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Research Team in Jordan Awarded for Innovation in Addressing Gender-Based Violence

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A research team from University of Jordan, Jordanian Hashemite Fund for Human Development, and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health has won funding to study ways to reduce gender-based violence in Jordan, the World Bank Group and the Sexual Violence Research Initiative announced today.

The 2019 Development Marketplace: Innovations to Address Gender-Based Violence award will  enable the researchers to understand how social interactions among youth influence attitudes related to gender and to sexual- and gender-based violence. The research will take place among 1,000 youths aged 18-24 living in East Amman. The researchers will use these insights to promote evidence-based recommendations for further research and interventions.

Gender-based violence is harmful to women and constrains the economy,” said Saroj Kumar Jha, Regional Director for the Mashreq, World Bank Group. “It’s often caused by attitudes that support gaps between men and women. I am very pleased to congratulate the researchers on this award, which will explore how social interactions among youth can shape these attitudes and help the country further down the path towards eliminating gender-based violence The World Bank also commends the Government of Jordan’s commitment to increase  female labor force participation, in alignment with the Jordan Vision 2025, and to change attitudes towards women’s work and economic participation.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced physical or sexual partner violence or non-partner sexual violence in their lifetime. Studies show that in addition to causing direct harm to women and men, gender-based violence can cost economies up to 3.7 percent of GDP due to lost productivity.

Although we know the costs and inter-generational effects of gender-based violence are significant, the evidence on how to prevent it remains relatively limited,” said Caren Grown, Senior Director, Gender, World Bank Group. “This award helps researchers to build the knowledge needed for effective approaches to reduce violence. We know the World Bank Group has an important role to play in sparking innovation through funding research, as well as in implementing important lessons it provides.” 

The Development Marketplace is an annual, global competition for researchers to find innovative solutions that can help individuals, communities, and nations prevent and respond to gender-based violence. 

Along with rigorous research to give policy-makers needed information on what works to prevent and respond to violence, we also need to ensure there are implementable, scalable and cost-effective solutions,” said Claudia Garcia-Moreno, SVRI Founder and Coordinating Group member.

Over three years, $4.5 million has been awarded by the Bank Group and SVRI to more than 40 research projects in 28 low- and middle-income economies. The Development Marketplace: Innovations to Address Gender-Based Violence is held in memory of Hannah Graham, daughter of a longtime World Bank Group employee. 

This year, Development Marketplace awards will support researchers in Bangladesh, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyz Republic, Mexico, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, and Peru. For the first time a private sector award is being given, with support from the International Finance Corporation (IFC).

SVRI is one of the largest global research networks focused on violence against women. SVRI’s 6th global conference on violence against women, SVRI Forum 2019, is in Cape Town in October 2019.

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Human Rights

Avoid starvation: ‘Immediate priority’ for 3.5 million Afghans

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Food and blankets are handed out to people in need in Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan, by © WFP/Arete

Amidst “truly unprecedented levels” of hunger in Afghanistan, the UN refugee agency (UNHCR) said on Friday that as winter arrives, avoiding widespread starvation “is an immediate priority”.  

Launching a global fundraising winter campaign to help forcibly displaced families in Afghanistan and elsewhere to cope with the most life-threatening months of the year, UNHCR Spokesperson Babar Baloch described it as “a crisis of hunger and starvation”.

People don’t have enough to eat, and it’s very visible”. 

Displaced lack proper shelter 

Following his recent return from Kabul, Mr. Baloch said in Geneva that a lack of insulated shelters, warm clothes, insufficient food, fuel for heating, and medical supplies are just some of the deprivations confronting people who have been forcibly displaced. 

With temperatures “expected to drop to -25C, many displaced families lack proper shelter – a primary requirement if they are to survive the bitter cold”, he warned. 

3.5 million in need 

UNHCR is appealing for increased support for 3.5 million people displaced by conflict inside Afghanistan, including 700,000 from 2021 alone. 

According to Mr. Baloch, nearly 23 million people, or 55 per cent of the population, are facing extreme levels of hunger – nearly nine million of whom are at risk of famine.  

This year, UNHCR has assisted some 700,000 displaced people across the country, the majority since mid-August.  

The UN agency is helping nearly 60,000 people every week.  

“But as we reach thousands of people, we find thousands more people who are in need of humanitarian assistance”, Mr. Baloch explained, before appealing for “further resources for the most vulnerable”.  

He identified “single mothers with no shelter or food for their children”, displaced older persons left to care for orphaned grandchildren, and people taking care of loved ones with special needs.  

Appeal for more support over winter 

The UNHCR spokesperson noted that the agency’s teams have delivered relief supplies via road through Afghanistan’s neighbouring countries and humanitarian flights.  

Five more flights carrying winter supplies are scheduled for next week, Mr. Baloch said, reiterating that support to cope with the extreme conditions will continue until February, including core relief items, such as thermal blankets and warm winter clothing.  

Shelters are also being repaired and reinforced, and vulnerable families are receiving cash assistance.  

Mr. Baloch thanked Government and private donors for their support to UNHCR efforts to aid and protect vulnerable families during the winter months.  

However, he added that a further $374.9 million was urgently needed to bolster UNHCR’s response to Afghanistan next year, particularly, over winter. 

