The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and the Cambodian Ministry of Industry and Handicraft (MIH), in partnership with the Republic of Korea, successfully organized the second training programme on “Leveraging Global Value Chains for Industrial Development” from 3 to 4 October 2019 at the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority (PPWSA). The workshop aimed at building practical skills backed by data analysis in policymaking and enhancing industrial policy required to support the development of local industries and firms in reaping opportunities offered by global value chains. Participants included 40 technical officials from various ministries, the private sector, and development partners.
“To contribute in propelling Cambodia toward an industrialized country by 2025, to become an upper middle-income country by 2030 and a high-income country by 2050, I would like to reiterate that His Excellency Kitti Settha Pandita, Senior Minister and Minister of Industry and Handicraft, has always supported and encouraged capacity building activities under the UNIDO project, as human resources is key to achieve this ultimate goal”, said Sarun Rithea, Secretary of State of the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft at the closing of the workshop.
The capacity building programme is part of a series of four courses on industrial policy and value chains under the UNIDO project “Support to the Royal Government of Cambodia in its effective implementation of a major development strategy and policy through institutional capacity-building”, which is funded by the Republic of Korea (ROK). Key government counterparts are the Ministry of Industry and Handicraft (MIH), the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC), the Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), and the Ministry of Tourism (MoT).
In his introductory remarks, Anders Isaksson, UNIDO Senior Research and Industrial Policy Officer, appreciated the high commitment from the Royal Government of Cambodia in gaining knowledge and experiences on industrial policy and value chains through the latest UNIDO capacity building initiative and apply to own country context. He believes that this training course will contribute to realize Cambodia’s Industrial Development Policy (IDP) vision and help to accelerate inclusive and sustainable industrial development (ISID), which is aligned with the strategic vision of UNIDO.
During the two-day workshop, participants learned about the role of industrialization and global value chains in economic development, the different dimensions of industrialization and Global Value Chains (GVCs) and how to use these frameworks to analyze challenges and opportunities for Cambodia. Participants also learned about data tools and indicators which can be used to evaluate the country’s position within global and regional value chains at the industry level.
The industrial policy project is formulated within the framework of the Programme for Country Partnership (PCP) 2018-2023 between the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) and UNIDO. A Joint Declaration was signed in November 2017 between LI Yong, UNIDO Director General, and Kitti Setha Pandita Cham Prasidh, Senior Minister of Industry and Handicraft on behalf of the RGC. The PCP is a platform for synchronizing development efforts and for resource mobilization, as well as a supporting tool to increase the impact from Cambodia’s Industrial Development Policy.
The City of Ideas platform is a unique opportunity to make the city comfortable
The Moscow City of Ideas platform is a platform where citizens can propose ideas for solving various issues related to the life of the capital and vote for proposals selected by experts.
Ideas with the largest number of votes are implemented in the city. Over the seven years of such projects, more than 270 thousand Muscovites have sent about 112 thousand ideas for the development of urban infrastructure. More than four thousands of them were selected by experts for further study, over three thousand ideas have already been implemented.
The citizens took part in projects like “My Park”, “Electronic House”, “Moscow Central Diameters”, “Moscow child health center”, “Museums of Moscow” and much more. Thanks to the proposed ideas, new public transport routes have appeared, a Moscow standard for children’s recreation has been developed, public service centers, children’s and adult clinics, libraries, and parks have been transformed.
After modernization, the City of Ideas platform has become more user-friendly. Citizens themselves propose suggestions of improving the platform. 12 thousand residents of the capital took part in the project. They proposed with over 600 ideas. The implementation plan included 121 of them, some have already been implemented.
Today, the platform provides short video instructions and materials explaining how to use platform. This will help both beginners and advanced users. Now citizens can submit their ideas directly from the platform’s main page. When sending a photo attached to the text.
The modernization also affected the voting process: the ideas that pass the expert selection will be presented in a single list. You don’t need to go to each page for grading.
And most importantly, the City of Ideas platform today has a modern design. These changes were suggested and supported by the citizens.
This service is available to individuals, representatives of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs.
Commission proposes to strengthen coordination of safe travel in the EU
European Commission has proposed to update the rules on coordination of safe and free movement in the EU, which were put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Since the summer, vaccine uptake has increased significantly and the EU Digital COVID Certificate has been rolled out successfully, with more than 650 million certificates issued to date. At the same time, the epidemiological situation in the EU continues to develop with some Member States taking additional public health measures, including administering booster vaccines. Taking into account all those factors, the Commission is proposing a stronger focus on a ‘person-based’ approach to travel measures and a standard acceptance period for vaccination certificates of 9 months since the primary vaccination series. The 9 month period takes into account the guidance of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the administration of booster doses as of 6 months, and provides for an additional period of 3 months to ensure that national vaccination campaigns can adjust and citizens can have access to boosters.
