Having the full picture is crucial for effective action to end violence against women. Yet today, efforts to address this critical sustainable development and human rights challenge remain severely hampered by lack of data.
Violence against women is both a cause and a consequence of gender inequality, reflecting and perpetuating deep-rooted patterns of discrimination. Violence and fear of violence permeate social, economic and political interactions between women and men, constraining opportunities, choices and access to resources and so limiting economic growth and hindering the achievement of sustainable development.
Ending violence against women and girls is a crucial part of both the Beijing Platform for Action – progress on which will be in focus at the Beijing+25 Regional Review Meeting (29-30 October) – and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The Beijing Platform calls for the prevention and elimination of all forms of violence against women and girls—physical, sexual and psychological. The Sustainable Development Goals reiterate this, with two indicators designed to track changes in violence by intimate partners and by other perpetrators.
Yet tracking such changes is hard.
Reliable and comparable data on the incidence of violence against women are rare. The Beijing Platform for Action, back in 1995, recognized that the absence of adequate sex-disaggregated data makes it difficult to create and assess programmes designed to bring about change.
Administrative data such as crime records only cover incidents that are reported, and so are likely to underestimate massively the actual occurrence of violence, which often goes unreported due to fear of recurrence or reprisal, shame or perceptions of ‘honour’ within families. Trends in reported gender-based violence can also be influenced by changes in awareness and public perceptions, making victims more or less likely to perceive an act of violence as a crime or affecting their willingness to report it to authorities.
A clearer picture of the true scale of violence against women—and its impacts on their lives– must come from surveys designed specifically for this purpose. UNECE’s survey module, developed in 2011, provides a standardized tool for countries to produce indicators of physical, sexual and intimate partner violence. To date, few countries in the UNECE region have conducted targeted surveys to measure violence against women, and where they have been conducted they are one-off surveys offering no possibility to see trends over time.
An EU-wide survey conducted in 2014 by the EU’s Fundamental Rights Agency and an OSCE-led survey conducted in 2018 in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe take us a step closer towards the goals of international comparability.
However, until such surveys are conducted regularly the data gap will remain a major impediment to progress.
Violence against women – key trends in the UNECE region
Available data in the UNECE Statistical Database shows significant variations in patterns of violence against women across the UNECE region, as detailed in the Beijing+25 regional key trends paper.
The most serious manifestation of violence, homicide, is less likely than other forms of violence to go unreported and is less subject to variations of definition and classification between countries. Trends in homicides among countries can therefore more reliably be compared than other forms of violence.
Although two-thirds of the UNECE countries analyzed show low and unchanging levels of homicide of women, there are exceptions where high levels and/or large increases are seen in the past five years.
Among the 32 countries with available data, Azerbaijan had by far the highest female homicide rate in 2017, at 6.8 per 100,000, slightly down from 7.3 in 2012. Latvia and Lithuania also had high rates in 2017 (3.7 and 3.2 respectively). Fourteen countries had rates of less than 1 per 100,000 with very little change since 2012.
Homicides of women by partners and relatives
A large proportion of homicides of women occur at the hands of current or former partners or relatives.
In 2017, over 70 per cent of homicides of women were perpetrated by a relative in Albania (79 per cent), Croatia (74 per cent), Italy (72 per cent) and Slovenia (71 per cent). In all these countries, this percentage increased since 2012. The increase was particularly significant in Albania, where the percentage doubled in five years. Between 2012 and 2017 the percentage of homicides of women in a family context also increased significantly in Belarus (from 30 to 44 per cent), the Republic of Moldova (from 39 to 50 per cent), Tajikistan (44 to 53 per cent) and Georgia (from 15 to 23 per cent).
Beijing+25 Regional Review Meeting for the UNECE Region
Progress in combating violence against women will be one of the areas in focus at next week’s Beijing+25 Regional Review Meeting for the UNECE region.
The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action of 1995 (Beijing Platform for Action) is the most ambitious road map for the empowerment of women and girls everywhere. In 2020, it will be 25 years since the Beijing Platform for Action outlined how to overcome the systemic barriers that hold women back from equal participation in all areas of life.
