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Brexit: Any light at the end of the tunnel?

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Adding a new twist to the divisive issue of the timetable and terms of Britain’s withdrawal from the European Union, UK Prime Minister Theresa May has asked the EU to postpone Brexit until June 30, 2019, the BBC reported.

In a letter to the EU leadership, May said that the proposed delay would give the British parliament more time to agree a Brexit deal to prevent Britain from crashing out of the bloc. She added that London would try to leave the EU before the May 23 elections to the European Parliament.

The situation has thus become absolutely confusing. In an effort to break the current logjam, Theresa May recently engaged in unprecedented direct talks with the opposition Labor Party. Meanwhile, the European Union has reiterated its refusal to make any further concessions to London by making it clear that it would only agree to postpone Brexit until May 22 (which is currently being considered in London as a compromise option) if the British House of Commons approved earlier rejected withdrawal options put forward by Theresa May, before April 12. If not, the UK would have to leave the European Union on that very day without any agreement.

According to The Guardian, the discussions Theresa May had on the subject with Labor Party leader Jeremy Corbyn on April 3, centered on thrashing out an alternative Brexit plan May was to present to the leaders of the EU member countries during the April 10 summit.

The May-Corbin parley was preceded by a Cabinet meeting on April 2 and a televised address to the nation, which May made later that same day, saying she was ready to cooperate with Labor and essentially opted for a softer version of Brexit, which, among other things, would keep Britain in the EU Customs Union and in the common trading area (the so-called “Single Market 2.0”). 

Teresa May promised that if the talks with the Labor Party did not work out,  she would implement the legislators’ will and act as they decided.

Commenting on the outcome of the Cabinet meeting, May said that even though the UK is ready to leave the European Union without a prior agreement, an orderly Brexit based on a treaty would better meet the country’s interests.

“This is a decisive moment in the history of these islands, and it needs national unity to deliver the national interest,” she reiterated.

Theresa May is working hard to avoid Britain’s participation in the May 23-26 elections to the European Parliament. According to EU legislation, each member of the bloc must be represented in parliament, and, as confirmed by European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, if the United Kingdom does not leave by the end of May, it will be obliged to take part in the European elections.

Still, no matter how strongly the British government may hope, London will be preparing for the May vote in the event of an emergency, Bloomberg reported, citing its own sources.

Theresa May’s readiness to make concessions despite her previous promise to step down as a condition for approving a previously agreed deal with the EU is dictated by a clear realization of the hard fact that there is virtually no other politician in the UK ready to take responsibility for finding a generally agreed way out of the current impasse, if, of course, this is possible at all. Meanwhile, it looks like no one in London has any desire to “rake the rubble” of this controversial and risky project. That being said, however, all parties have their own opinion on this subject and influence it each in its own way.

With the situation unfolding as it is, the opposition clearly felt it could score additional points and extract new concessions from the prime minister. In an official statement, the Labor Party stated that during the negotiations the parties had “agreed a program of work between our teams to explore the scope for agreement.”

However, in an interview with Sky News, Jeremy Corbin said that although during their meeting he and Teresa May had presented their own positions on Brexit, a series of additional meetings would be required to coordinate these positions.

Mr. Corbyn described the meeting as “useful but inconclusive,” adding that “there has not been as much change as I expected.”

“I put forward the view from the Labor Party that we want to achieve a Customs Union, and that we want to have access to the (EU) market,” he added.

Jeremy Corbin also said that he outlined the party’s position on the possibility of holding a second public vote on Brexit in order to prevent a “no deal” withdrawal from the EU, which would have dire consequences for the country’s economy. He added that Prime Minister May was seeking Labor’s support for the government’s draft agreement pertaining to the terms of Brexit as well as for the political declaration attached to it.

Meanwhile, Theresa May has been faced with increasingly strong criticism from hard-line Tory Brexeteers for softening her initial position.

“It is very disappointing that the cabinet has decided to entrust the final handling of Brexit to Jeremy Corbyn and the Labour Party. It now seems all too likely that British trade policy and key law making powers will be handed over to Brussels – with no say for the UK,” tweeted former Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson.

“I think the result will most certainly be that Corbyn has his way and we remain in the Customs Union, so that we can’t control our trade policy,” he insisted.

