With 8 weeks to go until the United Kingdom’s withdrawal from the European Union on 31 October 2019, the Commission has today – in its 6th Brexit preparedness Communication – reiterated its call on all stakeholders in the EU27 to prepare for a ‘no-deal’ scenario. In light of the continued uncertainty in the United Kingdom regarding the ratification of the Withdrawal Agreement – as agreed with the UK government in November 2018 – and the overall domestic political situation, a ‘no-deal’ scenario on 1 November 2019, remains a possible, although undesirable, outcome.
It is in this spirit that the European Commission has today published a detailed checklist to help those businesses that trade with the UK to make final preparations. In order to minimise disruption to trade, all parties involved in supply chains with the UK – regardless of where they are based – should be aware of their responsibilities and the necessary formalities in cross-border trade. This builds on previous Communications and 100 stakeholder notices, which cover a broad range of sectors.
In addition to this, the Commission has proposed to the European Parliament and the Council to make targeted technical adjustments to the duration of the EU’s ‘no-deal’ contingency measures in the area of transport. The Commission has also proposed to mirror, for the year 2020, the existing 2019 contingency arrangements for the fisheries sector and for the UK’s potential participation in the EU budget for 2020. These measures are necessary given the decision to extend the Article 50 period to 31 October 2019.
Finally, the Commission has proposed that the European Solidarity Fund and the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund are available to support businesses, workers and Member States most affected by a ‘no-deal’ scenario. These proposals need to be agreed by the European Parliament and the Council.
The Commission recalls that it is the responsibility of all stakeholders to prepare for all scenarios. Given that a ‘no-deal’ scenario remains a possible outcome, the Commission strongly encourages all stakeholders to use the extra time provided by the extension of the Article 50 period to ensure that they have taken all necessary measures to prepare for the UK’s withdrawal from the EU.
Technical adjustment of specific contingency measures to take account of the UK’s withdrawal date of 31 October 2019
On 11 April 2019, the European Council (Article 50) extended the Article 50 period to 31 October 2019. This was done at the request of, and in agreement with, the United Kingdom.
In light of this extension, the Commission has screened all the EU’s preparedness and contingency measures to ensure that they are still fit for purpose. The Commission has concluded that these measures continue to meet their objectives and therefore there was no need to amend any of them on substance. However, the Commission has today proposed to make some technical adjustments to specific contingency measures in order to take account of the new Article 50 timeline.
These adjustments are in three main areas:
- A Regulation ensuring basic road freight and road passenger connectivity (Regulation (EU) 2019/501): The Commission has today proposed to extend this Regulation until 31 July 2020, reflecting the logic and the duration of the original Regulation.
- Basic air connectivity (Regulation (EU) 2019/502): the Commission has today proposed to extend this Regulation until 24 October 2020, reflecting the logic and duration of the original Regulation.
2. Fishing activities
- Regulation on fishing authorisations: the Commission has today proposed to extend the approach in the adopted contingency Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2019/498) with a similar measure for 2020, providing a framework for EU and UK fishermen to maintain access to each other’s waters for 2020.
3. The EU Budget
- The Commission has today proposed to extend the approach of the contingency Budget Regulation for 2019 (Council Regulation (EU, Euratom) 2019/1197) with a similar measure for 2020. This means that the UK and UK beneficiaries would remain eligible to participate in programmes under the EU budget and to receive financing until the end of 2020 if the UK accepts and fulfils the conditions already set out in the 2019 contingency regulation, pays its budget contributions for 2020 and allows the required audits and controls to take place.
Providing EU financial support to those most affected by a ‘no-deal’ Brexit
The Commission announced in its fourth Brexit Preparedness Communication of 10 April 2019 that technical and financial assistance from the EU can be made available in certain areas to support those most affect by a ‘no-deal’ scenario.
In addition to existing programmes and instruments, the Commission has today:
- Proposed to extend the scope of the European Solidarity Fund to cover the serious financial burden that may be inflicted on Member States by a ‘no-deal’ scenario, subject to certain conditions.
- Proposed to ensure that the European Globalisation Adjustment Fund is available to support workers and self-employed persons who are made redundant as a result of a ‘no-deal’ scenario, subject to certain conditions.
