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WEF to Lead G20 Smart Cities Alliance on Technology Governance

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The World Economic Forum, the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation, has been selected to act as the secretariat for a new G20 Global Smart Cities Alliance.

The alliance unites municipal, regional and national governments, private-sector partners and cities’ residents around a shared set of core guiding principles for the implementation of smart city technologies. Currently, there is no global framework or set of rules in place for how sensor data collected in public spaces, such as by traffic cameras, is used. The effort aims to foster greater openness and trust as well as create standards for how this data is collected and used. This marks the first time that smart city technologies and global technology governance have been elevated to the main agenda.

The Forum will coordinate with members from the G20, Urban 20 and Business 20 communities to develop new global governance guidelines for the responsible use of data and digital technologies in urban environments. The Internet of Things, Robotics and Smart Cities team in the Forum’s Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network will take the lead and ensure accountability throughout the alliance’s members.

“This is a commitment from the largest economies in the world to work together and set the norms and values for smart cities,” said Børge Brende, President of the World Economic Forum. “We will coordinate efforts so that we can all work in alignment to move this important work forward. It is important we maximize the benefit and minimize the risk of smart city technology so all of society can benefit, not the few.”

“The advancement of smart cities and communities is critical to realize Japan’s vision for Society 5.0. It is also essential to address the world’s most pressing challenges, including climate change and inclusive economic growth,” said Koichi Akaishi, Director General for Science, Technology and Innovation for the Cabinet Office of the Government of Japan. “The Government of Japan is proud to have championed this cause as part of our G20 presidency and was pleased to see the Business 20, Urban 20 and G20 Digital Ministers all pledge their support for the creation of a global smart cities coalition. To advance this work, we are pleased to welcome the World Economic Forum Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution as the global secretariat for this important initiative.”

Public-private cooperation is crucial to achieving global change. Efforts to form the Global Smart Cities Alliance have been supported by four partners of the World Economic Forum: Eisai, Hitachi, NEC and Salesforce.

“Open and Agile Smart Cities is thrilled to be part of this global effort led by the World Economic Forum to support cities and communities with a global framework,” said Martin Brynskov, Chair of Open and Agile Smart Cities, an international smart cities network. “Openness and interoperability are key to scaling up digital smart city solutions that help tackle the challenges that cities are facing in the 21st century – on the cities’ terms and conditions.”

“This alliance builds on the work already done by many cities around the globe – such as the Cities Coalition for Digital Rights – to empower citizens through digital technologies. A human-centric digital society shall reflect the openness, diversity and inclusion that are at the core of our societies and value systems,” said Ada Colau, Mayor of Barcelona. “Cities must spearhead efforts to put technology and data at the service of the citizens in order to tackle big social and environmental challenges, such as feminism, affordable housing, climate change and the energy transition. We are committed to being part of this global endeavour to build a digital society that puts citizens first and preserves their fundamental rights.”

“In today’s interconnected world, global collaboration is no longer merely an option, it is a necessity, said Bill de Blasio, Mayor of New York City. “New York City is proud to have championed a model for smart cities that puts our most vulnerable residents first. We also recognize that now more than ever urban issues have global implications. As mayors, we have a unique responsibility to lead by example and demonstrate a sustainable path towards a more inclusive and equitable future.”

“As the world continues to urbanise, it is indispensable to successfully manage urban growth,” said Ichiro Hara, Secretary General of the B20 Tokyo Summit, and Managing Director of Japan Business Federation, Keidanren. “The Business 20 have called to support the implementation of Society 5.0 by fostering cooperation among smart cities. We applaud the G20 for heeding our call for a smart cities alliance and look forward for a common guiding principles to be developed through this critical initiative.”

“The Cities for All Network is excited to partner with the World Economic Forum and the G20 to help realize our shared vision for a more inclusive urban future,” said Victor Pineda, President of World Enabled and Co-Founder of Smart Cities for All. “The last industrial revolution left out a lot of people. As we move into the Fourth Industrial Revolution, we cannot risk repeating past mistakes. We need to work together to co-design robust policy frameworks to ensure that all members of society can contribute to and benefit from technological advancements.”

