Authors: Laraib Dilpazir & Dr. Mehmood Hussain
Imran Khan Niazi is a Pakistani Politician heading the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaf (PTI), a political party. By profession he is a cricketer and has also built Pakistan’s largest and most modern Cancer hospitals in the country. In April 1996, he set up the Pakistan Tehreek e Insaf (PTI), a moderate ideological group, and struggled for 22 years to enter in the Prime Minister office. Back in 2013 elections, his party formed the provincial government in one of most anarchic and terror stricken province Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK), where Khan and his team outperformed and introduced number of structural reforms. He has won the 2018 elections and became the Prime Minister of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. He is considered to be the most visionary leader and has started a number of new policies for structural reforms.
The present domestic politics and economy is in dwindling as the incumbent government inherited the balance of payment crisis from its predecessor government. The financial mismanagement and widespread corruption in public offices ignited the inflation in country. Consequently, the dollar price has increased negatively impacting in price hype of commodities and energy resources. Besides all these challenges, we can optimistically claim that Imran khan will change the destiny of Pakistan. To prove our argument it is worthy to mention here that he has took several steps to fix the socio-political and economic problems of the country.
Khan’s Vision for Pakistan
Khan envision to make Pakistan a truly welfare state. An idea was given and implemented by the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) fourteen hundred years ago in the state of Madinah Saudi Arabia. The model is based on equality, good governance, accountability and social welfare of citizens. Therefore, to make his dream a reality, Imran Khan is striving hard to fix Pakistan’s socio-economic and political mismanagement. During the election he unveiled the 100 days agenda which largely appealed the masses and played significant role inthe victory of PTI. The agenda was to ensure Pakistan’s national security, transform governance across the country, revitalize the economic growth, scientific revolution in agriculture and industrial sector and revolutionize the social sector.
In the first 100 days the government initiated 35 programs and completed 18 among them. The drafting of local governments act of Punjab, KP and Islamabad Capital Territory, Naya Pakistan Housing Programme, FBR Reforms Roadmap, Shelter Scheme for deprived persons and many others are in the list. Meanwhile, the government has made significant achievements in following fields; austerity drive, launched the Citizens portal, took action against Land Grabbers (Qabza Mafia), action against power theft, support for overseas Pakistani’s and clean and green Pakistan.
Actions of Khan for Naya Pakistan
As the Khan’s slogan was to make Naya (New) Pakistan which will be based on equality, prosperity and rule of law. Thus, he has made tremendous efforts and introduced various policies to achieve his goal. The prominent one is to fight against corruption. The National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has been empowered to investigate and charge the fugitives involved in corruption cases. Second, Imran Khan has launched the economic emergency to meet the imbalance of payments. Before, going to IMF, he approached the friendly nations and secured billions of dollars from Saudi Arabia, China, Qatar and UAE. This timely help enable Pakistan to sustain its economy. On national level, he initiated the structural reforms in Federal Board of Revenue to increase its capacity to collect tax. The government has launched the Tax Amnesty Scheme for citizens to declare their assets which aims to increase the tax net. Third,the government of Imran Khan has also launched various youth empowerment programs. The easy access to credit from public and private banks will open doors for small and medium enterprises in the country and will generate thousands of jobs. Meanwhile, the government has launched the emergency scheme in the area of technical education. The empowerment of youth with technical skills will truly revolutionize the country. This scheme will reduce the burden on government to create jobs and will expand the industrial base of Pakistan.
Fourth, health and education are on the top priority list of PTI government. The government has introduced the Seht Insaaf Card for poor citizens to avail better health facilities at government and private hospitals. On education front, the Prime Minister has declared the Prime Minister House as a key National Information Technology University. A report published by the Dawn News revealed that various centers of excellence will be established at the university and emerging disciplines will be offered to Pakistani youth.
Fifth, industry and agriculture sector has also received the considerable attention. The Prime Minister has setup the special advisory council on industry establishment whose mandate to make a business friendly policy for the country. The advisory council on agriculture and industry development has been working relentlessly to make business friendly policy and is persuading various countries to invest in Pakistan. The new business and economic policy aims to boost foreign direct investment and joint ventures in agriculture and industrial sector. Sixth, the good governance and rule of law is guiding principle of PTI government. Khan and his team are working relentlessly to reform the public and judiciary system. Free from political influence and corruption are overarching goals of the new government. For this purpose, the government has launched the Citizen’s portal, where peoples can register their grievances against public servants and institutions.
