With the deteriorating contemporary world order the question of what will be the next world order examined more. Since the WWII ended capitalist ideology dominate the world and according to Francis Fukuyama argued in his book “End of History” that Western liberal democracy won a decisive victory and emerged as a final form of Human government. But now as Nationalism is roiling politics on every continent. On contrary to Liberal Capitalism- Nationalist favor nation before individual. Nationalist ideology based on the premise that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. Nationalism is a particularistic rather than Universalist ideology, and when it takes its most radical form, its consequences are terrible – more violent than those resulting from any other major capitalist ideology. In the history, we look at the most extraordinary feat of political engineering, the construction of European Union as a negation of Nationalism. Nazi Germany and its nationalist ideology of Superior German race resulted in Holocaust. Nationalism is the fruit of capitalist revolution that raise the bourgeois class. Nation and nationalism, a form of society, the latter, and an ideology are two complementary social realities that emerged from the capitalist revolution.
Nationalism is, of course, not a force of its own, it’s a man-made theory. Conventionally, nationalism has been divided into two forms ethnic and a civic variant. But with the time number of factors emerged to shape nationalism as literacy, communication and technology. Nationalism appears to be on the rise globally, but we have to analyse different elements that whether we genuinely witnessing a rise of nationalism. The change in the attitudes and behavior of people all around the world, that citizens give priority to the nation over individual identities. And how these change attitudes affect their political choices. Nationalism is notoriously difficult to measure as it differs from state to state. While observing the rise of nationalism at global level there are four things to be noted 1) Attitudes 2) Rise of Nationalist parties 3) Nationalist policies 4) Nationalist violence and hate crimes.
With the election of Donald Trump in USA and the emerging power of populist right wing parties in Europe, Nationalist leaders in China and Turkey, Hard line extreme right party in Cyprus, France National Front promoting the principle of “National priority” and the biggest of all is the UK voted to left European Union (EU). Liberals across the world are having a hard time responding to populist nationalist. Liberal elites globally are under attack for putting foreign states above their people’s interest. And now nationalist force them to put their national, rather than global, interest first. The populist onslaught has force many liberal conclude that nationalist itself is a threat to US led liberal order. The postwar order was based on strong democratic and institutional order. Like as World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) and economic policies of Free market which most of the political scientist comprehend as “embedded Liberalism”.
Philosopher George Santayana once mentioned “Those who can’t remember the past are condemned to repeat it”. And his words are ringing true on the current rise of nationalist policies all around the world. United State, the global power of the world known as the leading force behind Liberal capitalism itself facing the rise of Nationalism. With the Trump coming to office with his slogan of “America First” and an abrupt change in the foreign policy of America is visibly seen. After post-cold war era US opted for the policy of Global dominance coming out of the isolationist history. But Trump again pushes America towards isolationist policy which seems utterly impossible with US excessive involvement in the global politics. Taking control of office the first, thing Trump does is to announce that they will withdraw from all conflictual areas and didn’t involve in any foreign war; they only focus on their economy. Besides war Trump also exits many high level international treaties such as Paris climate agreement, Iran nuclear deal, Trans-pacific partnership, UN Human Rights council and many more. The issue of immigrants which make most fractions of US population and how Americans are superior then other people and states.
Similarly, UK’s pull out from EU under “Brexit” is a clearly seen as the nationalist policies as it has long term economic consequences but they said they want to work for their national interest. Likewise, India claimed to be the biggest democracy of the world but under Modi’s administration it opted for the nationalist policies and strong Human rights violation. The abrogation of article 370 and try to merge internationally declared disputed territory. The Ayodhya verdict, the oppression of minorities and statements of Indian politics that India is only the home of Hindus and no other religion is accepted especially Muslims. These all examples depict how nationalism is rising not just in the western world but all around the globe. In the Middle East the situation is quite different as being in the constant phase of war and oppression they still related to the extremism.
Nationalism is powerful force. It’s a glue that holds the folks together especially in the complicated times. It installs the sense of pride mainly in the states involved in rivalry, celebrates traditions, history and religion. The failure of frame work of international institutions from UN to EU put capitalist ideology also under threat. As the credibility of these institution decline the capitalist system also become a question as it was claimed as the final form government. The democratic backsliding around the world, from Hungary to Turkey, from Venezuela to the United States has repercussions for nationalism especially when economies fail to perform. While global economic crisis did affect the whole world but states having strong nationalist parties varies greatly. There is no panacea for nationalism unless it becomes indigenous to the global social system. Although there are strategies to reduce its disastrous and exclusionary. And the biggest is to make democracy as it was claim to behave.