“Local governments and city leadership need to be at the core of decision-making when developing smart cities, said Emilia Saiz, Secretary General of United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG). “It is the guarantee to ensure the human dimension and the protection of the commons. United Cities and Local Governments is delighted to contribute in every way possible to that process and to transform the conversation around digital rights.”

“In pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals and in line with the New Urban Agenda, UN-Habitat affirms the importance of coordinating efforts around protections and standards in deploying smart digital infrastructure to ensure that such smart technologies benefit all, particularly the vulnerable, including people with disabilities,” said Maimunah Mohd Sharif, Executive Director of UN Habitat. “We welcome this important new alliance led by the World Economic Forum, G20, mayors, national governments, multilateral organizations, and civil society groups.”

About the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network

The Network helped Rwanda write the world’s first agile drone regulation and is scaling this up throughout Africa and Asia. It also developed actionable governance toolkits for corporate executives on blockchain, co-designed the first-ever Industrial IoT (IIoT) Safety and Security Protocol and created a personal data policy framework with the UAE.

Based in San Francisco, the World Economic Forum Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution brings together governments, leading companies, civil society and experts from around the world to co-design and pilot innovative approaches to the policy and governance of new technologies. More than 100 governments, companies, civil society, international organizations and experts are working together to design and pilot innovative approaches to the policy and governance of technology. Teams are creating human-centred and agile policies to be piloted by policy-makers and legislators around the world, shaping the future of emerging technology in ways that maximize the benefits and minimize the risks.

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Urban Development

Vietnam Can Lead ASEAN through the Smart Cities Network Vision

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When Vietnam takes over the ASEAN chairmanship in 2020, the country outlined five priorities to be executed throughout the year. Among all, strengthening the institutional capacity of ASEAN and leveraging the Industrial Revolution 4.0 to address inequality, are the most challenging goals to be realized within a year. Other scholars such as David Hutt, meanwhile, even pointed out that Vietnam’s most important goal is to secure a united stand on the Code of Conduct to be negotiated with China this year ⸺ a consensus that if achieved, will ensure any agreement regarding the contentious South China Sea dispute to be mutually favourable for all the disputants involved. 

That said, the unexpected outbreak of the COVID-19 has greatly disrupted Hanoi’s initial ambitions to drive the ASEAN agenda into new heights. Not only the global pandemic postponed the regional bloc’s summits and meetings to later dates, it also compelled leaders of all ASEAN countries to devote great focus on this outbreak at the ASEAN level. While the online Special ASEAN Summit last April was able to result in a joint statement to address the COVID-19 pandemic under the chairmanship of Vietnam, it was by no means, adequate for the country to play an active role as the ASEAN’s driver this year. Given the COVID-19’s disruption to ASEAN’s annual meetings and summits, it is not hard to see why Hanoi is seeking to extend another year of its chairmanship despite this may clash with Brunei’s preparations as the next chairman of the Southeast Asian bloc.

Utilizing Confidence Gain in COVID-19 Response

As the country which managed to control COVID-19 and keep it to an excessively low number of transmitted cases, Vietnam has gained an unprecedented confidence among its ASEAN peers as well as those outside of the region. As highlighted by Coleman and Sheehan, Vietnam became a new model of how a developing country can respond to COVID-19 without devoting mass resources for the purpose. Dubbed as low-cost COVID-19 strategy as coined by different scholars, the Vietnamese success stemmed on its abilities on three fronts: mobilizing all segments of society in responding to the crisis, initiating early prevention measures (mask-wearing policy, targeted testing, contact tracing and quarantine) and utilizing different technologies (website and app) for public communication.