Essentially, Theresa May “has once again drawn a line between the agreement on withdrawal and the political declaration on the UK’s future relations with the EU,” the head of Europe Insight research company Andrei Kulikov noted. He believes that if the sides manage to agree on something, it “will be written down only in the declaration. Therefore, exactly how this will help enlist the support of those who reject the agreement itself is hard to tell.”

“If May keeps piling pressure on Corbyn to support her deal, then they will hardly be able to reach agreement. Parliament will then most likely demand a longer delay and the government will have to go along,” he continued. If the prime minister comes up with a new proposal, for example, one of the alternative plans, then perhaps the Labor Party’s leader will be satisfied, Kulikov observed.

“There will be a lot of political horse-trading, and chances are that the sides will eventually come to terms as they have shared interests, including in avoiding early elections,” he noted.

The EU leadership, wary of the negative financial and economic impact of the continuing uncertainty about the principles and timing of Brexit, has taken a particularly hard stand on the issue, with European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker insisting that a postponement until May 22 is possible only if Britain’s House of Commons endorses Theresa May’s previously rejected Brexit plan before April 12. The Guardian warns that many European leaders fear that London will not be able to clinch a consensus by that deadline, resulting in a “chaotic” Brexit happening right ahead of the upcoming elections to the European Parliament.

According to the newspaper, any compromise with Jeremy Corbyn is fraught with Theresa May abandoning some of her “red lines,” including Britain’s participation in the EU Customs Union, which is just contrary to what the Conservatives promised.

Commenting on Theresa May’s position, EU Council President Donald Tusk stresses the point that now is too early to judge whether her plan to reach a compromise on Brexit will succeed. Danish Prime Minister Lars Lokke Rasmussen said that the EU could agree to postpone Brexit only if the UK parties found a realistic way out of the European Union. He added, however, that it this would be “hard to believe.”

The financial and economic implications of Brexit – all the more so of a “hard” one without any real transitional period and agreed mechanisms – are probably the key factor explaining the actions of all the main participants in this process – including of the United States. President Donald Trump initially supported Brexit and during his meetings with Teresa May he, in keeping with his own business mentality, invariably tried to prod her towards making quick and radical steps. Britain’s exit from the EU without keeping in place existing mechanisms of trade and customs interaction would effectively undermine the country’s position in world trade and push it towards signing a bilateral trade deal with the US from a position of a weaker partner. Simultaneously, the political and economic weakening of the EU resulting from Brexit, would similarly benefit President Trump and his associates in the White House and on Wall Street.

In an interview with The Financial Times, Mark Mobius, formerly the  managing director of Templeton Asset Management, said that the UK increasingly resembles an “emerging market” and risks a currency crash should it leave the EU without a deal next month. According to Mobius, if British politicians fail to prevent an abrupt exit from the EU, the pound would tumble to parity against the dollar and Britain’s credit rating would be cut.  Sterling tumbled more than 10 percent immediately after the 2016 poll and has since traded at an average of about $1.30 against the US dollar, Mobius noted, warning that emerging markets may suffer from a “hard Brexit” as well.

It should also be borne in mind that the crisis around Brexit is unfolding against the backcloth of yet another negative factor for the European and world economy, namely the inability of the United States and China to clinch a trade deal. The document was expected to be inked during President Trump’s meeting with his Chinese counterpart, Xi Jinping, in late March. US-Chinese differences linger on though, and Washington now expects bilateral trade talks to be pushed back to summer. Sources say that China is in a better position and is not going to give in and although it really wants a good deal with the US, it still knows that Donald Trump may be needing it even more.

The existing situation gives a reason to expect further consultations between London and Brussels to try to avoid a “hard” Brexit and, at the same time, resist US pressure on the negotiating sides (above all Britain) to fast-track the Brexit process. Now it all depends on the EU’s response.

 First published in our partner International Affairs

Peter Iskenderov, senior research assistant at RAS Slavic Studies Institute, candidate of historical sciences

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Europe

Political will is needed to foster multilateralism in Europe

Guido Lanfranchi

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Dr. Fischler addressing the conference

On July 1st 2020, a large number of international affairs specialists gathered in Vienna, Austria, for the conference “From Victory Day to Corona Disarray: 75 Years of Europe’s Collective Security and Human Rights System”. The conference, jointly organized by four different entities (the International Institute for Middle East and Balkan Studies IFIMES, Media Platform Modern Diplomacy, Scientific Journal European Perspectives, and Action Platform Culture for Peace) with the support of the Diplomatic Academy of Vienna, was aimed at discussing the future of Europe in the wake of its old and new challenges.