Challenges to PTI Government
The economic uncertainty and inflation is major challenge to PTI government. Since the very first day, Khan and his team is working hard to control the inflation but not yet achieved any significant success. The inflation and prices hype has damaged the credibility of government in the eyes of public. Meanwhile, the manipulation of opposition political parties has further fueled the fire. The general masses think that Khan and his players are incompetent and cannot handle the crisis. Secondly, the geopolitical environment in the region and global level is another challenge for Khan to make a rational and practical foreign policy. The anarchic environment in neighboring Afghanistan and estranged relations of Saudi Arabia and Iran left minimum options for Pakistan to make nuanced choices. On the other hand, rising threat from Indian side is another challenge to Khan. India is building conventional and non-conventional capabilities which has serious consequences for Pakistan. At the same time, India has been investing huge amount on anti-Pakistan propaganda which is destroying Pakistan’s image on international level. Yet, despite the endless challenges, we still have faith in Imran Khan that he has skills and will to change the destiny of Pakistan. If he gets enough time, he will put Pakistan on right track which will lead the country towards peace, prosperity and integrity.
The sizzling “Political Matrix”; What will happen now?
Politics in Pakistan is unfortunately leaving scars that will fade away not that easily. Islamabad today is wrapped in thick political clouds since past few weeks. These last few weeks have altered all assumptions and calculations in the national political matrix. While the political landscape today is sizzling with intensity, aggression and strain the economy is shattering every day. Who is to blame for? What will happen now? And will sanity prevail?
The entire edifice of the “conspiracy mantra” which even made PTI commit violation of the constitution stands demolished today. It was one of the worst advices Imran khan could ever get from his party among the list of many others. Sadly he made his entire politics captive to this conspiracy myth. But today no one questions them on the impact it had on our foreign policy. US today feels betrayed, Saudis not ready to give aid, Chinese worried about their stakes and it continues. So diplomatically this conspiracy mantra has damaged Pakistan like anything.
Imran Khan’s followers see nothing wrong in what he says and what he does. They absolutely reject all the facts, all the logics and embrace the rhetoric which is fuelling more today with a greater intensity. Imran khan is leading this campaign more aggressively. Khan very well knows that bringing large crowds to Islamabad will have an impact only if there is some kind of aggression. The leaders on different occasions already hinted towards an aggressive March. He very well realizes that the figure of 2.5 Million is unrealistic but keeping in view the size of Islamabad, 0.1 Million crowd will even be perceived as a bigger crowd. So can he force the early elections at this stage? How will the government react to it? For instance let’s accept this narrative that the pressure of crowd aids PTI in getting an early election call and PTI wins it. So now what next? How will you deal with the mighty US? The economy is already sinking. You need aid to feed it but no one is providing you that. Then how will you stop dollar from going above 200? How will you provide relief from the soaring fuel prices when you won’t have money for a subsidy even? Forget about one lakh jobs and 50 lakh houses.
From the past few weeks we haven’t heard any PTI leader telling any economic plan or any diplomatic plan to revive relations. How will you deal with the IFI’s, World Bank & IMF when they’re all US controlled and as per your narrative you won’t accept “Amreeka ki Ghulami” or USA’s dictatorship.
So now what options the present regime has? The government would of course like to stop this building dangerous momentum of “Azadi March”. They would not like any big clash in Islamabad which results in bigger mess and chaos. The PDM government also has a much bigger fish to deal with, the same sinking economy. They came into power with this narrative to fix economy as former Premiere was unable to do it. The key cabinet members made more than two different official visits. The instructions are coming from London today as a decisive power so who will run the government? Who will run the system? Will the IMF aid? What will be the upcoming budget about? This upcoming budget is a bigger risk for this government along with an already announced to Long march call. Khan has already played a dangerous narrative especially with the blame of another conspiracy being made about his Life.
The stakes, the narrative and the politics of every party is at risk today. But above that, Pakistan is at risk. The dread is in the air. The end of May will be heated ferociously in Islamabad, whether politically or meteorologically.
