make a significant contribution to the 2021 Food System Summit and, more importantly, deliver on aspirations of countries and all our people.”
The Food Action Alliance will be initially active in Latin America, Africa, India and South-East Asia. Various multistakeholder consultations are taking place to identify flagship opportunities for improving the scale and sustainability of existing agricultural value chains. Expert groups focused on generating and disseminating knowledge and developing new solutions on issues such as resilient farming practices, financial solutions and technology platforms will support existing and new initiatives.
“The Food Action Alliance provides the links between projects, initiatives and organizations needed to achieve change at scale. Together, we believe that coordinated action has the potential to improve the economic livelihoods of hundreds of millions of smallholder farming families and create a sustainable food system for future generations”, said Gilbert F. Houngbo, President of IFAD.
More research needed into COVID-19 effects on children
More research is needed into factors that increase the risk of severe COVID-19 disease among children and adolescents, the head of the UN World Health Organization (WHO) has said, adding that while children may have largely been spared many of the most severe effects, they have suffered in other ways.
Joining the heads of the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), at a press conference on Tuesday, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus outlined that since the start of the COVID pandemic, understanding its effects on children has been a priority.
“Nine months into the pandemic, many questions remain, but we are starting to have a clearer picture. We know that children and adolescents can be infected and can infect others”, he said.
“We know that this virus can kill children, but that children tend to have a milder infection and there are very few severe cases and deaths from COVID-19 among children and adolescents.”
According to WHO data, less than 10 per cent of reported cases and less than 0.2 per cent of deaths are in people under the age of 20. However, additional research is needed into the factors that put children and adolescents at an increased risk.
In addition, the potential long-term health effects in those who have been infected remains unknown.
Referring to closure of schools around the world, which has hit millions of children, impacting not only their education but also a range of other important services, the WHO Director-General said that the decision to close schools should be a last resort, temporary and only at a local level in areas with intense transmission.
Keeping classrooms open, ‘a job for all of us’
The time during which schools are closed should be used for putting in place measures to prevent and respond to transmission when schools reopen.
“Keeping children safe and at school is not a job for schools alone, or governments alone or families alone. It’s a job for all of us, working together,” added Mr. Tedros.
“With the right combination of measures, we can keep our kids safe and teach them that health and education are two of the most precious commodities in life,” he added.
Guidance on reopening schools, while keeping children and communities safe
Although children have largely been spared many of the most severe health effects of the virus, they have suffered in other ways, said Director-General Tedros, adding that closure of schools hit millions of children globally.
Given different situations among countries: some, where schools have opened and others, where they have not, UNESCO, UNICEF and WHO, issued updated guidance on school-related public health measures in the context of COVID-19.
Based on latest scientific evidence, the guidance provides practical advice for schools in areas with no cases, sporadic cases, clusters of cases or community transmission. They were developed with input from the Technical Advisory Group of Experts on Educational Institutions and COVID-19, established by the three UN agencies in June.
Schools provide critical, diverse services
Audrey Azoulay, UNESCO Director-General, also highlighted the importance of school, not only for teaching, but also for providing health, protection and – at times – nutrition services.
“The longer schools remain closed, the more damaging the consequences, especially for children from more disadvantaged backgrounds … therefore, supporting safe reopening of schools must be a priority for us all”, she said.
In addition to safely reopening schools, attention must focus on ensuring that no one is left behind, Ms. Azoulay added, cautioning that in some countries, children are missing from classes, amid fears that many – especially girls – may not ever return to schools.
Alongside, ensuring flow of information and adequate communication between teachers, school administrators and families; and defining new rules and protocols, including on roles of and trainings for teachers, managing school schedules, revising learning content, and providing remedial support for learning losses are equally important, she said.
“When we deal with education, the decisions we make today will impact tomorrow’s world,” said the UNESCO Director-General.
A global education emergency
However, with half the global student population still unable to return to schools, and almost a third of the world’s pupils unable to access remote learning, the situation is “nothing short of a global education emergency”, said Henrietta Fore, UNICEF Executive Director.
“We know that closing schools for prolonged periods of time can have devastating consequences for children,” she added, outlining their increased exposure risk of physical, sexual, or emotional violence.
The situation is even more concerning given the results from a recent UNICEF survey which found that almost a fourth of the 158 countries questioned, on their school reopening plans, had not set a date to allow schoolchildren back to the classrooms.
“For the most marginalized, missing out on school – even if only for a few weeks – can lead to negative outcomes that last a lifetime,” warned Ms. Fore.
She called on governments to prioritize reopening schools, when restrictions are lifted, and to focus on all the things that children need – learning, protection, and physical and mental health – and ensure the best interest of every child is put first.