The conference gathered over twenty high ranking speakers from Canada to Australia, and audience physically in the venue while many others attended online – from Chile to Far East. The day was filled by three panels focusing on the legacy of WWII, Nuremberg Trials, the European Human Rights Charter and their relevance in the 21st century; on the importance of culture for peace and culture of peace – culture, science, arts, sports – as a way to reinforce a collective identity in Europe; on the importance of accelerating on universalism and pan-European Multilateralism while integrating further the Euro-MED within Europe, or as the Romano Prodi’s EU Commission coined it back in 2000s – “from Morocco to Russia – everything but the institutions”.

The event itself was probably the largest physical gathering past the early spring lock down to this very day in this part of Europe. No wonder that it marked a launch of the political rethink and recalibration named – Vienna Process.

Among the speakers for the conference’s third panel – which focused on universal and pan-European multilateralism – there was Dr. Franz Fischler, a well-known figure due to his previous postings as Austria’s Federal Minister for Agriculture and Forestry (1989-1994) and as European Commissioner for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries (1995-2004), besides being currently President of the famous European ForumAlpbach.

Dr. Fischler started his keynote speech by highlighting how the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to fundamentally change Europe – and even the whole world. In doing so, he referred to the paradoxes outlined by Bulgarian intellectual Ivan Krastev in the wake of the pandemic. Contrasting pushes towards re-nationalization and globalization, the partial interruption of democracy but the decreasing appetite for authoritarian government, the mixed response of the European Union to the crisis – in short, a series of conflicting trends are making the future of Europe, as well as that of the whole world, very much uncertain.

It was against this backdrop that Dr. Fischler addressed the central question of the panel: What is fundamentally going to happen in Europe in the times ahead? The former EU Commissioner clarified from the very beginning that those who wish a further deepening of the current multilateral system should not be blinded by excessive optimism. An alternative to the current system does exist – clearly symbolized by the combination of nationalism and populism that we can see in many countries, but also by the problems faced by multilateralism in many fields, most notably trade.

This trend is evident in the case of the European Union too – Dr. Fischler warned. He highlighted that policy tools aimed at stimulating convergence across European countries, such as for instance the EU’s cohesion policies, are becoming increasingly weak, and inequality within the EU is currently on the rise. As a result, traditional goals such as the “ever closer Europe” and the “United States of Europe” do not even seem to be on the agenda anymore.

What can then be done to deepen the EU’s integration process and strengthen Europe’s multilateral system? Towards the end of his speech, Dr. Fischler outlined a few entry points for reform and further cooperation. His suggestions revolved around increasing cooperation on a number of specific issues, ranging from high-tech research to the development of a common European passport. He also proposed that European countries should strengthen their common diplomatic initiatives, including by speaking with a single voice in international institutions, as well as increasing the EU’s soft power. On top of that, deeper institutional and political modifications might be needed for the EU, Dr. Fischler hinted – citing as examples the relaxation of the unanimity voting procedure on some foreign policy issues, as well as an intensification of the EU’s enlargement process.

Closing his highly absorbing speech, Dr. Fischler – champion of multilateralism, and guru of the current EU CAP (Common Agricultural Policy) made clear which ingredient is, in his opinion, the cornerstone for reviving multilateralism in Europe: “All I would like to say is that there are possibilities out there. The question is, as always in these times: is there enough political will?”

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China “seems” to be moving closer to the Holy See

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The two-year provisional agreement which was signed on September 22, 2018 between the holy see and China for the appointment of bishops in China, with the pope having veto power over such appointments, is likely to be renewed by mutual consensus before the accord nears its expiry later this month.

The agreement was initially seen as a clincher for both China and Vatican, especially after diplomatic ties were completely severed in 1951. However, many observers and experts have claimed that, the agreement does more harm than good to the credibility and popularity of the monolithic Catholic institute. Besides the main propaganda campaign of the Chinese to retain unabridged control over bishop nominations, their ultimate goal is to get Vatican to discredit the government in Taiwan to assert its One-China policy. Although, the Vatican has agreed to support China on its One-China policy, it should still be weary and apprehensive of the Chinese politics.

