Sweden is a global leader in building a low-carbon economy, with the lowest share of fossil fuels in its primary energy supply among all IEA member countries, and the second-lowest carbon-intensive economy.
Sweden has been successful in its energy transformation through market-based policies that focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy, notably CO2 taxation, which has helped drive decarbonisation across several sectors.
Sweden’s energy policy is also well-integrated with its climate objectives, according to the latest review of the country’s energy policies conducted by the International Energy Agency. In the 2016 Energy Agreement and the Climate Framework from 2017, Sweden set ambitious targets, including the long-term goal of zero net emissions by 2045. But additional action is needed to achieve these results, as the country’s total carbon emissions have been flat since 2013.
“Sweden has shown that ambitious energy transition policies can accompany strong economic growth” said Paul Simons, the IEA’s Deputy Executive Director. “With the Energy Agreement now in place, the time has come to implement a clear roadmap towards the long term target of carbon neutrality.”
The report pays special attention to transport-related emissions. This sector accounts for less than a quarter of Sweden’s final energy consumption, but over half of its energy-related CO2 emissions. Sweden has set a target to reduce transport emissions by 70% between 2010 and 2030.
The government has also introduced several new policies including a bonus/penalty system to support new low‑emission vehicles and measures to increase the use of biofuels. However, Sweden is not yet on a trajectory towards its 2030 target, and the IEA recommends that the government closely monitors developments, and strengthens policy measures as needed.
The electricity system is another important element in Sweden’s energy transition. Sweden has largely decarbonised its electricity generation through investments in nuclear power, hydropower, and most recently, other renewables. This is an important achievement that needs to be sustained. Sweden has not taken a formal position against the construction of new nuclear plants and most existing nuclear power plants are expected to run for the next several decades before being phased out. That said, there is little interest to invest in new reactors in the current market. Meanwhile, Sweden has set an ambitious target of achieving 100% renewable electricity generation by 2040. The IEA recommends the government carefully assess how to reach that target and what the implications will be for grid stability and security of supply.
One key factor for maintaining a secure electricity supply is the regional power market. Sweden is well‑connected with its Nordic and Baltic neighbours and has become a large net exporter of electricity. As the share of wind power continues to increase, supported by green electricity certificates, regional trade becomes even more important.
“The Nordic power market is an excellent example of how countries can benefit from closer collaboration,” said Mr Simons. “We recommend further market integration to support the continued energy transition in the region.”
IRENA and UN Climate Change Join Forces to Accelerate Renewables as Climate Solution
The International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) and UN Climate Change (UNFCCC) are jointly ramping up efforts to fight climate change by promoting the widespread adoption and sustainable use of renewable energy. The new strategic partnership builds on a long history of cooperation that aims to ensure a low-carbon climate-resilient world in line with the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement.
In a Memorandum of Understanding signed today in Bonn between the heads of IRENA and UN Climate Change, the two organisations have agreed to step up the exchange of knowledge on energy transition, collaborate more closely at expert meetings, increase capacity building to promote renewables and undertake joint outreach activities.
Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) said: “The rapid transition to clean energy is crucial to meet the central goal of the Paris Climate Change Agreement, which is to hold the global average temperature rise to as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Time is running out – we are already seeing worsening climate change impacts around the world –including unprecedented heatwaves – and we need to grasp all opportunities to rapidly deploy clean, renewable energy at scale to prevent the worst climate scenarios form becoming a reality.”
Francesco La Camera, Director-General of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) added: “Falling technology costs have made solar, wind and other renewables the competitive backbone of energy decarbonisation and, together with energy efficiency, the most effective climate action tool available.
Renewable energy delivers jobs, delivers on sustainable development and will deliver a viable climate solution. The renewables-based energy transition provides a clear opportunity to increase ambition in the reviewing process of the national climate commitments under the Paris Agreement. IRENA will fully support countries in realising this opportunity on the way to COP25 in Chile this year and to COP26 in 2020.”
UN Climate Change and IRENA are already working together to promote renewable energy, notably at expert meetings and through publications.
At a practical level, the organisations have jointly provided capacity building on renewable energy through training sessions, for example to several African countries.
IRENA is also one of the biggest supporters of the UNFCCC’s Global Climate Action work, designed to mobilise climate-related activities of cities, regions, businesses and investors.
The new agreement is designed to build on this work, and to expand regional activities in the field of clean technology.
African Development Bank helps power wind of change in Kenya
Africa’s largest wind farm, a €620 million energy masterpiece boosting 365 turbines in northern Kenya, will help the East African nation stay on track to reach its target of 100% green energy by 2030.
