When the Duke of Windsor, the former Edward VIII, was made governor of the Bahamas in 1940, he and his wife Wallis Simpson arrived to peaceful islands favored by a benign climate, away from the violent upheavals of a war-torn Europe.
Whatever the reasons — and many point to rising sea temperatures from climate change — the climate in the Caribbean is a little less benign as the unfortunate residents of Cuba, Haiti and Puerto Rico among others have noticed in the last few years.
And now hurricane Dorian, a category 5 monster when it made landfall on the northern island of Abaco and Grand Bahama on Sunday. The strongest storm on record to hit the islands with winds reaching 185 mph, it left not a single roof untouched in Abaco, some areas being completely obliterated as if nothing had ever existed.
How many dead? Nobody knows yet. Shelters designed to accommodate a few dozen are crammed with a thousand and more. Sarah St. George, the chairman of the Grand Bahama Port Authority experienced it first hand. “Grand Bahama is not in good shape at all because 70 percent of it is under water.” If water is up to the second floor, then people have lost everything. Recovery will be long and arduous.
The islands need help and is owed it. Mia Mottley the prime minister of Barbados put it bluntly: “We are on the front line of the consequences of climate change and we don’t cause it.” Climate experts predict worse and more frequent storms in the future. Dorian, for example, formed in August, earlier than normal. Global warming is playing havoc with weather and warmer seas fuel more moisture-laden, powerful storms.
Sea levels are rising from higher temperature expansion and greater ice melt, increasing the danger to coastal communities. In Greenland, the melting ice caps and sheets by a record amount have surprised researchers, who say this summer’s melt has been enough to raise global sea levels by one millimeter. The ice sheet is 2-3 km thick and covers an area six times the size of Germany. If all that ice melted, it would raise sea levels worldwide by 7 meters or almost 23 feet.
When greenhouse gases are causing global warming, responsibility lies with the largest producers/polluters. Would an international court find them liable to the small island nations suffering the consequences? But then, if it does, who is going to persuade them to pay up?
It is in everyone’s interest to reduce global warming and since the powers that be do not listen to us, 16-year old Greta Thunberg is doing something about it. To prove her point on greenhouse gases she refused to take a transatlantic flight, crossing on a sailboat instead to attend the United Nations climate summit later this month. While she gears up for it, she is also preparing for the global strike on Friday September 20th preceding the climate summit on the Monday following. She chose Friday, a workday, because she is asking adults to join the action and stay away from their jobs.
Of course UN climate summit reports try to achieve consensus and in doing so have to appease fossil fuel producers. If caveats are multiplied and uncertainties magnified, it is all part of the game.
Then there are the unexpected consequences. As electric cars multiply and the demand for copper escalates, new sources must be developed. Thus a new copper mine is being dug in the pristine wilderness of northern Norway, north of the Arctic Circle. How well will reindeer and their Sami herders coexist with copper mining in the sparse wilderness is an open question.
Sustainability in the Age of Climate Change: Demography, Resources, and Action
The effects of climate change are no longer theoretical; they pose a real and immediate danger to our world. We have reached a pivotal juncture as temperatures rise owing to the persistent growth in greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide. Climate change has farreaching effects, disrupting ecosystems and threatening human populations across the world. This article examines how climate change, population growth, and the availability of resources all play a role in bringing about this dilemma. We’ll break down everything from the growing world population and fossil fuel use to the looming water problem and stress the need for decisive action on all fronts.
Climate change, fueled by the continuous increase in greenhouse gas emissions, is at the center of the environmental catastrophe. As with many other gases, carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes to global warming by trapping heat above Earth’s surface. The consequences of global warming are starting to show. The track of Earth’s average temperature rises from 2011 to 2030 is concerning, with a 1°C increase already seen. Without fast and serious action, it is predicted that global temperatures would climb by an alarming 3 to 5 degrees Celsius between 2046 and 2065. A frightening 8-10°C temperature increase between 2080 and 2099 is possible, and may throw our world into anarchy.