In the agriculture sector, the full spectrum of existing instruments for market support and direct financial support to farmers will be made available to mitigate the worst impact on agri-food markets. For more immediate support, for example for smaller companies with large exposure to the United Kingdom, the EU’s State aid rules offer flexible solutions for national support measures.
The Commission and Ireland continue working together, in the context of the unique situation on the island of Ireland and their twin objectives of protecting the integrity of the internal market while avoiding a hard border, to identify arrangements both for contingency solutions for the immediate aftermath of a withdrawal without an agreement and for a more stable solution for the period thereafter. The backstop provided for by the Withdrawal Agreement is the only solution identified that safeguards the Good Friday Agreement, ensures compliance with international law obligations and preserves the integrity of the internal market.
Preparing for a ‘no-deal’ scenario
In a ‘no-deal’ scenario, the UK will become a third country without any transitional arrangements. All EU primary and secondary law will cease to apply to the UK from that moment onwards. There will be no transition period, as provided for in the Withdrawal Agreement. This will obviously cause significant disruption for citizens and businesses and would have a serious negative economic impact, which would be proportionally much greater in the United Kingdom than in the EU27 Member States.
Since December 2017, the European Commission has been preparing for a ‘no-deal’ scenario. To date, the Commission has tabled 19 legislative proposals, all of which have now been adopted by the European Parliament and Council. The Commission has also adopted 63 non-legislative acts and published 100 preparedness notices. The Commission does not plan any new measures ahead of the new withdrawal date.
As outlined by President Juncker in the European Parliament on 3 April 2019, should a ‘no-deal’ scenario occur, the UK would be expected to address three main separation issues as a precondition before the EU would consider embarking on discussions about the future relationship. These are: (1) protecting and upholding the rights of citizens who have used their right to free movement before Brexit, (2) honouring the financial obligations the UK has made as a Member State and (3) preserving the letter and spirit of the Good Friday Agreement and peace on the island of Ireland, as well as the integrity of the internal market.
Every single business that trades with the UK, both in goods and services, will be affected by a ‘no-deal’ scenario. The Commission has today published a “Brexit preparedness checklist”, which all relevant businesses should examine carefully. Businesses should now be ready to fulfil all the required formalities.
Today’s Communication provides an overview of preparedness work in those areas where continued and particular vigilance is needed. They include citizens’ rights, border formalities and trade, medicinal products, medical devices and chemical substances, financial services and fisheries.
For more information: what should I do in a ‘no-deal’ scenario?
For the period immediately after a withdrawal without an agreement, the Commission has set up a call centre for Member State administrations, giving them rapid access to the expertise of the Commission services by establishing a direct channel of communication, also for the purposes of facilitating the necessary coordination between national authorities. To know more about how to prepare for a ‘no-deal’ scenario, EU citizens can contact Europe Direct for any questions. Call Freephone 00 800 6 7 8 9 10 11 from anywhere in the EU, in any official EU language.
EU defence gets a boost as the European Defence Fund becomes a reality
Commission welcomes the adoption of the European Defence Fund (EDF), following the European Parliament’s approval. The EDF, with a budget of €7.9 billion, is the Commission’s flagship instrument to support defence cooperation in Europe. EDF will co-finance collaborative research and capability development projects amplifying national investment. It will also foster an innovative and competitive defence industrial base. In doing so, it will enhance Union’s technological sovereignty and therefore its open strategic autonomy.
Margrethe Vestager, Executive Vice-President for a Europe Fit for the Digital Age, said: “This is an important step for a stronger Europe. The Fund will play a key role to enable SMEs to participate in defence supply chains and widen cross-border industrial cooperation. Providing opportunities to companies all sizes helps achieving more innovative solutions, to foster an open internal market. So besides a stronger defence cooperation it contributes to our competitiveness.”
Thierry Breton, Commissioner for Internal Market, said: “Today marks a historic day for Europe. The idea of working together for promoting our Defence Union and for the security of EU citizens is now a tangible reality. In a global context where Europe needs to be stronger, more resilient and more autonomous in strategic areas, the European Defence Fund is a milestone and will significantly contribute to the security of EU citizens.”