Known as the Lake Turkana Wind Power, the 40,000 acre wind farm will generate around 310 megawatts of power to the national grid, enough to light up over 300,000 households.
The winds sweeping the area start in the Indian Ocean and are channeled through the “Turkana corridor” created by Ethiopian and Kenyan highlands. They blow consistently at 11 miles per hour, making this an ideal area for situating wind turbines.
The wind farm will increase the country’s electricity supply by 13%. At its launch earlier this month, President Uhuru Kenyatta said, “We again raise the bar for the continent …Kenya is without doubt on course to be a global leader in renewable energy.”
The African Development Bank served as lead arranger for €436 million in senior credit facilities towards the project cost of €623 million euros. The Bank also provided a partial risk guarantee from the African Development Fund of €20 million for the part of the project devoted to the transmission lines.
Since 2016, the Bank has invested around $4.5bn of its own resources in the energy sector.
African Development Bank President Akinwumi Adesina is in little doubt about the significance of the Bank’s funding. “African economic development is all about political will. We have little time and much to do for the continental transformation needed to light up and power Africa by 2025. Projects like the Lake Turkana Wind Power allow us to leap forward towards our key objectives. The Bank is very proud to be associated with this crucial addition to African infrastructure and clean energy generation”.
The continent has copious, even limitless, supplies of sun, water, and wind, as well as significant amounts of natural gas and other valuable natural resources and raw materials. Acccordingly, its New Deal is investing $12 billion over the next five years and leveraging up to $55 billion to achieve universal access to energy by 2025.
“This is a milestone that we are proud to celebrate. Kids can’t learn much in the dark. School books have to be put down when the sun sets. Life-saving vaccines can’t be preserved. Nurses and mid-wives have to deliver babies using lanterns or torches”, said Wale Shonibare, the Bank’s acting Vice–President for power, energy, climate change, and green growth.
“Turkana’s launch proves that we are determined to continue to work relentlessly to close Africa’s energy gap. Our efforts will be felt in hundreds of thousands of Kenyan households and beyond”, Shonibare added.
The site is Kenya’s largest renewable energy project and its biggest single private sector investment. The plant is expected to reduce power shortages by 12.5% and cut the cost of electricity in Kenya by up to 10%. It is proof of Kenya’s commitment to pursue clean sources of energy and provides a major boost to the country’s international commitments to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
Commission approves support for six offshore wind farms in France
The European Commission has found support to six large offshore wind farms in French territorial waters to be in line with EU State aid rules. The measures will help France reduce CO2 emissions, in line with EU energy and climate goals, without unduly distorting competition in the single market.
France intends to support six offshore wind farms for electricity generation. The six sites are located in French territorial waters off the North-Western coast of France. The sites are “Courselles-sur-Mer”, “Fécamp”, “Saint-Nazaire”, “Iles d’Yeu / Noirmoutier”, “Dieppe / Le Tréport” and “Saint-Brieuc”.
These are the first selected offshore wind projects supported by France. Each of the wind farms will be composed of 62 to 83 turbines with an installed capacity of 450 to 498 megawatts per farm. The selected installations will receive support in the form of feed-in tariffs over a period of 20 years. The construction of the first of the wind farms is to start this year and they should be operational as of 2022. Once finalised, the wind farms will increase France’s renewables generation capacity by about three gigawatts.
The Commission assessed the six support measures under EU State aid rules, in particular the Commission’s 2008 Guidelines on State aid for environmental protection.
The Commission found that:
the support measures will help France boost its share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources to meet its climate targets, in line with the environmental objectives of the EU;
the level of aid granted to the six projects is proportionate and does not entail overcompensation of the beneficiaries, in line with the requirements of the Guidelines.
On this basis, the Commission has concluded that the measures will encourage the development of renewable energy and will help France meet its climate targets, without unduly distorting competition.
The Commission’s 2008 Guidelines on State Aid for Environmental Protection allow Member States to support the production of electricity from renewable energy sources, subject to certain conditions. These rules are aimed at meeting the EU’s ambitious energy and climate targets at the least possible cost for taxpayers and without undue distortions of competition in the Single Market.
The Renewable Energy Directive established targets for all Member States’ shares of renewable energy sources in gross final energy consumption by 2020. For France that target is 23% by 2020. The projects aim to contribute to reaching that target.
More information on today’s decision will be available, once potential confidentiality issues have been resolved, in the State aid register on the Commission’s competition website under the case numbers SA.45274, SA.45275, SA.45276, SA.47246, SA.47247 and SA.48007. The State Aid Weekly e-News lists new publications of State aid decisions on the internet and in the EU Official Journal.
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