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Cleaning Up Indonesia’s Urban Solid Waste

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The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors today approved a $100 million loan for Indonesia to improve solid waste management services for selected cities and districts across the country.

The project will strengthen the role of central government agencies in solid waste management, and help local governments in the Citarum River watershed in West Java improve solid waste management services. A large portion of the loan will finance mechanical and biological treatment infrastructure for cities and districts in the watershed. 

A total of 45 million residents of the cities and districts will benefit from the project. This number includes 18 million people from poor and near-poor communities, around 9 million of whom are women. Among the positive impacts of the program are expected to be improvements in health and hygiene as the result of proper waste disposal and decreased pollution. Vulnerable groups and women involved in informal waste collection will benefit from training opportunities, incorporation of these groups into formal waste management systems, and alternative livelihood operations.

“The government has placed solid waste management increasingly high on the national agenda,” said Luhut Binsar Pandjaitan, Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and Investment of the Republic of Indonesia. “Universal solid waste collection is part of the current national mid-term development plan targets, and is becoming even more important with the growing number of Indonesia’s urban population.”

Over half of Indonesia’s population now lives in urban areas. While cities and municipalities generate an estimated 105,000 tons of solid waste a day – a number that is expected to increase to 150,000 tons per day by 2025 – 40 percent of the country’s 142 million urban residents still do not have access to basic waste collection services. 

Uncollected waste is a significant source of pollution and health problems for communities around the country. Open dumping is still the most widespread practice for solid waste disposal in Indonesia. The effects of uncollected waste are most prominent along the Citarum River, which has been declared  a national strategic area. The river is the longest in West Java, and is inundated with municipal solid waste that contributes to frequent flooding.

“Solid waste management is critical for the welfare of Indonesia’s rapidly growing urban population and the country’s economy, including its tourism sector. With Indonesia as one of the main contributors to marine waste globally, improving solid waste management in cities along the coast and adjacent to rivers has become increasingly important to address marine debris,” said Rolande Pryce, World Bank Acting Country Director for Indonesia and Timor-Leste. “The project will initiate concrete actions to reduce marine plastics with global significance.”

The World Bank’s support for service delivery and infrastructure is an important component of the World Bank Group’s Country Partnership Framework for Indonesia, which focuses on supporting government priorities that have potentially transformational impact.

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Global Leaders Unite Under the Food Action Alliance to Deliver a Better Future for People and Planet

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The World Economic Forum, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD)and Rabobank, together with a growing roster of private and public sector partners have come together to launch the Food Action Alliance (FAA). The FAA brings together the international community to tackle an urgent historic challenge: to reshape the way we think, produce, supply and consume food.

The FAA is a coalition of organizations and initiatives who through collective action significantly strengthen the impact of agricultural value chains to produce food efficiently, sustainably and accessibly, in support of a transition to healthier diets and improved environmental outcomes. The FAA builds on the extensive experience of World Economic Forum’s New Vision for Agriculture initiative.

It mobilizes a next generation of multistakeholder partnerships that build on existing synergies and complementary capacities to deliver food systems that are efficient, sustainable, inclusive, nutritious and healthy in line with the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It does so by providing a framework for collective knowledge and action on systemic issues such as on food security and nutrition, inclusive growth and decent jobs, environmental sustainability and climate resilience – affecting the sustainability of global food systems.

Partners of the FAA include African Development Bank (AfDB), Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), Bayer AG, Bharat Krishak Samaj (Farmers’ Forum India), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Global Environmental Facility (GEF), Grow Africa, Grow Asia, IDH – The Sustainable Trade Initiative, Indigo Ag, Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), Rabobank, Royal DSM, Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU), UPL, World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD), WWF International and the World Economic Forum.

“Partners in the Food Action Alliance believe that fragmentation within the current food system represents the most significant hurdle to feeding a growing population nutritiously and sustainably. We urgently need new business models and innovative partnerships to transform the way food is produced, supplied and consumed,” said Sean de Cleene, Member of the Executive Committee and Head of Food Systems Initiative, World Economic Forum.

To achieve a vision for efficient, sustainable, inclusive, nutritious and healthy food systems, the FAA brings together stakeholders from all sectors – government, business, farmer associations, international organizations, civil society and academia – to mobilize a country driven agenda towards meeting the SDGs. Ishmael Sunga, Chief Executive Officer of the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU) said: “Putting farmers at the heart of discussions for solutions and actions is key to implement pathways for food systems transformation. Partners in the Alliance have the potential to significantly support economic development, decent jobs, sustainable and resilient agriculture practices, benefiting millions of smallholder farmers.”