The Commission is also proposing updates to the EU traffic light map; as well as a simplified ‘emergency brake’ procedure.
The Commission is also proposing today to update the rules on external travel to the EU [press release available as of 14:15].
Didier Reynders, Commissioner for Justice, said: “Since the start of the pandemic, the Commission has been fully active in finding solutions to guarantee the safe free movement of people in a coordinated manner. In light of the latest developments and scientific evidence, we are proposing a new recommendation to be adopted by the Council. Based on our common tool, the EU Digital COVID Certificate, which has become a real standard, we are moving to a ‘person-based’ approach. Our main objective is avoid diverging measures throughout the EU. This also applies to the question of boosters, which will be essential to fight the virus. Among other measures, we propose today that the Council agrees on a standard validity period for vaccination certificates issued following the primary series. Agreeing on this proposal will be crucial for the months ahead and the protection of the safe free movement for citizens.”
Stella Kyriakides, Commissioner for Health and Food Safety added: “The EU Digital COVID Certificate and our coordinated approach to travel measures have greatly contributed to safe free movement, with the protection of public health as our priority. We have vaccinated over 65% of the total EU population, but this is not enough. There are still too many people who are not protected. For everyone to travel and live as safely as possible, we need to reach significantly higher vaccination rates – urgently. We also need to reinforce our immunity with booster vaccines. Taking into account the guidance from ECDC, and to allow Member States to adjust their vaccination campaigns and for citizens to have access to boosters, we propose a standard acceptance period for vaccination certificates. At the same time, we have to continue to strongly encouraging everyone to continue to respect public health measures. Our masks need to stay on.”
Key updates to the common approach to travel measures within the EU proposed by the Commission are:
Focus on a ‘person-based approach’: a person who has a valid EU Digital COVID Certificate should in principle not be subject to additional restrictions, such as tests or quarantine, regardless of their place of departure in the EU. Persons without an EU Digital COVID Certificate could be required to undergo a test carried out prior to or after arrival.
Standard validity of vaccination certificates: To avoid diverging and disruptive approaches, the Commission proposes a standard acceptance period of 9-month for vaccination certificates issued following the completion of the primary vaccination series. The 9 month period takes into account the guidance of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the administration of booster doses as of 6 months, and provides for an additional period of 3 months to ensure that national vaccination campaigns can adjust and citizens can have access to boosters. This means that, in the context of travel, Member States should not refuse a vaccination certificate that has been issued less than 9 months since the administration of the last dose of the primary vaccination. Member States should immediately take all necessary steps to ensure access to vaccination for those population groups whose previously issued vaccination certificates approach the 9-month limit.
Booster shots: As of yet, there are no studies expressly addressing the effectiveness of boosters on transmission of COVID-19 and therefore it is not possible to determine an acceptance period for boosters. However, given the emerging data it can be expected that protection from booster vaccinations may last longer than that resulting from the primary vaccination series. The Commission will closely monitor newly emerging scientific evidence on this issue. On the basis of such evidence, the Commission may, if needed, propose an appropriate acceptance period also for vaccination certificates issued following a booster.
The EU traffic light map is adapted: combining new cases with a region’s vaccine uptake. The map would be mainly for information purposes, but would also serve to coordinate measures for areas with particularly low (‘green’) or particularly high level (‘dark red’) of circulation of the virus. For these areas, specific rules would apply by derogation from the ‘persons-based approach’. For travellers from ‘green’ areas, no restrictions should be applied. Travel to and from ‘dark red’ areas should be discouraged, given the high number of new infections there, and persons who are neither vaccinated nor have recovered from the virus should be required to undergo a pre-departure test and quarantine after arrival (with special rules for essential travelers and children under 12 years old).
Exemptions from certain travel measures: should apply for cross-border commuters, children under 12 and essential travellers. The list of essential travellers should be reduced as many travellers included in the current list have had the opportunity to be vaccinated in the meantime.
Simplified ‘emergency brake’ procedure: the emergency procedure intended to delay the spread of possible new COVID-19 variants or address particularly serious situations should be simplified and more operational. It would include a Member State notification to the Commission and the Council and a roundtable at the Council’s Integrated Political Crisis Response (IPCR).
To allow for sufficient time for the coordinated approach to be implemented, the Commission proposes that these updates apply as of 10 January 2022.
What is the Difference between a Sensor and Transducer?
What Do We Understand by a Transducer?