The Beijing+25 Regional Review Meeting (29-30 October 2019) will take stock of where the UNECE region stands on keeping the promises of the Beijing Platform for Action. Bringing together government representatives and key stakeholders from the UNECE region, the meeting will tackle a number of obstacles that keep girls and women from realizing their full potential. UNECE is joining forces with the UN Women Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia to deliver a two-day multi-stakeholder meeting to exchange concrete policies to accelerate the realization of gender equality. The outcomes of the meeting will feed into the global review of the Beijing Platform for Action taking place at the sixty-fourth session of the Commission on the Status of Women in New York from 9 to 20 March 2020.
Violence against refugee women surged in 2020
One in five refugee or internally displaced women have faced sexual violence, and the situation continues to worsen globally, the UN refugee agency, (UNHCR), said on Thursday.
On the 30th anniversary of the campaign for 16 Days of Activism against Gender-Based Violence, the UN agency said that there’s been a global surge in domestic violence, child marriages, trafficking, sexual exploitation and abuse since March.
“A lethal mix of confinement, deepening poverty and economic duress is unleashing a renewed wave of violence against refugee, displaced and stateless women and girls”, UNHCR said in a statement.
To tackle the crisis, the UN agency has called for funding to be scaled up for grassroots projects that focus on prevention and helping victims of gender-based violence.
These include the Myanmar Ethnic Women(’s) Refugee Organization where refugee women have joined forces to overcome abuse, reinforcing their role as strong protectors of their families and communities.
For victim Deborah, who lives in Malaysia’s capital Kuala Lumpur, violence against women at home was considered a family problem.
“I felt ashamed to share my experience with other people,” she said. “I was afraid they would say it was my fault.”
Through her work with the community-based organization, Deborah met other women suffering in silence, and when she was invited to help devise and lead a project to support refugee women affected by gender-based violence (GBV), she accepted.
UNHCR highlighted that the need for such local, refugee-led projects has become even greater during the COVID-19 pandemic, as lockdowns have taken away refugees’ often precarious livelihoods, heightening tensions in households and making it more difficult for international agencies to deliver support services.
UNHCR issued the alert after recording increases in gender-based violence in at least 27 countries.
In the Central African Republic it warned that one gender-based violence incident is recorded every hour.
And in Colombia, similar incidents affecting Venezuelan refugees and migrants have increased by 40 per cent over the first three- quarters of the year, the agency noted.
The financial stress of COVID-19 and a lack of food in households during the pandemic has put women at greater risk from violence at the hands of their partners, UNHCR reported.
This is the case on the Thai-Myanmar border, where refugee women who were already running support services and safe houses for survivors of gender-based violence asked the UN agency for funding, to provide food to families who had lost work owing to the pandemic’s economic impact.
Reaffirming its own commitment to addressing gender-based violence across its operations, UNHCR launched an institution-wide policy on GBV prevention, risk mitigation and response, in October.
Spotlight Initiative combats gender-based violence during COVID-19 pandemic
Despite COVID-19 lockdowns and restrictions, some 650,000 women and girls were provided with gender-based violence services through a joint UN and European Union (EU) programme working to stamp out what is arguably one of the most prevalent human rights violations.
This is just one of the achievements detailed in the Spotlight Initiative’s impact report for 2020-21, launched in New York on Friday.
Rising to the challenge details how the partners rapidly adjusted programmes during the global crisis to address the shadow pandemic of violence against women and girls.
“COVID-19 continues to exacerbate violence against women and girls in a context of sustained and new backlash against women’s rights globally,” said Sima Bahous Executive Director of UN Women, which supports governments in achieving gender equality.
“Now more than ever we need concentrated action to protect the gains made and to guard against reversals.”
The Spotlight Initiative is the world’s largest targeted effort to end all forms of violence against women and girls.
In addition to scaling up services during the pandemic, it assisted civil society organizations to swiftly adapt to the changing environment and to strengthen online services, such as telecounselling and hotlines.
Funds were also shifted to support more local and grassroots organizations, with $146 million allocated to date.
Targeting men and boys
Additionally, some 880,000 men and boys were educated on positive masculinity, respectful family relationships, non-violent conflict resolution and parenting.
Henrietta Fore, Executive Director of the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), reported on some of the activities across the globe.
“In Malawi, we are working with community organizations and media partners to raise awareness among educators, young people, and especially boys. These efforts are helping to increase reporting and providing girls and women with faster and more effective support,” she said.
Promoting stronger laws
Violence against women and girls, which exists in all societies, is often compounded by other humanitarian crises and has only intensified during the pandemic.