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Human Rights

Women and girls at high risk of being pushed into modern slavery

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At an age when children should be in school, millions are engaged in work that is potentially harmful to their health. © UNICEF/Simon Lister

Women and children are at high risk of being pushed into contemporary forms of slavery, UN-appointed independent rights experts said on Wednesday.   

In an alert to coincide with the International Day for the Abolition of Slavery on 2 December, they warned that global challenges such as COVID-19, climate change and armed conflict have amplified existing vulnerabilities.  

According to figures released by UNICEF and ILO in June, almost 80 million children aged 5 to 17, are subjected to hazardous work which is classified as a contemporary form of slavery. 

Now, according to the experts, these children may be working longer hours or under worsening conditions as a result of the economic recession and school closures caused by the pandemic.   

Many others may have been forced into the worst forms of child labour, owing to job and income losses among their families.  This includes the forced recruitment of youngsters into armed and criminal groups. 

Women and girls 

According to unofficial estimates cited by the experts, one in every 130 women and girls is subjected to contemporary forms of slavery such as child and forced marriage, domestic servitude, forced labour and debt bondage. 

High levels of exploitation also prevail in global supply chains, which often rely on and reinforce labour exploitation and deepen gender inequality”, the experts said.  

They argue that “gender inequalities lie at the heart of contemporary forms of slavery”, but note that these practices are also fuelled by intersecting forms of discrimination, such as race, social and economic status, age, disability, sexual orientation, and migration status, among others.  

The experts urge Member States to establish safe migration pathways, along with easier access to decent work and more cooperation with the business sector, civil society organisations and trade unions.   

For them, “accountability of perpetrators must be strengthened as a matter of priority, as currently impunity prevails in far too many instances.” 

“Slavery in all its forms needs to end for everyone, including women and children in contexts of armed conflict. Slavery is a disgrace to humanity which in the 21st century cannot be tolerated”, they conclude.  

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the UN Voluntary Trust Fund on Contemporary Forms of Slavery. This year alone, 18,000 victims received vital assistance from organizations supported by the Fund. 

To mark the International Day for the Abolition of Slavery, the experts appeal to all Member States to increase their contribution to the Fund, or to make one for the first time. 

The Special Rapporteurs are part of what is known as the Special Procedures of the Human Rights Council. They work on a voluntary basis; they are not UN staff and do not receive a salary for their work. They are independent from any government or organization and serve in their individual capacity.  

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Human Rights

Workers with HIV-AIDS continue to face stigma, discrimination

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“Myths and misconceptions” about HIV and AIDS continue to fuel stigma and discrimination in the workplace, the International Labour Organization (ILO) said on Tuesday. 

Despite some improvement in people’s tolerance to the disease in the more than 40 years since the AIDS epidemic began, a survey of 55,000 people in 50 countries found that only one in two people knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing a bathroom. 

“It is shocking that, 40 years into the HIV and AIDS epidemic, myths and misconceptions are still so widespread,” said Chidi King, head of ILO’s Gender, Equality, Diversity and Inclusion Branch.

Wake-up call 

A lack of basic facts about how HIV is transmitted is fuelling stigma and discrimination. This survey is a wake-up call to reinvigorate HIV prevention and education programmes; the world of work has a key role to play.” 

Stigma and discrimination in the workplace marginalize people, pushing those with HIV into poverty, Ms. King maintained. 

Working with opinion poll company Gallup, the ILO Global HIV Discrimination in the World of Work Survey reveals that discriminatory attitudes are fuelled by a lack of knowledge about HIV transmission. 

At the end of 2020, approximately 38 million people globally were living with HIV, with 1.5 million newly infected that year, and approximately 680,000 people dying from AIDS- related illnesses, according to the survey. Despite progress made on combating stigma, the coronavirus pandemic has exacerbated the situation. 

Care burdens 

“The COVID-19 pandemic has certainly pushed back some of the efforts, some of the progress that had been made towards eradicating HIV, and there is an even more urgent need now to double those efforts,” Ms. King said. 

“In terms of the impact on people affected by HIV, not only people living with HIV but people who may be looking after somebody with HIV…care burdens have increased during the pandemic due to the non-availability of certain services, therefore seeing a disproportionate impact in relation to women in particular, and in some instances, girls as well.” 

Asia and Pacific in spotlight 

The survey noted that the lowest tolerance for working directly with people with HIV was found in Asia and the Pacific, followed by the Middle East and North Africa. 

The regions with the most positive attitudes were Eastern and Southern Africa, where almost 90 per cent of respondents said they would be comfortable working directly with people with HIV. 

Higher educational levels were also associated with positive attitudes towards working with those living with HIV

The report also offered a number of recommendations, including implementation of HIV programmes to increase awareness of modes of transmission and to improving the legal and policy environment around HIV to protect rights of workers. 

“The workplace has a key role in this education,” Ms. King told journalists in Geneva. “Workers and employers certainly have a role to play. Social dialogue is a key mechanism through which they can craft policies and materials and products in order to raise awareness, ensuring that recruitment policies do not discriminate against people with HIV/AIDS. Governments also have a role to play in terms of broader engagement.” 

Confronting inequalities and ending discrimination is critical to ending AIDS, the report said, particularly during the ongoing COVID pandemic.  

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