The current food system is not structured to cope with a rapidly growing population, climate shocks and the rise of hunger and obesity. Under business-as-usual scenarios, an estimated 637 million people will be undernourished while health systems could face a bill of $1.2 trillion every year from 2025 for treating medical conditions related to obesity. Today’s agricultural supply chain, from farm to fork, accounts for between 21% to 37% of greenhouse gas emissions.

The food system is inefficient in many respects. For example, around one-third of food, accounting for around $1 trillion, is wasted across the supply chain. Many farming methods that are successful in increasing output – and therefore farmer incomes – deplete natural resources such as soils and forests, making them unsustainable in the longer term.

“We need wider and deeper collaboration along the food value chain to de-risk investing in agriculture. This will in turn allow financial system partners and investors to come in and provide the much-needed access to finance. The Food Action Alliance brings these players together in coalitions, which can jointly create solutions for people, planet and markets,” said Wiebe Draijer, Chairman of the Managing Board, Rabobank.

The Food Action Alliance will play a key role in advancing the goals toward the United Nations 2021 Food Systems Summit, which will bring together the international community raising the urgency for food system transformation to the highest level. Agnes Kalibata, President, AGRA and the UN Secretary-General’s Special Envoy for the 2021 Food Systems Summit said: “We need transformative thinking and action to achieve the goals we have set for ourselves by 2030 – for people, for the environment and for our shared future. By demonstrating concrete business models and pathways to transforming food systems, the Food Action Alliance is a great example of a new approach that can make a significant contribution to the 2021 Food System Summit and, more importantly, deliver on aspirations of countries and all our people.”

The Food Action Alliance will be initially active in Latin America, Africa, India and South-East Asia. Various multistakeholder consultations are taking place to identify flagship opportunities for improving the scale and sustainability of existing agricultural value chains. Expert groups focused on generating and disseminating knowledge and developing new solutions on issues such as resilient farming practices, financial solutions and technology platforms will support existing and new initiatives.

“The Food Action Alliance provides the links between projects, initiatives and organizations needed to achieve change at scale. Together, we believe that coordinated action has the potential to improve the economic livelihoods of hundreds of millions of smallholder farming families and create a sustainable food system for future generations”, said Gilbert F. Houngbo, President of IFAD.

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Fifteen Years to Save the Amazon Rainforest from Becoming Savannah

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The pace of deforestation in the Amazon, coupled with last year’s devastating forest fires, has pushed the world’s largest rainforest close to a tipping point beyond which it will turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source.

Without immediate action to halt deforestation and start replacing lost trees, half of the entire Amazon rainforest could become savannah within 15 years, according to Carlos Afonso Nobre, Director of Research at the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. The Amazon’s tropical forests create 20%-30% of their own rainfall, so preserving them is as vital for regional weather systems and food production as it is for stabilizing the global climate. “Deforestation is now at 17%,” said Nobre, “but if it exceeds 25%, we will cross the tipping point.”

Colombia has stepped up to the challenge, setting targets to plant 180 million trees and reduce deforestation by 30% by 2022. President Ivan Duque told a packed hall that “the greatest challenge of our time is climate change”. In September 2019 he convened the Leticia Pact of seven Amazon countries whose presidents have personally committed to work together to protect the rainforest.

“We have to defeat deforestation,” said the president, whose country is 35% rainforest. He has also launched a strategy of Biodiverse Cities, in which Colombian cities within forest areas will develop circular economies to protect biodiversity and the environment. “Thirty-four million people live in the Amazon,” said Duque, adding: “We need those societies to be able to preserve themselves and preserve forest ecosystems.”

Al Gore, Vice-President of the United States (1993-2001); and Chairman and Co-Founder, Generation Investment Management, agreed that indigenous people and their knowledge must be respected. For centuries, people have made a way of life in the Amazon that is not destructive. While poverty in the region needs answers, Gore said that clearing the rainforest to plant crops is a “false hope” as the richness of the rainforest is in the canopy and its wildlife, not in its thin soils.