Sri Lankan economic crisis and the China factor
After the resignation of Mahinda Rajapaksa, Ranil Wickremesinghe, who is the sole member of the United National Party (UNP), was sworn in as Sri Lankan Prime Minister on Thursday, May 12, 2022. Wickremesinghe will be holding the position of Sri Lankan PM for the sixth time. While the new Sri Lankan PM is a seasoned administrator, the task of restoring even a modicum of normalcy to the island nation’s economy, which is currently facing its worst economic crisis since its independence in 1948 seems to be a Herculean task (Wickremesinghe has clearly indicated, that his first task will be ensuring the supply of electricity, diesel and petrol to the people).
The grave economic crisis, which has resulted in acute shortage of food and essential commodities have brought ordinary people on the roads and demonstrations have resulted in violence and loss of lives (the Sri Lankan President had to declare a state of emergency twice first last month and then earlier this month). There had been a growing clamor for the resignation by President Gottabaya Rajapaksa but Wickremesinghe was sworn in after the exit of Mahinda Rajapaksa (protests have been carrying on even after the swearing in of Wickremesinghe)
During his previous tenure, Wickremesinghe had tried to reduce Sri Lanka’s dependence upon China, and in his current tenure he will be compelled to do the same. He had also been critical of the previous government for not approaching the IMF for assistance (Wickremesinghe has been repeatedly accused of being pro-west and having neoliberal leanings by many of his political opponents).
It would be pertinent to point out, that the PM had also batted for a coordinated regional response, by SAARC vis-à-vis the covid19 pandemic. The new Sri Lankan PM has also been an ardent advocate of improving ties with India.
While it is true, that Sri Lanka finds itself in the current situation due to economic mismanagement and excessive dependence upon the tourism sector (which faced a severe setback as a result of covid 19), it is tough to overlook the level of debts piled vis-à-vis China, and the fact that the Island nation was following China’s model of economic growth with a focus on big ticket infrastructure projects.
Another South Asian nation — Pakistan which witnessed a change last month where Shehbaz Sharif took over as Prime Minister, replacing Imran Khan, also faces daunting economic challenges. Pakistan’s foreign exchange reserves were estimated to be a little over $ 10 billion on May 6, 2022 and the Pakistani Rupee fell to its all time low versus the US Dollar on Thursday, May 12, 2022. Shehbaz Sharif ever since taking over as PM has repeatedly reiterated the importance of Pakistan’s ties with China and the Foreign Minister Bilawal Bhutto in a conversation with his Chinese counterpart alluded to the same, with Pakistan’s Foreign office in a statement released after the conversation between Bhutto and Wang Yi said:
“underscored his determination to inject fresh momentum in the bilateral strategic cooperative partnership and add new avenues to practical cooperation”.
Yet, China has categorically said that it will not provide any financial assistance until Pakistan resumes the IMF aid program. Pakistan has been compelled to look at other alternatives such as Saudi Arabia and UAE, which have also said that without the revival of the IMF program aid will not be possible. Only recently, Chinese power companies functioning under the umbrella of the China Pakistan Economic corridor (CPEC) have threatened to shut down their operations if their dues (to the tune of 1.59 billion USD) are not cleared. China had also reacted very strongly to the terror attack on Karachi University in which three Chinese teachers lost their lives, this is the second such attack after 2021. China in recent years had also indicated to Pakistan, that it was not happy with the progress of the China Pakistan Economic (CPEC) project. The current government in Pakistan has repeatedly pointed to this fact.
One point which is abundantly clear from the economic crisis in Sri Lanka as well as the challenges which Pakistan is facing is that excessive dependence upon China has disastrous consequences in the long run. If one were to look at the case of South Asia, Bangladesh has been astute by not being excessively dependent upon China – it has maintained robust economic relations with India and Japan. Given the changing economic situation it is becoming increasingly important for developing countries, especially in South Asia, to join hands to confront the mounting challenges posed by excessive dependency upon China. US, Japan and western multilateral bodies and financial institutions need to find common ground and provide developing countries with an alternative economic narrative. It is also time for India along with other countries in the South Asian region to find common ground and focus on robust economic cooperation.