A Fund to deepen EU defence industrial cooperation
Without substituting Member States’ efforts, the Fund will promote cooperation between companies of all sizes and research actors throughout the EU, in research and development of state-of-the-art and interoperable defence technology and equipment.
The Fund will support competitive and collaborative defence projects throughout the entire cycle of research and development, focusing on projects that have the potential to be game-changers for the armed forces of Member States. The Fund will foster innovation and incentivise the cross-border participation of SMEs. Projects will be defined based on defence capability priorities agreed by Member States within the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy and particularly in the context of the Capability Development Plan. The projects will aim at contributing to the security and defence interests of the Union.
The EDF allows for the participation of European subsidiaries of third country companies and also for the cooperation with third country companies provided that their involvement ensure the security and defence interests of the EU, and meet the rigorous security conditions as set in the EDF Regulation.
A strong budget for ambitious and inclusive defence programmes
2021 constitutes the first year of the rollout of the new EDF, which will be operational for the period 2021-2027, in alignment with the Multiannual Financial Framework.
It will be endowed with a budget of €7,953,000,000 in current prices. This financial envelope will be divided into two pillars: €2,651,000,000 will be allocated to funding collaborative defence research to address emerging and future security threats and €5,302,000,000 to co-finance collaborative capability development projects.
Up to 4%-8% of the Fund budget is devoted to development or research for disruptive technologies (i.e. technologies that have the potential to create game-changing innovations). This budget represents an unprecedented opportunity to contribute to the development of a competitive and innovative European defence industry.
The complete establishment of the Fund both legally and financially will now allow the Programme Committee (PC), chaired by the Commission and composed of Member States representatives, to discuss priorities and confront topics with the aim to open calls for proposals in summer 2021. The Commission will directly manage the programme. The European Defence Agency (EDA) is invited to participate as observer and the European External Action Service (EEAS) will assist in the Committee.
The creation of a European Defence Fund was first announced in 2016. The Commission presented the first version of the European Defence Fund in June 2017, which has allowed defence cooperation at EU level to embark thanks to two pilot projects, the Preparatory Action on Defence Research (PADR) for 2017-2019 and the European Defence Industrial Development Programme (EDIDP) for 2019-2020.
The Fund is part of the priorities of the von der Leyen Commission for a ‘Stronger Europe in the World’.
A political agreement between the Member States and the European Parliament was found in December 2020 and today’s decision gives legislative effect to the EDF that will operate for the next 7 years.
Dual-use goods: what are they and why are new rules needed?
The EU is working on new export rules for so-called dual-use goods to prevent them being misused in human rights violations.
What are dual-use goods?
Dual-use products are goods designed for civilian use that in the wrong hands could be used to supress human rights or launch terrorist attacks. They can be anything from drones to chemicals.
Although these goods can improve people’s lives, they can be misused. Authoritarian regimes might use them to keep the population under control, while terrorist groups could use them to stage attacks.
Why are new rules needed?
To prevent dual-use goods being repurposed in ways that violate human rights , the EU wants to make sure strict export rules prevent them being sold to people or organisations wanting to misuse them.
The EU is currently working on an update of the existing rules to take into account recent technological developments, including new cyber surveillance tools, and beef up protection of human rights.
Explainer: EU4Health Programme 2021-2027
What is EU4Health?
EU4Health is the fourth EU health programme, which will run from 2021-2027. It is the EU’s ambitious health response to the COVID-19 pandemic and the EUs overall health challenges. EU4Health will make €5.1 billion available over the next seven years to improve and foster health in the Union to reduce the burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases by:
- protecting people from serious cross-border health threats;
- improving the availability, accessibility and affordability of medicines, medical devices and other crisis relevant products in the EU;
- strengthening national health systems.
The EU4Health programme will go beyond the COVID-19 crisis, supporting amongst others actions on disease prevention, notably on cancer, the digital transformation of health systems, the reinforcement of the health system and the healthcare workforce. It will pave the way to a strong European Health Union that will improve and safeguard the health of all EU citizens.
What makes EU4Health different from previous health programmes?