With such coordinated measures, Vietnam has cast itself as an exemplary model in controlling the pandemic despite not having colossal resources in conducting mass testing and epidemic surveillance of South Korea, China and Singapore. As a matter of fact, the Vietnamese COVID-19 response model is a highly attractive model which can be readily emulated by other developing countries with limited resources at hand. Within ASEAN, the Vietnamese model can be replicated in Cambodia, Laos and Myanmar ⸺ countries that would need effective COVID-19 response strategy without their governments devoting huge costs for it. By occupying the ASEAN chairmanship status, its COVID-19 success resonated confidence from the whole regional bloc on its ability to play a leading role in this testing time. To take it further, such gain of confidence within ASEAN, should be further capitalized by Hanoi to implement regional agendas that would bring pragmatic returns to all member states in the short-run.

Pushing for Short-Term Goals within ASEAN Smart Network Cities (ASNC)

With the COVID-19 pandemic yet to be effectively controlled around the world and has the capacity to recur in the near future, no one knows how much longer would the restarted economies in the bloclast. This situation, in turn, made the ASEAN Smart Cities Network (ASCN) as reached by the Southeast Asian bloc in April 2018, an ever more important priority for immediate implementation. From Anbound’s observations, there are two reasons for such urgency.

First, with COVID-19 vaccine yet to be developed at least not in the immediate future, reduction in face-to-face engagements has become a norm of human interactions. As such, there is no other choice for ASEAN players, whether they are the governments, businesses and average citizens, but to adapt to this new norm in their daily activities. By pushing for the immediate implementation of the ASCN, Vietnam will be able to utilize technology to rejuvenate the economy and improve the lives of ASEAN citizens in the post-pandemic era.

By all means, this will establish Vietnam’s legacy as the chairman that brings ASEAN out of the socio-economic crisis that was brought by the COVIS-19 pandemic. Considering that the 36 cities have planned their strategic projects within the Smart City Action Plans document, what Hanoi could do is to call for an online meeting with the respective national leaders and relevant city mayors, and designate certain short-term goals to be realized by the end of 2020. These goals can be any easier and achievable goals in the three pillars of technological utilization, industrial automation and digitalization of economy.

Second, similar to becoming a model for COVID-19 response, Vietnam could also become another model of smart cities for the lower developing peers in ASEAN. In the course of adapting smart cities vision to its local conditions, Hanoi can share with their peers on how to kick-start smart cities governance in three different cities with three distinctive needs, namely, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City and Danang. As a latecomer to the smart cities game, these three Vietnamese cities have demonstrated their capabilities to prioritize smart solutions according to their local needs instead of developing all sorts of smart solutions in their localities.

Whereas Hanoi had started the iParking app for drivers and looking to venture into smart solutions in healthcare, education, transport, and tourism, Danang planned to become a green city through the adoption of smart solutions. As such, the latter’ had begun developing its natural disaster management systems that set it apart from Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. As for the southern city of Ho Chi Minh, it is planning to become the first smart city of Vietnam and placed emphasis on attaining five capabilities for achieving a comprehensive smart city: development of cloud computing infrastructure, utilization of Big Data, building of data centres, erection of security centres, and establishment of an open data ecosystem. Without question, the cost-effectiveness approach of these three Vietnamese cities, is highly relevant to those lower developing peers in ASEAN in which limited resources are available for them.

An Opportunity Not to Be Missed

Within the ASNC vision, Vietnam is provided with an opportunity (not to be missed) in leading ASEAN toward the next stage of economic development. While it may want to gain specific achievements in the other areas of South China Sea issue and ASEAN’s institutional capacity, realizing these goals requires a lot of diplomacy with the other nine member states. With a little more than half year left, it is still challenging for the country to achieve these goals despite it is not an entirely impossible endeavor to start with. Pushing for short-term goals within the ASNC vision, meanwhile, will help Vietnam to get quick result and one that is also vital for the new course of ASEAN’s economic development.

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Urban Development

Pandemic and the lessons for global metro cities

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Across the world, cities are on the frontline of the unfolding COVID-19 crisis. Starting from metro cities with overwhelmed heath care systems, they are experiencing unprecedented strain across social, economic and environmental systems as economies grind to a standstill. Public transit systems are in a financial tailspin. Already a challenge at the best of times, the struggle to provide even basic access to water and sewerage is now especially acute in many growing cities across the global south. Daily wage earners and the urban poor of all stripes are suffering the most from the dual blows of lost income and a scarcity of city services and social safety nets that can protect them at a time of need.