Climate change is exacerbated by the rapid increase in the world’s population. The exponential increase in the global population is putting enormous strain on the Earth’s limited resources. This stress is made worse by urbanization since cities are the most voracious consumers of limited resources. This population transition will have far-reaching consequences, many of which are linked to the effects of global warming. Rapid population expansion is a key driver of current demographic trends, which in turn influence global warming. When people live in cities, they use more resources like food, water, and electricity. This urban expansion, in which large swathes of land are constructed to house the increasing population, is harmful to the environment and cannot be sustained.
The effects of globalization on climate change, which is defined by the interdependence of economies and cultures across boundaries, are mixed. One positive effect of globalization is that information about and access to renewable energy sources and environmentally friendly methods of production have spread more quickly and widely than ever before. However, technology has also facilitated increased consumption and the globalization of trade, both of which add to greenhouse gas emissions and environmental deterioration. Greenhouse gas emissions have been worsened by the fast growth of energy-intensive businesses brought about by the urbanization and industrialization associated with globalization.
The disappearance of glaciers is one of climate change’s most spectacular aesthetic effects. Glaciers are melting at an alarming pace as temperatures increase throughout the planet. There will be severe consequences for coastal and delta populations as a result of this phenomena. When glaciers melt, they help drive up river and ocean levels. Many people all around the world live in coastal areas, which are especially at risk. Extreme weather like hurricanes, typhoons, and tornadoes become more likely due to the higher water levels, which in turn causes more extensive damage and human casualties. Current rates of sea level rise are around 1 mm per year on average. There is a possibility that global sea levels might increase by 0.8 m to 2 m by the turn of the century (Jacob et al., 2012). The coastal settlements would be devastated, thus urgent and extensive adaptation and mitigation measures are needed.
The Albedo effect is an important concept in climate science because it demonstrates how effective reflecting surfaces are at maintaining a comfortable temperature. Reflection of sunlight by snow and ice helps to keep Earth’s surface cool by reducing the amount of energy absorbed by the planet. Because of its thin snow covering, Arctic Sea ice actually absorbs more sunlight than it reflects. As a result, Arctic Sea ice is melting fast, adding to the effects of global warming. Antarctica, on the other hand, reflects over 90% of incoming sunlight due to its huge glaciers coated in reflecting snow. There is no mistaking the implications: less Arctic Sea ice means more heat is absorbed, speeding up global warming. It is imperative that ice sheets be protected because of the vital function they serve in maintaining the planet’s average temperature.
Temperature increases are just one aspect of climate change, which has far-reaching effects on Earth’s ecosystems and biodiversity. Satellite imagery shows that plant cover in the Arctic is “greening,” with trees becoming higher, tundra giving way to shrubs, and mammal populations shifting as they adapt to new circumstances. Due to these shifts, native species are being pushed out of their habitats and replaced with species from warmer areas. The greater white-fronted geese of Japan and the brown hare of Sweden, for instance, have both begun to invade mountain hare habitats. The extinction of arctic foxes has been exacerbated by the spread of red foxes.
Water is a crucial resource for human existence and agricultural production, and climate change is having a direct influence on its availability. (Peterson et al., 2002) contend that 97% of the water on Earth is ocean salt, making it unfit for human consumption or agricultural use. About 2.5% of the water on Earth is drinkable. The decrease in groundwater levels in extensively irrigated areas is a particularly worrying trend. Groundwater levels in some regions of the Indian subcontinent were found to be declining at an unsustainable pace of 4 to 10 centimeters per year in 2009, threatening the lives of around 600 million people.
The Ogallala Aquifer is an important supply of groundwater in Texas, and it was the subject of an in-depth research headed by Kelvin Mulligan, a professor of economics and geography at Texas Tech University. Their research revealed disturbing trends, including a yearly reduction of 1 foot in the aquifer’s water table on average and a shocking 3-foot decline in certain regions. The rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves highlights the critical need of making the switch to renewable energy sources (Mulligan et al., 2014).