A transducer is an electrical gadget or device that can convert energy from one of its forms into another through the process known as transduction. In most cases and general scenarios, the appliance or instrument can transform a signal from one state into another. The conversion of electrical energy into its mechanical variation is an example of the kind or type of work a transducer can perform.
The most common places where a transducer finds application are the boundaries and margins of control systems, measurements, and automation. The electrical gadget can perform its actions and functions for a few specific conditions and circumstances. Let us choose an example to understand it. A transducer works when a given electrical energy or signal experiences transformation from any form or state of a physical quantity to another. The latter variable or parameter can include force position, motion, light, torque, etc.
What Do We Understand by a Sensor?
A sensor is a unique type of transducer. It receives a signal or a stimulus from a specified physical system and sends a response for it. The device generates and produces a return signal that depicts and represents the data and information of the entire arrangement. Such an approach can get used in different and distinct kinds or sorts of control, statistical, or telemetric systems.
A sensor comes with the ability and capability to detect distinct alterations and changes in its surroundings and environment. After locating the variations, it sends the collected and interpreted material and information to some other form or version of electronics. In general instances, it entails a computer processor. In other cases, manual and human deciphering can also get chosen.
What are the Various Types or Categories of Transducer?
Based on several factors, a transducer can get divided into different types or categories. The first basis of classification can comprise the manner or fashion in which the electrical instrument functions and operates. The kind of work it performs can also get included. In such a case, a transducer can be of the following two varieties or types:
- Mechanical Transducer
A mechanical transducer can change any physical quantity. It can transform it into its mechanical counterpart and form.
- Electrical Transducer
An electrical transducer can change any physical quantity. It can transform it into its electrical counterpart and form.
Besides the mentioned basis of categorization, a transducer can be of two more types. It depends on the style of job that the instrument performs.
- Input Transducer
An input transducer utilizes a specific state or particular form of a physical quantity or variable. It converts it into a readable and interpretable signal. An example that falls under this category includes a microphone. It accepts the produced and created sound waves and works to change them into an electrical form of signal. After that, the parameter or element can get moved or transported to the amplifier. It is feasible with the help of a wire connection system.
- Output Transducer
An output transducer operates in a manner that is the exact opposite of an input transducer. It utilizes the received electrical signals and changes them into some other state or form of energy. An example that falls under this category includes a lamp. It accepts electricity and alters into light energy.
What are the Various Types or Categories of Sensors?
A sensor can be of several types, a few of which entails:
- Position Sensor
A position sensor computes the distance traveled by a body from its reference or starting point. It measures the angular or the linear position. The device does so by comparing the acquired value with a specified location. Furthermore, it can determine the presence and location of an object.
- Strain Gauge
A strain gauge works to compute strain or force. Its resistance changes with the degree of applied force, leading to various electrical outputs. This method helps assess pressure, weight, and tension.
- Flow and Level Switch
A flow and level switch computes liquid or dry substances using a relay, millivolt, or current outputs.
- Vibration Sensor
A vibration sensor computes a machine, system, or equipment’s vibration frequency. The obtained results help to find and determine imbalances and other issues. It also works to correct them.
- Photo Optic Sensor
A photo optic sensor determines the distance and presence of an object. It does so using a photoelectric receiver as well as a light transmitter.
- Humidity Sensor
A humidity sensor computes air humidity conditions at any time and place.
- Force Sensor
A force sensor computes the magnitudes of load, strain, compression, and force.
- Pressure Sensor
A pressure sensor regulates various electrical gadgets and appliances. It also measures a fluid or a gas’ flow and speeds indirectly.
- Fluid Property Sensor
A fluid property sensor checks the dynamic and proportionate relationship between different physical properties. It helps assess the quality, contaminant load, and condition of the fluid.
- Piezo Sensor
A piezo sensor converts a physical variable like acceleration or pressure into an electrical signal. In addition, it can gauge the change in strain, acceleration, and pressure.
- Temperature Sensor
A temperature sensor computes the change in temperature of a gaseous, liquid, or solid matter.
How Does a Sensor Differ From a Transducer?
A sensor is a type of transducer. Nevertheless, each of the electrical instruments has significant points of difference between themselves. A few of their distinctions comprise:
A transducer resembles a translator. On the other hand, a sensor is more like a detector.
A transducer comprises a signal conditioning component and a sensor. A sensor has no additional parts.
- Performance Complexity
The working and operation of a transducer are more complicated than that of a sensor.
- Feedback System
A transducer delivers feedback to a specified system with the help of an output device. It happens after the processing steps end in the signal conditioning component. However, a sensor cannot do so.
- Output Signal Form
A transducer converts the output signal into an electrical form, while a sensor makes no changes.
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