How is Taiwan central to this agreement

Taiwan, a small island in East Asia, which China claims as part of its own territory, considers Vatican as its last partner in Europe. This puts Vatican in a critical situation while China is struggling to maintain cordial relations with the West.

According to Francesco Sisci, a senior researcher at the Remnim University in Beijing, China wants to be seen as an ally of the Pope because it realizes the soft superpower that the Catholic church yields over millions of followers within China and abroad. He says, When the pope speaks, everyone listens.

A logical conclusion thus one can derive from it, is that the Vatican’s endorsement of the One-China policy by discounting Taiwan’s authority to maintain independent diplomatic ties, will generate currency in China’s favour.

Two-years of signing the provisional agreement. What it means for China’s Catholics?

In a bid to renew the agreement, the Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson stated last week that the interim accord has been implemented successfully. However, the ground scenario provides a different factual story. Even after the deal was signed in 2018, there were several reports of harassment and detention of the underground Catholics and Clergy in China. Many Churches have been shut down, crosses and other religious symbols have disappeared from public spaces. These events have taken place even after the Vatican tabled such concerns during negotiation with China.

This is the direct result of the “Sinicization” policy of the Xi administration, that calls for showcasing loyalty to the state and the Communist Party during religious processions and practice. As per this restrictive policy, people below 18 years of age are strictly barred from entering places of worship and publication of any religious material is only allowed following a close scrutiny.

Cardinal Joseph Zen, retired cardinal of Honk Kong had expressed wide concerns for this accord. He had described the Vatican’s overtures with China as selling out of the Catholic Church in China. Zen knows that the agreement is largely going to benefit the Chinese authorities and the Communist Party in asserting its policies and international agendas.

It is also essential to highlight that the exact details and terms of the agreement are kept secret between the two parties. This may mean that if any violations of the agreement that may have taken place in the two years it was in place, it would become difficult to prove it in a court of law, owing to the confidentiality. This almost gives China full immunity over its inability to fulfill its obligation under the agreement. Vatican must therefore be cautious about China’s commitment towards the agreement and must device alternate ways to shelter and safeguard its priests and followers in China.

The EU-China angle

2020 was supposed to be the year for refinement of EU-China relations. The pandemic has however forced cancellations of governmental meetings, bilateral programs, and other scheduled events. And on the contrary, it has deepen the cracks between certain EU countries and China because of China’s propaganda campaign and geopolitical policies.

Last year saw a hard stance being adopted by EU legislators and policymakers, which was reflected in the policy paper released by the Federation of German Industries. The paper had described China as a “systemic competitor” and highlighted grave concerns over its international economic practices. The same line of charge was showcased in European Commission’s strategic reflection paper, where it referred to China as a negotiating partner with a need for finding a balance of interests and a systemic rival promoting alternative model of governance.

This position is attributed to China’s unfair and biased foreign policy that limited European companies from major EU countries to venture into the Chinese market. At the same time, China was employing economic tactics to woo smaller European countries to promote investments and improve trade relations with itself. The effect of this has been that many economically weaker countries have started looking towards China for monetary aid and trade related matters rather than cooperating with their fellow EU members. This has led to some kind of frustration and discordance amongst the EU nations.

The tensions might have heightened due to China’s diplomatic missteps, from its infamous wolf warrior diplomacy to its amoralistic mask diplomacy during the Covid outbreak. This will however not completely change the course in the relation between EU-China because there is too much at stake for both sides to risk everything. These instances must however caution Vatican about its handshake with China because, although it may have soft superpower but there’s nothing stopping China from pulling off an economical stunt.

A closer perspective

Taking the EU-China experience and the Sinicization policy collectively into consideration, it will be safe to assume for the Pope and his council of minister to rethink and weigh the merits and demerits of its diplomatic ties with China with utmost seriousness. Even if China promises more stability and monetary benefits in the short run, the Vatican must not forget that the deal indeed puts at risk, the values and principles that it has preached over the decades, to its people and followers globally, the repercussions of which may be beyond repair.