The rising water shortage situation may be resolved via the use of virtual water trading. Virtual water is the unseen quantity of water used in the manufacturing and distribution of commodities. Countries may reduce their demands on their local water systems by importing items that need large amounts of water (Varis et al., 2013). The idea that countries may work together via commerce to lessen their own water footprints and better adapt to shifting climates is illustrative of the interrelated nature of global sustainability. Water-poor Middle Eastern nations like Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates purchase wheat from water-rich places like the United States, providing a real-world example of virtual water commerce. This helps these countries cope with the difficulties of water shortages brought on by climate change while also relieving demand on their precious freshwater supplies. Likewise, nations that have an abundance of water might use virtual water commerce to spread the word about the benefits of sustainable water management and build global resilience in the face of increasing environmental risks.
Nations must hasten their shift to renewable energy sources to counteract the persistent use of fossil fuels. Because they don’t rely on flowing water to produce electricity, renewable sources like wind and solar power provide an attractive alternative to hydropower. While hydropower is renewable, it uses quite a lot of water in the process. For illustration’s sake, one megawatt-hour of energy generated by hydropower requires around 30,078 gallons of water. This level of water use is really worrisome, especially in areas where water is limited to begin with.
The artery of hydropower, the Colorado River provides life-sustaining water to 27 million people in seven U.S. states and Mexico. The Colorado River’s flow, however, is expected to decrease by 10-30 percent due to climate change brought on by human activities. There is already a problem with the river’s water being overused, and this frightening drop in flow just makes it worse. Lake Powell and Lake Mead, two enormous reservoirs that get their water supply from the Colorado River, have been significantly below capacity since 1999. By 2005, Lake Powell had lost around two-thirds of its water and was dangerously close to being declared a “dead pool.” It was believed that Lake Powell may dry up totally within four years, which would be disastrous for future water supplies and sustainability.
Despite being written off as a minor political issue, climate change might spark dangerous confrontations. The “water war theory” argues that vulnerable areas may resort to war if upstream governments obstruct the supply of water to downstream ones.
Due to climate change different states are now working on construction of dams to store water many of the dams are being constructed on disputed water, like india’s new dam project on the Chenab river.
The agricultural economy of many states would collapse without access to water, which is necessary for human survival. Tensions may rise as a result of water shortages or supply outages, which can cause economic downturns and food poverty. Diplomatic engagements and conversations between governments to address disputes over water resources are essential to preventing crises from escalating. Particularly in areas prone to water-related disputes, it is crucial to get down and speak about how to share water resources fairly.
A whole new way of thinking about how to generate and use energy is needed to combat climate change. Policy initiatives that help nations become less reliant on fossil fuels and more open to sustainable alternatives must be given top priority. Particularly promising are wind and solar power. These power plants are perfect for places where fresh water is scarce since they produce energy without using any. The Canadian province of Prince Edward Island is notable for having converted to 100% wind-generated power. Biofuels are another feasible alternative to traditional fossil fuels. Major progress has been made in using biofuels as a mainstream energy source in places like the USA, the EU, and Brazil. Brazil grows sugarcane on a massive scale for biofuel production, whereas the US and EU use maize and sugar beets respectively. One of the most widely used biofuels, ethanol, has recently attracted attention across the world. The United States and Brazil are the two major ethanol producers in the world. In recent years, ethanol use in Brazil has even overtaken that of gasoline. To slow global warming, technological progress is essential. The transportation industry is on the brink of a transformation because to developments like vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. V2G technology enables electric cars to both recharge from and contribute to the power grid. By using fewer fossil fuels, this invention lessens its impact on the environment.
Reservoirs, lakes, canals, and dams are all examples of infrastructure that governments should invest in to combat the problem of dwindling water supplies. These facilities provide for the safekeeping and control of water resources, protecting against water shortages and guaranteeing a steady water supply. In the western region of Xinjiang, China, for example, the government is making preparations to build 59 new reservoirs to store water from glacier-fed rivers. In areas where glacial meltwater is a major source of water, such measures are essential for the long-term supply. The benefits of technology extend beyond the realm of energy. They cover a broad spectrum of technological advances made to lessen the effects of climate change. Through its Recharge IT programme, Google Inc. is working hard to advance vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connectivity. As a result of this innovative technology, electric cars may now both recharge from and contribute to the grid. This breakthrough has the potential to drastically cut the transportation industry’s reliance on fossil fuels, cutting down on emissions and pollution.