Afghanistan’s humanitarian crisis and Taliban’s obsession with women’s rights
The Taliban’s latest move to restrict the rights of women points to an obsession with women’s rights. This is in stark contrast to the neglect the regime is showing in addressing an ever worsening economic and humanitarian crisis. With Afghan’s facing poverty and starvation, the Taliban needs to focus on rebuilding the country, and this can only be achieved by respecting the rights of women.
This comes after the Taliban ordered all women to cover their faces in public, making it the latest restriction on the rights of women by the oppressive regime. The Taliban has previously forbidden women from travelling long distances unsupervised or working outside of the healthcare sector. The Taliban also faced international outcry earlier this year when they backflipped on a decision to allow women and girls to attend secondary school and university, making it impossible for women to receive an education.
The Taliban’s treatment of women is not a new development. During the regimes previous reign, between 1996 and 2001, it was described as the least feminist movement in the world. The Taliban forbade education, employment and access to healthcare delivered by men, while also making the veil mandatory and forbidding women to leave the home unless accompanied by a male family member. This was seen as the strictest interpretation of Sharia Law.
Contrary to claims made by the Taliban, the latest iteration of the movement is now attempting to do the same by systematically removing women from public life.
The difference this time is that, since the US withdrawal, the country has experienced an economic and humanitarian crisis. This is largely due to poor governance, the freezing of central bank assets by the US and the withdrawal of foreign aid in response to the Taliban takeover.
The situation is dire. Half the population, approximately 20 million people, are facing acute food insecurity, malnutrition, and hunger. Healthcare is notoriously difficult to access, and poverty is widespread, with women, persecuted minority groups and former government employees refused work and unable to provide for their families. The crisis is so critical that families are resorting to selling their children to delay starvation.
This raises the question of why the Taliban is so obsessed with restricting the rights of women when Afghanistan is falling apart around them. Strict adherence to Sharia Law aside, this attack of women’s rights is clearly to the Taliban’s detriment and the detriment of the people of Afghanistan. This position must change for the country to rebuild.
First and foremost, the actions of the Taliban and the humanitarian crisis is making the situation of women much worse, as women are one of Afghanistan’s the most vulnerable groups. The restriction of their rights has resulted in a lack of income and education, making women reliant on their families for food, water and sanitation products. This is meant that women are not only facing poverty and starvation, but they are also increasingly at risk of exploitation by family members and their communities.
Second, the removal of women from the workplace also affects Afghanistan as a whole. While the Taliban has allowed women to work in the health sector, many have not returned to work, dramatically reducing the number of doctors and nurses able to treat other women, particularly in rural areas. On top of this, women that have returned have not been paid, and are reliant on aid agencies to feed their families.
Outside of healthcare, women have been completely removed from the workplace, including in government, the judicial system, charities and aid agencies. Under the Karzai and Ghani governments the wages of women played an important role in providing for families through their increased workplace representation. With their right to employment suddenly removed, this has played a fundamental role in the causing poverty levels to rise throughout the country.
Third, the Taliban is desperate for international recognition, and that recognition and the aid that comes with it is tied to respecting human rights. The Taliban’s abhorrent treatment of women means that the frozen assets held by the US, and aid from the international community, will continue to be out of arms reach. This will leave the country short of much needed funds to avert the current crisis, leaving those most vulnerable, particularly women, at risk of starvation.
While the international community shares some blame for the humanitarian crisis by withholding assets and restricting the flow of aid, it is also the Taliban’s responsibility, under international law, to treat its citizens as per their human rights.
For this reason, if the Taliban is interested in allowing Afghanistan to rebuild, then it must realise that economic relief is directly tied to the human rights of women.
Allowing women to participate in society, through attending school and participating in the workforce, will have a net benefit for Afghan society by increasing education levels, workforce participation and, in the short term, reduce poverty levels.
Respecting the rights of women will also allow aid to flow into the country, helping alleviate the worst effects of the humanitarian crisis that has engulfed the country and will allow aid agencies to monitor human rights throughout Afghanistan.
This creates an opportunity for the international community to pressure the regime into respecting the rights of women. This will help to alleviate the humanitarian crisis and will go a long way to improving the lives of women and girls by giving them an opportunity to get an education, enter the workforce and participate in society.
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