It needs to consider the plight of its brothers and sisters who have unlawfully been punished and detained in China and must push for more humane laws and remedies for them.This can be done by carefully executing a three-level approach. Firstly, the Vatican must put in place a strict mechanism to scrutinize and verify the inflow of investments so as to limit the interference of Chinese money in its decision making. This is similar to the foreign policy introduced by EU last year. Secondly, the Vatican must try to accommodate and align its interests with its European allies so as to strengthen the unity and solidarity in the region. It will also help them to collectively stand up against China if China tries to play hard ball against them, in terms of trade policy or indulges in any human rights violations for that matter. Lastly, the Vatican must push for transparency and openness with respect to the terms of the agreement that it has signed with China. This will allow the Holy See to rightfully claim any damage or remedy if any wrongful act or omission is committed by the Chinese side.

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EU acting a “civilian power”: Where & How

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Authors: Yang Haoyuan, ZengXixi & Hu Yongheng*

In 1946 when Winston Churchill addressed in Zurich, Switzerland, he called on urgent union of Europe, but not many people took his remarks seriously if not suspicious at all.This was because that economic recovery and social stability of the day were more urgent to the people across Europe. Since then in one decade, Europe has not only witnessed a rapid and robust social-economic reconstruction, but also an increasing integration of sovereign states coming of the age. It is true that throughout this process of the European integration, the United States has played a sort of patron role—at first as a passionate advocate publicly and then a powerful supporter through the Marshal Plan and finally a lead ally of the NATO.

In1963, the United States endorsed a fully cohesive Europe which, whether it functions as a grouping of nation-states or as the European Union, has shared America’s burden in terms of the Atlantic collective security. Yet, this strategic tie is not unconditional, for example, the EU support to the Washington’s policy decision depends upon only if its objectives parallel with America’s own and if it deems that without its contribution the common purposes will not be achieved. The diversions in policy between the two sides of the Atlantic are essentially more philosophical than technical. As a result, American unilateralism which usually comes out of Washington has been challenged by the EU involving three key structural issues: the EU’s self-image; the impact of the EU policy; and the U.S. attitudes toward the different options for European integration. As Henry Kissinger argued, in defining the role of Europe in the future world, the EU depends upon more their historical experiences than abstract concept of universal goodwill as a facilitator of diplomacy, or put it simply that “persuasiveness in negotiations relies primarily on the options the negotiator has available or is perceived to have at his or her disposal.”

 Since the beginning of the new century, the EU has become close to an equal to the United States economically, technologically and socially. In terms of soft power, European cultures have long had a wide appeal in the rest of the world, and the sense of a Europe uniting around Brussels has had a strong attraction to East Europe and Turkey as well. Samuel Huntington put it in the 1990s that a cohesive Europe would have the human resources, economic strength, technology, and actual and potential military forces to be the preeminent power of the 21st century. Although the EU has effectively constrained American unilateralism, it is out of the question that the U.S. and the EU would move on the road towards political conflict. Due to this, the EU has vowed to play a new role in the world affairs that might be termed as the “civilian power”.

According to scholar Helene Sjursen, civilian power is defined as playing a primary role in the international system but differing from the traditional great power which has pursued power politics by military means. The EU prefers acting a civilian power since it has committed to economic cooperation and social justice in the age of globalization. Accordingly, the acquisition of military means, or the EU’s ambition to acquire such means, might weaken at least the argument that the EU is a civilian power and could provoke a shift towards a policy more akin to traditional great powers. Despite this, this article opines that the EU has acted a civilian power in the world affairs. For sure, this is not an easy mission to achieve in view of the complexities of the world affairs.

On September 16 of 2020, EU Commission President Ursula von der Leyen addressed her first annual State of the Union, painting a sober picture of Europe grappling with a pandemic and its deepest recession in its history and calling for EU members to build a stronger health union amid COVID-19. She laid out ambitious goals to make the 27-nation bloc more resilient and united to confront future crises. In order to demonstrate the EU’s resolve and sincerity, she doubled down on the flagship goals sheset out on taking office in 2019: urgent action to tackle climate change and a digital revolution. In addition, von der Leyen unveiled a plan to cut the EU greenhouse gas emissions substantially and vowed to use green bonds to finance its climate goals. She also called for greater investment in technology for Europe to compete more keenly with China and the United States and said the EU would invest 20 percent of a 750 billion euro economic recovery fund in digital projects. Meanwhile, she said that the coronavirus pandemic had underlined the need for closer cooperation since “the people of Europe are still suffering.” It is noted that the competition mentioned involves only the unconventional rather than conventional security issues.