Changes occurring in cities

Even before the current pandemic we knew cities needed to change significantly to meet the global goals outlined in the Paris Agreement, Sustainable Development Goals, or New Urban Agenda. The IPCC’s report on what it will take to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees Celsius argued that all cities need to be net zero carbon emitters by 2050. To reach these goals will require major alterations to how we build, manage and live in cities – not just change, but transformational change. Such change may seem beyond reach, but from energy to housing to mobility, sustainable, cost-effective, more inclusive solutions are at hand. We simply need to have a vision bold enough to change people’s understanding of what’s possible in cities and the courage to make it happen at scale. One of the unintended consequences of this crisis has been that we have seen, quite dramatically, that radical change to our everyday lives and systems is indeed possible. Amidst the fear and uncertainty, people are also seeing fragments of what a future city could look like. For example, people across the world are breathing better air than they have in decades due to a dramatic decline in vehicle traffic and factory output. In Jalandhar, an industrial northern city in India, people woke to see snow-capped Himalayan ranges 200 miles away, a sight not seen in generations. People are unwittingly enjoying “car-free street days” on a daily basis, finding that walking and biking are also viable and even preferred. Emergency workers are finding that cycling is simply the fastest and safest way to get around. Cities like Bogotá, Berlin and Mexico City have expanded pedestrianization efforts to encourage these activities. Learning a lesson from this national and city leaders should use this opportunity to focus on four key areas where transformational change is possible:

Planning and development of city system

The most immediate need is to work with partners to generate the data required at the city and neighborhood scales to better monitor and respond to changing conditions on the ground. Cities cannot fix what they do not understand, and this crisis has made clear just how little many municipal governments understand about what is happening in their cities, or the potential impact of different policy options. Creative partnerships with communities, NGOs, the private sector and universities are necessary to fill the gaps. Hong Kong and Singapore set up public health monitoring and response systems during the SARS outbreak, for example, that prepared them well to handle COVID-19 now.We are seeing that social, economic and environmental resilience are all closely linked as three interconnected systems with significant dependencies on each other.  Cities function as systems, and this pandemic has created a major opportunity to build back better, more inclusively and with greater resilience to future shocks. We should focus on giving cities the technical support and data to create integrated social, economic and infrastructure strategies at the local level. And at the national level, we need to improve governance to allow more seamless national-local coordination for emergency response and recovery. What happens in cities, does not stay in cities. But cities cannot do it on their own. They often need help from regional and federal authorities, including fiscal transfers and national sectoral policies, to realize significant change.

Required safety net of all types

This pandemic shows the fragility of many of the jobs that underpin urban economies, in cities of all types. In the United States, more than 26 million new jobless claims have been filed so far. In India, more than half a million migrant workers have left cities since the announcement of a nationwide lockdown. Informal workers, from day laborers to Uber drivers, have no employment contracts, insurance or income at times like this, and now face the impossible choice of exposure to the coronavirus or hunger. These jobs in the informal sector, the gig economy and numerous low-wage formal sector jobs are crucial to urban economies. But workers in these sectors lack the fiscal and social safety nets necessary to ride out a crisis. Cities need to shore up urban economies with stronger social and fiscal safety nets for informal and low-wage workers, including targeted income support and increased access to social and economic services. This pandemic is exposing existing fault lines with respect to poor physical infrastructure and inequalities in access to core urban services. It’s also raised questions about healthy density in cities. The most successful cities are able to achieve livable density – a balance where benefits of agglomeration are significantly higher than the cost of congestion. This crisis should make cities rethink how they can achieve livable density. In fact, density is a precondition for effective urban service provision. It’s the lack of access to essential services such as water, housing and health care, that has exacerbated the challenge of responding effectively to COVID-19. Large proportions of people don’t have decent housing to self-isolate, basic water and sanitation to wash hands, access to health care or transport options to get help, or jobs they can do at home. These challenges, which they cope with every day, are now exacerbated.