Combating climate change is an international undertaking that calls collective cooperation. Some of the most influential worldwide organizations in the fight against climate change include the United Nations, the Natural Resources Defense Council, Greenpeace, Earthjustice, and the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Sustainable practices are promoted, awareness is raised, and governments and companies are held responsible via the work of these groups, which includes research, lobbying, and policy formulation. Their work is crucial to global climate change prevention and adaptation initiatives.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 give an all-encompassing framework for dealing with the effects of climate change and its accompanying difficulties. Clean energy, climate action, water resources, and ecosystem protection are just few of the many areas that are addressed by the SDGs. These targets provide a guide for nations and businesses to follow in order to achieve global sustainability goals. The SDGs stress the value of working together across borders to combat climate change and build a more just and sustainable global society.
In conclusion, the interaction between climate change, population growth, and sustainable use of resources is a complex and multidimensional problem that calls for swift and thorough response. The globe is already feeling the effects of climate change, from increased temperatures and melting glaciers to decreased water supplies and disrupted ecosystems. To overcome these obstacles, we must drastically alter our energy system, moving away from fossil fuels and toward renewables like wind and solar. There are some encouraging answers to the problem of emissions and pollution, and these include the use of biofuels and technical advances like V2G technology.
Moreover, nations throughout the world need to work together to find solutions to climate change. Resolving water issues and avoiding confrontations over scarce supplies need diplomacy and open communication. When it comes to pushing for climate action and bringing governments and companies to account, international organizations are indispensable. Global cooperation in climate change mitigation is emphasized by the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals, which offer a road map for nations to match their efforts with global sustainability goals.
The stakes are tremendous; the future of our planet is at risk. Leaders and governments throughout the world, as well as ordinary individuals, have a responsibility to address and work toward mitigating non-traditional security concerns. The call to action is all the more urgent given the millions of lives, ecosystems, and our planet’s future that are at stake.
Dire Consequences in Failing the Climate Change Goals
It is not as if they have closely missed their goals; it is as if they have not even been trying. The new Oxfam report on climate change places the blame squarely on the rich countries , the US being the worst offender.
The goal has been to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 45 percent before 2030. Instead, they are headed for an increase of 10.6 percent. As might be expected, these world’s largest economies, the G20, produce the most pollution.
On average, they emit between 7.4 and 7.7 tons of CO2 per person per year. To keep global mean temperature rise below 1.5 C above preindustrial levels as has been the goal, they need to come down to 2.9 to 3.8 tons.
The G20 and other countries will be submitting their nationally determined contributions or NDC’s at the UN Climate Summit in Dubai this November. These assessments there will reveal whether or not they are on track for achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement, namely to limit temperature rise to 1.5C.
Researchers accessing G20 plans using three different methodologies found these will reduce emissions only to 6.7 to 6.9 tons per person per year on average. That is nearly double what is required.
Oxfam’s work on emissions produced by the rich and the poor find them influenced by wealth and inequality — the 125 billionaires themselves produce through their investments and activities a colossal 393 million tons each year at a 3 million ton per person average — a half million times higher than the average G20 person and a million times higher than the bottom 90 percent by global wealth.
The US leads the high income countries with the largest deficit in not meeting the goals planned emissions reduction. Its shortfall is up to 24.6 tons of CO2 equivalent per person per year. Middle income countries are led by Russia at 10. China has a high of 3.4 and India merely 0.7.
If the world is serious about global warming, it has to persuade rich countries, particularly G7 the richest, and the rest of the G20 to ramp up spending to move to low-carbon alternatives, and also increase climate finance for the poorer countries. It is the only way as these countries simply do not possess the resources otherwise.
What happens if the rich countries ignore the possibilities? Well, we have seen the news within the last year — the latest being the catastrophic floods in Libya killing at least 5,300 while an estimated 10,000 remain missing. What is unusual will become the norm as the air heats up absorbing more moisture from the oceans.