As a matter of fact, solidarity among the 27 member states performed badly at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as they refused to share the protective medical kits with the worst-affected and closed borders without consultation to prevent the spread of the virus. Also the EU leaders jousted for months over a joint plan to rescue their coronavirus-throttled economies. Yet, since last July,27 member states agreed on a stimulus plan that paved the way for the European Commission to raise billions of euros on capital markets on behalf of them all, an unprecedented act of solidarity in almost seven decades of European integration. Addressing the EU Parliament, von der Leyen pledged her commission would try to reinforce the European Medicines Agency and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, promising a biomedical research agency and a global summit. In effect, the EU has all the means and resources at its capacity.

Yet, externally the EU has to deal with the troubled talks with the United Kingdom on the future links after the Brexit divorce is done. All the deals and pacts between the two sides could not be unilaterally changed, disregarded or dis-applied. Von der Leyen reiterated that “This is a matter of law, trust and good faith… Trust is the foundation of any strong partnership.”The EU leaders also have the same attitude towards the United States and Russia since Europe is located between the two giants in all terms. Yet, the U.S. under the Trump’s administration has provided the EU with diplomatic rows. In a long run, the EU remains hopeful of improving relations and believes common ground can still be found, despite their current differences. As she reiterated “We must revitalize our most important relationships – we may not agree with the White House, but we must cooperate and build a new transatlantic agenda on trade and other matters.” Regarding the great challenge from Russia, she reiterated her condemnation of Russia over Navalny – though the Russian government has strongly denied any involvement – and said that the EU is on the side of the people of Belarus. They must be free to decide their own future and they are not pieces on someone else’s chessboard. However, the EU leaders seem to forget that the “color revolutions” have caused the disasters across Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.

Under such circumstances, the EU has to deal with China strategically and smartly, which during the first seven months of 2020becomes the top trading partner of the EU, a position previously held by the United States, followed by Britain, Switzerland, and Russia on EU’s main trading partner list in the first seven months. As France has suggested that the EU and China, as the defenders of multilateralism in international order, should set the tone for multilateralism and lead the international society to cement cooperation in areas such as vaccine research and climate change. Yet, it was arguable that von derLeyen defined China a “competitor and a rival” although she previously admitted that the latest video summit between China and the EU was “frank and open”. In fact, she said that progress had been made on a host of key areas and hailed the potential of a fruitful future trading partnership with China although there was still much work to be done. Understandably, as one of the key leading figures of the EU, von der Leyen used her speech to again address the challenges both sides face in working together in the years ahead in spite of their conflicting political ideologies. But this is what she said, “The latest EU-China summit highlights one of the hardest challenges. China is a competitor and rival. We promote very different systems.”

In sum, the EU has several challenges ahead to deal with. First, it must update its long-term climate change goals to meet the targets laid out in the Paris Climate Agreement signed before. Second, the EU must manage the numbers of migrants and refugees crossing into Europe from Asia and Africa. As von der Leyen said that it is of vital importance that the EU’s member states work together to share the burden of taking in migrants and refugees and providing them with the tools for a brighter future. Third, since EU member states have been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic, it has much to be done and in its response to the pandemic and continued efforts to cooperate with other nations to find a vaccine. As she called,the EU stepp ed up to lead the global response. With civil society, G20 and the World Health Organization and others the EUhas brought more than 40 countries together to raise $19 billion to finance research on vaccines, tests and treatments for the whole world. This is the EU’s unmatched convening power in action.

Meanwhile, the EU leaders have openly called on China to do more to aid the world’s collective fight against all the challenges mentioned above. As von de Leyen said recently, China has shown willingness to dialogue on climate change and fight against pandemic. She also warned of the dangers of countries not working together on vaccine research, with the U.S. recently announcing its plans to withdraw from the WHO. Both China and the EU share the common ground that vaccine nationalism puts lives at risk, only vaccine cooperation saves lives. We endorse a strong WHO and a strong WTO – but reform of the multilateral system has never been more urgent.

In view of this, it is fair to say that the EU wants to lead reforms of the WHO and WTO. But it is possible only if it works together with other responsible powers including China.

*Yang Hao Yuan from the School of Governance, Technical University of Munich; Zeng Xixi & Hu Yong Heng from SIPA, Jilin University

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