We need to bring laser sharp focus on investing in infrastructure and housing for better health, wellbeing and resilience for the urban poor. This involves identifying and investing in high-risk locations, including poor and under-resourced communities. It means improving infrastructure in informal settlements across the developing world to bridge the urban services divide. And it means building infrastructure that is intentionally geared towards a low-carbon future. If we want to maximize the chances for success, however, and have enough doses to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, current piecemeal efforts won’t be enough. If ever there was a case for a coordinated global vaccine development effort using a “big science” approach, it is now. An initiative of this scale won’t be easy. Extraordinary sharing of information and resources will be critical, including data on the virus, the various vaccine candidates, vaccine adjuvants, cell lines, and manufacturing advances. Allowing different efforts to follow their own leads during the early stages will take advantage of healthy competition that is vital to the scientific endeavor. All of this will require substantial funding, which is the big ask of big science. Late-stage clinical trials are not cheap, nor is vaccine manufacturing. Ideally, this effort would be led by a team with a scientific advisory mechanism of the highest quality that could operate under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO). In many ways, COVID-19 is perfectly suited to a big science approach, as it requires multilateral collaboration on an unprecedented scale. In the race to develop a COVID-19 vaccine, everyone must win.

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Urban Development

Building urban resilience in the face of COVID-19

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As COVID-19 continues to spread across the UNECE region, local governments are on the front lines of addressing this unprecedented pandemic. With the ambition to amplify local solutions, UNECE will bring together mayors from Europe, North America, Central Asia and the Caucasus to strengthen the resilience of cities to emergencies, including to COVID-19. With some 75% of the population living in cities, the UNECE region is among the most highly urbanized in the world, turning resilient cities into key drivers for sustainable development in the region.

The  Forum of Mayors will be held on 6 October 2020 at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, with possibilities for online participation. While local responses to the COVID-19 pandemic has taken the immediate focus in many cities, the Forum will also give space to discuss long-term resilience strategies in cities, including actions mitigating the effects of climate change and natural hazards.

UNECE region in the eye of the storm of COVID-19

As the UNECE region has become the hardest-hit hotspot of the COVID-19 pandemic, cities play a crucial role in mitigating and adapting to the virus. ​​The original focus of the Forum has been adjusted to now provide space for mayors to share different local policy responses aiming to protect the health of residents, address the unprecedented social and economic impact of the virus and keep forging a path to a more sustainable and resilient future.

Urban resilience, however, is not limited to the response to pandemics. Tackling the climate crisis remains one of the key challenges of our times. Today, cities are a key contributor to climate change: they consume roughly 60% of the planet’s energy and generate 70% of greenhouse gas emissions. However, cities are also an integral part of the solution in tackling the climate emergency. Leadership on local level is crucial for ambitious climate action, with cities playing an increasingly prominent role in advancing actions to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. The impact of climate change on urban life is visible throughout the UNECE region, including through increased numbers of extreme weather events such as floods, storms and other natural hazards.

Cities are crucial for achieving the SDGs by 2030

With only ten years left to reach the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is important to recognize the key role of cities as drivers for a sustainable transformation. SDG 11 provides a clear set of targets and indicators for making cities and human settlements more inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. But city action is not only critical for the achievement of SDG 11 – it is crucial to reach all 17 SDGs by 2030. In fact, it has been estimated that 65% of the total SDG targets need to be delivered by local authorities and actors.

Forum of Mayors: amplifying local voices for collective action

Following-up on the discussions of the Day of Cities convened by UNECE in April 2019, its Committee on Urban Development, Housing and Land Management has decided to convene a Forum of Mayors in 2020 and 2021. The Forum will submit its recommendations to the Committee on how to address the challenges faced by local authorities in the region. This will help shape the policy priorities and programme activities of the intergovernmental Committee, which is composed of representatives of UNECE’s 56 members States. Preceding the Forum, “SDG 11 Day” will bring together partners and key stakeholders for an expert exchange on the most pressing issues on urban sustainability.

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