Extreme weather like hurricanes and typhoons will increase with extended seasons. Recent examples are the wildfires in Australia and Canada and the Atlantic hurricane season. The latter runs from June 1 to November 30. Closely before or after would not be exceptional but this year we experienced a named storm in January.
So if no one is doing much about climate change except talk, batten down the hatches or move away from the coast, nice as it usually is.
Nairobi’s Climate Summit Seeks External Funding Amid Geopolitical Challenges
The historic gathering on Climate Change inside Africa, clearly portrays efforts at spearheading towards finding sustainable solutions to existing challenges. But African leaders are still standing at a crossroads as they try hard to balance their geopolitical positions, this time with raising the needed funds for controlling the effects of climate change in Africa.
Majority of these African leaders consistently barked at Western and Europeans for the their excessive control, frequent interference in their internal affairs and shout over aspects of democracy, human rights and hegemony, and yet look forward for their invaluable investment in the economy.
This summit held under the theme, “Africa Climate Summit 2023: Driving Green Growth & Climate Finance Solutions for Africa and the World” attracted a host of African and external guests, and including representatives of civil society and non-state organizations. The governmental leaders met for three days while the entire week was dedicated to the current situation and potential solutions.
With high optimism, the first summit held in Nairobi, Kenya, early September was primarily to review and systematize possible options African nations have to finance climate change, and on the other way, nature and its inherent resources in the continent. Kenyan President William Ruto made the summit’s aim very clear his speech – to discuss how to fund the challenges posed by climate change.
Ruto further envisioned a “future where Africa finally steps into the stage as an economic and industrial power, an effective and positive actor on a global arena” and unreservedly boasted the availability of the young population, to take advantage of the vast renewable potential and natural resources.
Ruto’s narratives at the conference dealt with the fact that Africa is acutely vulnerable to the growing impacts of climate change, and consequently made a strategic call for accelerating funding in Africa. At the end of the summit, the narratives appealing to the international community to help achieve that goal by easing the continent’s crushing debt burden and reforming the global financial system to unblock investment was finally incorporated into the final declaration.
Prior to the declaration, it was broadly noted that Africa has an “unparalleled opportunity” to benefit from the fight against global warming but needed massive investment to unlock its potential as Nairobi hosts a landmark climate summit focusing on the continent. “The overarching theme… is the unparalleled opportunity that climate action represents for Africa,” Ruto said in his opening address, while further stressing for trillions of dollars from the international community to unblock financing for Africa.
It is always puzzling, Africa has all the resources. Africa needs external funds. African leaders have savings in foreign banks. Yet, Africa is poor to the bone-marrow, complaints of dearth of finance, and despite the abundance of natural resources in the continent. In order to rebuild confidence, African Union Commission head, Moussa Faki Mahamat, was straight to the point in his demand – wielding his French tongue and some tiredness or frustration – on behalf of the 54-member states, that the international investment must be “massively scaled up to enable commitments to be turned into actions across the continent of Africa.”
While demanding sweeping changes to the global financial system, Moussa Mahamat also announced that the summit would become a regular event and be held every two years.
Among most of the speakers, Eritrean President Isaias Afwerki’s remarks seemingly carried different weighty significance. “Climate change poses, by all accounts, one of the most pressing challenges of our times. Its impact in Africa will be immensely aggravated; compounded as it is by a host of other major hurdles,” he said.
“The policies we articulate, and implementation mechanisms we map out, at the individual national level will not provide the primary panacea to this global challenge,” noted Afwerki, but added that, in this context, Africa can tap and incorporate the numerous scientific measures undertaken by global players in the field to bolster its purposeful mitigation measures.
While concluding his talk at the gathering, he reminded the necessity for Africa to mobilize its own resources rather than extend hands for handouts that may aggravate the existing situation by inviting interference and corrupt practices, mobilizing inside resources will be enabling and motivating creativity at the level of the continent.
Isaias Afwerki urged everyone to not be attracted by the billions that are being promised by so called donors. Rather, better to mobilize resources and get away from this dependency that will definitely compromise everything at the level of the continent.