Never before has Europe invested more in health. According to a recent EU survey, 66% of EU citizens would like to see the EU given more say over health-related matters. The pandemic has shown that the EU needs greater coordination during health crises and health-systems that are more resilient.
EU4Health is a stand-alone programme with a budget more than ten times that of previous health programmes. Actions like tackling cross-border health threats, making medicines available and affordable, and strengthening and digitalising health systems will be financially supported.
What are the main objectives of the EU4Health Programme?
The EU4Health programme has the following objectives:
- Improve and foster health in the Union by:
- Supporting actions for disease prevention, health promotion and addressing health determinants;
- Supporting global commitments and health initiatives.
- Protect people in the Union from serious cross-border threats to health by:
- Strengthening the capability of the Union for prevention, preparedness and response to cross-border health threats, including through a new bio-preparedness authority, the European Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Authority (HERA);
- Supporting actions complementing national stockpiling on essential crisis relevant products;
- Establishing a structure and training resources for a reserve of medical, healthcare and support staff.
- Enhance the availability, accessibility and affordability of medicinal products, medical devices and crisis-relevant products by:
- Encouraging sustainable production and supply chains and innovation in the Union, while supporting efficient use of medicinal products.
- Strengthening health systems resilience and resource efficiency though:
- Strengthening health data, the uptake of digital tools and services and the digital transformation of healthcare systems, including by supporting the creation of a European Health Data Space;
- Promoting the implementation of best practices and promoting data sharing;
- Enhancing access to quality, patient-centred, outcome-based healthcare and related care services;
- Supporting integrated work among Member States, and in particular their health systems.
How will non-communicable diseases, such as cancer, be addressed in the new programme?
Non-communicable and life style related diseases are among the biggest challenges facing EU health systems. Non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes, represent major causes of disability, health-related retirement, and premature death in the Union, resulting in considerable social and economic costs. It is key to focus on prevention, combined with efforts to strengthen health systems in order to decrease the impact of non-communicable diseases on individuals and society and to reduce premature mortality towards reaching the Sustainable Development Goals by one third by 2030.
EU4Health will support disease prevention (including screening and early diagnosis for cancer) and health promotion programmes in Member States among others. EU4Health will contribute to the upscaling of the networking through the European Reference Networks, which are virtual networks and aim to facilitate discussion on complex, rare and non-communicable diseases, improving access to diagnosis and the provision of high-quality healthcare.
Will the programme contribute to the EU Beating Cancer Plan?
The pandemic has had a severe effect on cancer care, disrupting treatment, delaying diagnosis and vaccination, and affecting access to medicines. Even before the onset of COVID-19, cancer cases were estimated to increase by almost 25% by 2035, which will make it the leading cause of death in the EU. To reverse this worrying trend, the EU4Health Programme will also finance actions to fight cancer, which is one of the Commission’s main priorities. It will do so by providing funding to eligible legal entities established in Member States, such as health organisations and NGOs. Cancer will already be a strong priority in the first annual work programme for 2021, which will is expected to be adopted soon.
How will EU4Health address cross-border health threats?
The Commission is working to improve prevention, preparedness, surveillance and response to cross-border health threats. EU4Health can finance an EU reserve of medical, healthcare and support staff, and stockpiles of medical equipment.
Cross-border health threats require cross-border cooperation and the EU will play a larger role in supporting capacity and response. Beyond our own borders, the EU will support global cooperation on health challenges to improve health, reduce inequalities and increase protection against global health threats.
Will it also address shortages of medicines and personnel?
EU4Health can finance additional emergency reserves of medicines, medical devices and other health supplies to complement national reserves.
One way to make sure we have enough medical supplies is to use what we have more efficiently, in particular antimicrobials. Another way is to encourage European pharmaceutical production and innovation. EU4health will support the EU’s AMR Action Plan and the Pharmaceutical Strategy.
It will not be enough to have sufficient medicine and medical supplies. We also need a strong healthcare workforce, equipped with the necessary skills to face cross-border health threats. That is why EU4Health will also support healthcare workforce training in specific areas.
How will it improve health systems?