Achim Steiner, head of the UN Development Programme (UNDP), stated that although strong strategies and legal frameworks do not guarantee the end of gender-based violence, “they are essential to making a dent in this global scourge.”
For example, the Spotlight Initiative has helped 17 Latin American countries to fully incorporate femicide in their penal codes, and to add clauses that severely punish perpetrators.
“We have also worked with thousands of parliamentarians, for instance through collaborating with UN Women, in setting up a COVID-19 global response gender tracker to try and allow legislators and policy makers to immediately draw, in the midst of the pandemic, on best practices and the ability to actually act on violence against women, and working with well over 1,000 local and grassroots women’s organizations,” he said.
Taking it forward
To build on achievements so far, the EU and UN have decided to develop a Spotlight Global Platform which combines a knowledge hub, community of practice and “advocacy instrument” grounded in the practical experience gained through the initiative.
Olaf Skoog, Ambassador of the EU Delegation, said even though incidences of violence against women and girls worldwide have been devastating, the partnership has yielded impressive results.
“We always say that if we are to make a better world, it has to start at home. And here at the UN, we are busy on a daily basis trying to resolve the major conflicts of the world. But part of that has to be that we are very effective fighting the violence in our own societies,” he said. “And no society is free of this plight.”
Investing in UNRWA is ‘an investment in peace and hope’
At a “critical conference” supporting the UN agency for Palestinian refugees, Secretary-General António Guterres outlined on Tuesday, the “essential role” it continues to play in generations of lives.
Thanking the Governments of Jordan and Sweden for organizing the pledging conference for the Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), the UN chief pointed out the agency’s many accomplishments.
In addition to providing more than half a million children with high quality education, investing in human development and offering “lifelines of hope and opportunity”, UNRWA has also enabled many of its beneficiaries to “make extraordinary contributions to their communities and to the world at large”, he said.
“An investment in UNRWA is an investment in peace and hope”, spelled out the top UN official.
Protection and support needed
UNRWA also plays a pivotal role in promoting regional stability, according to the UN chief, and yet, despite that UN Member States have agreed on its comprehensive mandate for decades, Mr. Guterres reminded that it continues to face an existential crisis.
“We need to protect UNRWA from being used as a political pawn – and focus on its ability to carry out its General Assembly mandate and its unrelenting commitment to humanitarian principles and shared UN values”, he underscored.
And, lacking sufficient funding, the UN agency also is being prevented from assisting Palestine refugees in a predictable way.
“These recurring funding crises have led UNRWA to introduce austerity measures. But these have reached their limits”, said the UN chief, stressing the need for “adequate resources, including human resources”.
Short- and long-term funding asks
To address this, the Secretary-General has asked the General Assembly for additional posts from the UN Regular Budget and made two specific requests to the conference.
The first was to bridge the immediate funding gap to keep UNRWA’s essential health, education and services active.
“A disruption of services and salaries would have a crippling impact – especially in a region already struggling with the consequences of the pandemic”, he said.
Secondly, he urged Member States to step up longer-term commitments and solidarity and to match the generosity of the countries that host Palestine refugees.
“We need to collectively find a path towards more predictable, sufficient and sustainable funding for the agency, including through multi-year commitments”, Mr. Guterres asserted.
In closing, the Secretary-General expressed deep admiration for UNRWA’s day-in-day out” work.
“The teachers, the doctors and nurses, the sanitation workers, the engineers, and so many others – all are working under extreme duress to provide Palestine refugees with access to basic services that all of us take for granted”, he said.
“Let’s help them help Palestine refugees”.
Thwart an ‘unstable vacuum’
UNRWA Commissioner-General Philippe Lazzarini described the agency as “both a truly compelling story of global solidarity in action and a tragic example of ineffective and insufficient financial support that pushes it to the brink”.
He cautioned that if “real solutions” are not found for now and the future, “the institution will very soon jump over the brink”, leaving “an unstable vacuum in its wake”.
“And no environment likes a vacuum”, he said.
Mr. Lazzarini appealed to the conference participants to translate their political support into “predictable, sufficient and sustainable resources”.
“Your support will ensure that UNRWA continues to be the irreplaceable and trusted lifeline for Palestine refugees until a fair and lasting political solution is achieved”, he concluded.
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