Despite potential internal and external hurdles to scaling up funds, one report co-authored by Executive Secretary at the UN Economic Commission for Africa, Vera Songwe, concluded that multilateral development banks’ climate finance must triple within five years, from US$60 bln to US$180 bln, to help developing economies globally cope with global warming. Annual climate finance flows in Africa stand at only US$30 billion at the moment, however.
In another report released by Oxfam, for instance, said the devastating drought has gripped Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia — which scientists say has been made more severe by climate change — as well as floods in South Sudan, have caused losses of between US$15 billion and US$30 billion in the two years to 2022, or around two to four percent of the region’s GDP.
It estimated that between 2021 and 2023, the four countries lost about US$7.4 billion in livestock alone. “Millions of already struggling people saw their animals die and lost their ability to grow, sell or eat nutritious food, plunging them into even greater poverty and hunger,” the report said.
There so many reports detailing various aspects of the climate change, specifically with regards to Africa. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) also estimates that 34 of 59 developing economies most vulnerable to climate change, many or which are in Africa, are also at a high risk of fiscal crises.
The summit has raised approximately US$23 billion in funding pledges. There are daunting challenges for the continent where hundreds of millions lack access to electricity. The oil-rich United Arab Emirates (UAE), in complete recognition of the Africa’s potential offered the financial pledge of US$4.5 billion as it competes to get hold of Africa. United States’ climate envoy John Kerry also announced US$30 million in new funding to accelerate climate-resilient food security across the continent.
United Nations Secretary-General, Antonio Guterres, at African Climate Summit, pointed to an injustice burns at the heart of the climate crisis. And its flame is scorching hopes and possibilities in Africa. This continent accounts for less than four per cent of global emissions. Yet it suffers some of the worst effects of rising global temperatures: Extreme heat, ferocious floods, and tens of thousands dead from devastating droughts. The blow inflicted on development is all around with growing hunger and displacement. Shattered infrastructure. Systems stretched to the limit.
All these above aggravated by climate chaos not of Africans’ making. It is still possible to avoid the worst effects of climate change. But only with a quantum leap in climate action. The people of Africa – and people everywhere – need action to respond to deadly climate extremes.
Notwithstanding all that he mentioned above, Antonio Guterres explained that reaching these targets requires climate justice. Developed countries must present a clear and credible roadmap to double adaptation finance by 2025 as a first step towards devoting, at least, half of all climate finance to adaptation.
Referring to multinational development banks and othe foreign financiers, Antonio Guterres added in his speech: “They must keep their promise to provide $100 billion a year to developing countries for climate support. Every person on earth must be covered by an early warning system by 2027 – by implementing the Action Plan we launched last year.”
“Six out of every 10 Africans currently lack access to these systems. The Early Warning for All Africa Action Plan launched yesterday under the leadership of the African Union will be critical to addressing this need. More broadly, we need a course correction in the global financial system so that it supports accelerated climate action in the context of sustainable development. We can’t achieve one without the other,” accroding to the Secretary General of the United Nations.
It, therefore, means re-capitalizing and changing the business model of Multilateral Development Banks. This could make it possible to leverage private finance at affordable rates to support developing nations to build sustainable economies. The global financial system must be reformed to be an ally of developing nations as they turbocharge a just and equitable green transition that leaves no one behind, especially those in Africa.
But then, and but the point here is that African leaders must get down to their tasks. Interestingly, Africa produces and trades in critical minerals. Africa must be sustainable, transparent and just across every link of the supply chain, with maximum added value produced across Africa. So we are saying is that African leadership must strive to generate innovative green economies anchored in renewable power.
Without hyperbolic geopolitical slogans, now is the time to bring together African states with developed world, financial institutions and technology companies to create a true African Renewable Energy Alliance. With adequate access to financial resources at a reasonable cost and technological support, renewables could dramatically boost economies, grow new industries, create jobs and drive development – including by reaching the over 600 million Africans living without access to power.
Nevertheless, African leaders and the attendees, demand from external nations to honour long-standing climate pledges for poorer nations. Analysts in their several news reports also acknowledged that the summit unity generated momentum for making this demand. But consensus is still challenging across the diverse continent of 1.4 billion people, the 54 African leaders and the African Union and within the context of geopolitical situation around the world.
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