By making health systems more resilient, EU4Health will not only help prepare the EU to face future health crisis, but will also get Member States ready to face long-term challenges like an ageing population and health inequalities. Vulnerable groups need to have access to health services and healthcare, and inequalities between Member States and between regions in those Member States must be addressed.
When will the programme start?
Now adopted by the co-legislators, the EU4Health regulation will enter into force on the day of its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union and will apply retroactively from 1 January 2021. Next up is the preparation and adoption of the 2021 annual work programme, which is expected to prioritise crisis preparedness, disease prevention, health systems and digitalisation, as well as cancer as a transversal priority.
How much funding will be available under the EU4Health Programme and how will it be spent?
EU4Health will invest €5.1 billion over seven years to address health challenges. About €316 million are allocated to the first annual budget. Over its 7 year-lifetime, the programme will respect a number of provisions on total expenditure:
- a minimum of 20% for health promotion and disease prevention;
- a maximum of 12.5% for stockpiling crisis-relevant products at Union level;
- a maximum of 12.5% for supporting global commitments and health initiatives;
- a maximum of 8% for administrative expenses.
The programme should also contribute to mainstreaming climate action in the Union’s policies and the achievement of an overall expenditure target of at least 30% of the total amount of the Union budget and the EU Recovery Instrument on climate action.
How will EU4Health be implemented?
EU4Health will be implemented mainly by the Commission through direct management, including delegation to the executive agency. It will be implemented with eligible legal entities from Member States and third countries who will receive EU funding in the form of grants, prizes and procurement as well as indirect management by the relevant EU agencies such as European Medicines Agency or European Centre for Disease Control.
The new Health and Digital Executive Agency (HaDEA), that will be operational from 1 April, will be tasked with the roll-out and management of the annual work programmes.
The EU agencies – the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and the European Medicines Agency – have a key role to play in Europe’s defence against serious cross-border health threats and pandemics, both on the prevention and on the crisis management front. The programme’s actions will enhance the work of these EU Agencies as well as of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Chemicals Agency.
To prepare the annual work programmes and monitor results, the EU4Health Regulation also sets up the consultative EU4Health Steering Group bringing together the European Commission and Member States. The Steering Group will be consulted on the annual priorities, contribute to ensure consistency and complementarity with Member States’ health policies, follow up the implementation of EU4Health and propose any necessary adjustments based on evaluations.
In addition, the Commission will consult with relevant stakeholders, including representatives of civil society and patient organisations, to seek their views on the needs to be addressed through the annual work programme, annual priorities and results.
The results of the stakeholder consultation and steering group discussions will be presented once a year to the European Parliament before the last Steering Group meeting.
Will the Commission continue to provide health funding through the European Social Fund + and other EU funds?
Whilst the EU4Health is the most ambitious health programme ever, important investments in health in the next long-term budget will also be made through other funding instruments working in synergy with EU4Health:
- the European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) to support vulnerable groups in accessing healthcare;
- the European Regional and Development Fund to improve regional health infrastructure;
- Horizon Europe for health research and innovation;
- rescEU to create emergency medical supplies;
- the Digital Europe Programme for creating the digital infrastructure needed for digital health tools;
- the Recovery and Resilience Facility for a stronger and more resilient EU from the current crisis.
Working across programmes and having shared objectives between policies will be key.
With the adoption of the EU4Health programme, the health strand of the proposal for the European Social Fund Plus (ESF+) is fully integrated into the EU4Health Programme.
How will the programme support research and innovation?
The EU4Health programme is an implementation tool for EU health policy and may support and encourage innovation regarding medicinal products and medical devices, and crisis-relevant products in the Union.
EU4Health will work closely with the European Commission’s main research programme, Horizon Europe, which includes a health cluster. Horizon Europe will finance research and innovation on topics such as life-long good health; environmental and social health determinants; non-communicable and rare diseases; infectious diseases; tools, technologies and digital solutions for health and care and healthcare systems. It will also include a Horizon Europe research & innovation mission on cancer, one of the Commission’s top priorities in health policy. The EU4Health Programme will help to ensure best use of research results and facilitate the uptake, scale-up and deployment of health innovation in healthcare systems and clinical practice.
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