Nobre has developed the idea of an Amazon Third Way in which modern technology taps into and develops traditional wisdom to create a new bioeconomy. The acai berry, for example, brings over $1 billion into the Amazon economy. It is second only to beef in terms of value yet uses just 5% of the area taken by up cattle ranches – making the berry 10 times more profitable than the beef.

Solutions need to be global as well as local. Nobre called on assembled business leaders to support global supply chains that are deforestation-free and to promote the emergence of a new bioeconomy.

Emphasizing the sense of urgency, Gore declared that “the climate crisis is way worse than people generally realize and it’s getting worse way faster than any of us realize”. He called on politicians in particular to rise to the challenge: “This is Agincourt, this is Dunkirk, this is 9/11,” he announced with passion.

Fellow panellist Jane Goodall, famous for her work with chimpanzees and community development across Africa, called on all of us to get involved in the World Economic Forum’s 1 Trillion Trees Initiative. She said we need ways of compensating people for looking after tropical rainforests on our behalf, as currently we are not paying for forests despite needing them everywhere. She cautioned people against making the tone of the debate too “doom and gloom” and left the hall with this message: “Give the youth hope, because if you lose hope, you give up.”

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Multistakeholder Mobilization to Reinforce Cyber Resilience in Global Aviation

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The Fourth Industrial Revolution is transforming the way airlines and airports do business. The advancement of technologies such as artificial intelligence and internet of things is increasing operational efficiency, but the digital nature of these technologies makes them intrinsically vulnerable to cyberattacks.

Cyberattacks on critical infrastructure have become the new normal across sectors such as transportation. Globally, their potential cost could be up to $90 trillion in net economic impact by 2030, if cybersecurity efforts do not keep pace with growing interconnectedness, according to the Atlantic Council and the Zurich Insurance Group, among others.

In Advancing Cyber Resilience in Aviation: An Industry Analysis, the World Economic Forum initiative on Building Cyber Resilience in the Aviation Industry aims to define and address some of the salient systemic challenges confronting this industry by:

Increasing awareness and understanding of cyber risks related to the adoption of emerging technologies, and the impact on critical systems

Fostering collaboration across the aviation industry to define a common understanding and approach to risk management that is holistic, risk-based and aligned across the various entities of the aviation industry ecosystem

Helping aviation stakeholders to make informed – hence better – decisions related to cyber risks

Developing an industry-wide approach to cyber resilience with a multistakeholder community in alignment and collaboration with the ICAO Secretariat Study Group on Cybersecurity (SSGC), industry associations and national authorities

Creating market incentives to prioritize capital investment for cybersecurity and resilience

To advance and help build cyber resilience in the aviation industry, the Forum has mobilized a community of experts and key stakeholders from international organizations (International Civil Aviation Organization, Eurocontrol), government entities (European Union Aviation Safety Agency, UK Civil Aviation Authority, Israel National Cyber Directorate), private-sector organizations (aviation, ICT and insurance sectors) and trade associations (International Air Transport Association, Airport Council International and the Industrial Internet Consortium) to identify challenges and initiatives spearheaded by government and industry entities to enable the development of an aligned global approach.

“The Forum offers a unique platform to bridge and strengthen industry and government collaboration globally to define a joint approach to informing key stakeholders, addressing the most salient challenges and creating a more secure and cyber-resilient ecosystem,” said Georges De Moura, Head of Industry Solutions, Centre for Cybersecurity at the World Economic Forum.

“Abundant broadly-accepted government and industry standards for cybersecurity fall short of what is required to ensure effective defence against cyberattacks in aviation: a common understanding of systemic risks and synchronized consistent quantitative methods for cyber-risk management,” said Karime Kuri Tiscareno, Project Lead, IoT, Robotics and Smart Cities, at the World Economic Forum.

“Our ongoing strategic partnership with the World Economic Forum ensures that we can support the aviation sector to mitigate any potential harm and foster a stronger cyber resilience culture across the sector. The launch of this report is the first phase in developing a common approach with the aviation industry to develop effective cyber risk management, and to impart this knowledge across other sectors,” said Adam Garrard, Global Head of Corporate Risk and Broking, Willis Towers Watson.

A number of requirements, standards and approaches are currently being implemented to assess, manage and mitigate cyber risk, but action and practical solutions must be accelerated to ensure a prosperous, digitalized and cyber-resilient aviation industry.

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