And when governments decide to keep schools closed, they must scale up remote learning opportunities for all children, especially the most marginalized.
“Find innovative ways – including online, TV and radio – to keep children learning, no matter what”, stressed Ms. Fore.
World Bank Project to Boost Household Access to Affordable Energy
Today, the World Bank Board of Directors approved $150 million in financing to improve access to modern energy for households, enterprises, and public institutions in Rwanda and to enhance the efficiency of electricity services. $75 million will be provided as grant funding, and $75 will be provided as a loan.
Building on the achievement of previous World Bank support to the energy sector, the Rwanda Energy Access and Quality Improvement Project (EAQIP) will advance Rwanda’s progress towards achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal 7 (SDG7) to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all, while also contributing to the country’s aim of reducing reliance on cooking fuel by 50%.
“The proposed project is well-timed to build on the World Bank’s decade-long support to the Government’s energy sector agenda. It will contribute directly to Rwanda’s push toward universal energy access by 2024 and universal access to clean cooking by 2030”, said Rolande Pryce, World Bank Country Manager for Rwanda. “We are honored to be a long-term partner in this journey.”
Rwanda EAQIP aims to improve electricity access by providing funding for the country’s ongoing program of expanding grid connections for residential, commercial, industrial, and public sector consumers, as well as by providing grants to reduce the costs of off-grid solar home systems. The project will also enhance the availability and efficiency of low-cost renewable energy by restoring capacity at the Ntaruka Hydro-Power Project, reducing voltage fluctuations on transmission lines, and supporting the national smart meter program.
The project includes the World Bank’s largest clean cooking operation in Africa, and the first project co-financed by the recently launched Clean Cooking Fund (CCF), hosted by the World Bank’s Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP). The CCF will provide $20 million for clean cooking, with $10 million provided as a grant and $10million extended as a loan. The project targets 2.15 million people, leveraging an additional US$30 million in public and private sector investments. By incentivizing the private sector and improving the enabling environment, the project aims to develop a sustainable market for affordable clean cooking solutions in Rwanda.
The project is part of the Rwanda Universal Energy Access Program (RUEAP), which coordinates the efforts of development partners supporting the energy sector to contribute to the achievement of the targets set out in the National Strategy for Transformation (2017-24).
“The World Bank is proud to have led the RUEAP on behalf of the development partners, including the French Development Agency (co-financing the EAQIP). The World Bank looks forward to supporting the implementation of the ongoing program and expects to report positive outcomes in the lives of Rwandans” said Norah Kipwola, World Bank Senior Energy Specialist and the project Task Team Leader.
ILO: Developing countries should invest US$1.2 trillion to guarantee basic social protection
To guarantee at least basic income security and access to essential health care for all in 2020 alone, developing countries should invest approximately US$1.2 trillion – on average 3.8 per cent of their GDP – says a new ILO policy brief.
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic the social protection financing gap has increased by approximately 30 per cent according to Financing gaps in social protection: Global estimate and strategies for developing countries in light of the COVID-19 crisis and beyond .
This is the result of the increased need for health-care services and income security for workers who lost their jobs during the lockdown and the reduction of GDP caused by the crisis.
The situation is particularly dire in low-income countries who would need to spend nearly 16 per cent of their GDP to close the gap – around US$80 billion
Regionally, the relative burden of closing the gap is particularly high in Central and Western Asia, Northern Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa (between 8 per cent and 9 per cent of their GDP).
Even before the COVID-19 crisis, the global community was failing to live up to the social protection legal and policy commitments it had made in the wake of the last global catastrophe – the 2008 financial crisis.
Currently, only 45 per cent of the global population is effectively covered by at least one social protection benefit. The remaining population – more than 4 billion people – is completely unprotected.
National and international measures to reduce the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis have provided short-term financing assistance. Some countries have sought innovative sources to increase the fiscal space for extending social protection, like taxes on the trade of large tech companies, the unitary taxation of multinational companies, taxes on financial transactions or airline tickets. With austerity measures already emerging even with the crisis ongoing, these efforts are more pressing than ever, the study says.
“Low-income countries must invest approximately US$80 billion, nearly 16 per cent of their GDP, to guarantee at least basic income security and access to essential health care to all,” said Shahrashoub Razavi, Director of the ILO’s Social Protection Department. “Domestic resources are not nearly enough. Closing the annual financing gap requires international resources based on global solidarity.”
Mobilization at the international level should complement national efforts, says the ILO. International financial institutions and development cooperation agencies have already introduced several financial packages to help governments of developing countries tackle the various effects of the crisis but more resources are needed to close the financing gap, particularly in low-income countries.
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