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“Operating System Upgrade” Needed to Renew Globalization, Avoid Future Crises

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The World Economic Forum today calls for a global public-private campaign to strengthen and modernize international cooperation and two key areas of domestic governance.

The call for engagement comes two months after the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting and 10 years to the day since the London G20 Leaders Summit, when concerted global action was credited with helping avert a deeper and more protracted global economic crisis.

In a new white paper, Globalization 4.0: Shaping a New Global Architecture in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the Forum argues that major shifts underway in technology, geopolitics, environment and society are combining to give birth to a new phase of globalization – Globalization 4.0 – whose trajectory will depend in large part on how well governance at multiple levels – governmental, corporate and international – adapts to these changes.

The emergence of these four transformations as driving forces of Globalization 4.0, the paper argues, calls for a new approach by governments, companies, civil society institutions and citizens to strengthen and modernize international cooperation and domestic governance. The paper also urges leaders to heed the lessons of 2009 and work together now rather than become complacent about the gaps in national and global governance that accumulated as a result of changes in technology, markets and macroeconomic conditions, which ultimately led to the global financial crisis of 2008-2009.

A new era for global governance

In the run-up to the 75th anniversary of the United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions in 2020, the Forum seeks to inspire engagement by facilitating a year-long process of dialogue in cooperation with other institutions. The white paper is intended to help concretize these discussions and place them in systemic context. Drawing on discussions and consultations undertaken on its platform before, during and after the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos in January, it presents:

– 8 general design specifications of effective international cooperative architecture and domestic governance in this new era

– 100 architectural innovations – existing initiatives and proposals embodying these specifications that would go a long way towards modernizing and strengthening the effectiveness of institutions and arrangements in such areas as trade, finance, environment, technology and cybersecurity, as well as domestic corporate governance and labour policies

These are presented to raise the level of ambition and appreciation of the impressive array of practical opportunities for progress that are available and mainly awaiting wider support. Nearly 60 multilateral and intergovernmental governance initiatives are highlighted, including more than 20 led by the UN and 15 by the Bretton Woods institutions, OECD and WTO. In addition, 45 multistakeholder initiatives to strengthen global governance and cooperation are spotlighted, including 25 that are facilitated by or linked to the World Economic Forum’s platform.

The white paper argues that implementation of a substantial portion of these would amount to an “operating system upgrade” for international cooperation and its indispensable core of multilateral institutions. Much of the remarkable progress humanity has experienced since the Second World War has been constructed on the foundation of norms and shared policy and action agendas organized through the United Nations system and Bretton Woods institutions. The white paper includes a summary of these achievements and argues for strengthening this precious institutional infrastructure, while anchoring it in a wider, multidimensional geometry of cooperative arrangements – a more robust underlying operating system – that advances common objectives even further.

“Crisis need not and should not be relied upon again to be the mother of invention for improvements in governance required by our rapidly changing world. This report illustrates that there is no lack of opportunities to strengthen international cooperation and domestic governance now, so we do not have to resort to an emergency response later like the London G20 Summit a decade ago. The best way we can mark the 75th anniversary of the United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions next year is for all stakeholders to begin engaging this year in a sustained effort to strengthen and supplement the multilateral system,” said Richard Samans, Managing Director and Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum.

Other key messages in the white paper include:

– “There has been a systematic underappreciation of the human impact of rapid economic change, whether due to technology or policy liberalization, in the priorities of national economic policy and the corresponding international institutional architecture.”

– “There are three practical steps countries can take to improve social justice and economic growth simultaneously. They each involve raising the level of investment in people across the public and private sectors.” This is the crux of what it means for a country to strengthen its social contract in the world economy of the 21st century. It also represents the basis of a new, human-centred growth and development model that may be the best hope for sustaining the world economy’s momentum as the two growth engines on which many countries have been relying – extraordinary macroeconomic stimulus and export-led production – continue to lose steam.

– “Implementing the Paris accord will therefore require us to think beyond, and build upon, it.” The white paper outlines four “new dimensions of climate change cooperative architecture – industry sector, value chain, plurilateral intergovernmental and bottom-up societal – that would facilitate the implementation of the NDCs registered by governments, likely strengthening the political confidence necessary to raise the ambition of such commitments in future years as foreseen by the Paris agreement.”

– “The Fourth Industrial Revolution and Globalization 4.0 are accentuating several risks that henceforth will require more explicit and proactive attention by boards. Loss of trust stemming from problems in any of them can reverse years of advances in market value and threaten a firm’s very existence. These relate to the use of personal and other sensitive data; the deployment of algorithms in internal processes and external products and services; the implications of climate change; corruption and financial crime; and labour practices.”

– “Companies have not only a legal obligation to pay taxes, but also a broader fiduciary responsibility stemming from their long-term value-creation mandate to ensure that they pay their fair share, which may not always be the same amount as that resulting from aggressive, multijurisdictional tax planning. Boards have a responsibility to ensure that their firms are acting not only legally, but also in keeping with the trust society has placed in them to contribute fairly and responsibly to the long-term viability of the economy in which they operate.”

– In the absence of an international organization dedicated to governance of advanced technologies, “the Forum itself launched the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network in 2017 to serve as a public-private platform for the collaborative development and refinement of governance frameworks and protocols that more fully anticipate the risks and accelerate the benefits for societies of advanced technologies. It brings together governments, business organizations, dynamic start-ups, civil society, academia and international organizations to co-design human-centred governance protocols and policy frameworks, and pilot them with government and industry partners. It is establishing leader-level global councils composed of ministers and heads of regulatory agencies, chief executive officers, and leading technical and civil society experts to help shape the global technology policy and corporate governance agenda by providing a unique place in the international system where policy dialogue, practical learning and international agenda setting can take place across stakeholders and regions on an ongoing basis.”

– We do not face a stark choice between free trade and protectionism, technology and jobs, immigration and national identity or economic growth and social equity. These are false dichotomies. However, the prominence of these polemics in contemporary political discourse illustrates how underprepared we are for Globalization 4.0.

– “The paper should not be read as a general treatise or comprehensive overview of global governance but rather as a set of architectural blueprints for helping public and private institutions remain ‘up to code’ in Globalization 4.0, as well as a practical “users guide” of opportunities for immediate engagement by all stakeholders.”

The paper does not seek to be exhaustive or prescriptive but rather illustrative and suggestive. Nor does it represent a formal position of the World Economic Forum or its members, partners, communities or constituents.

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Lavrov: Russia had ‘no choice’ but to launch ‘special military operation’ in Ukraine

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Foreign Minister Sergey V. Lavrov of the Russian Federation addresses the general debate of the General Assembly’s seventy-seventh session. UN Photo/Cia Pak

Faced with the “inability” of Western countries to negotiate and the Ukrainian Government’s “war against its own people” in the east, Russia had “no choice” but to launch what the Government refers to as its special military operation, Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov told the UN General Assembly on Saturday.

The operation launched on 24 February had been carried out to protect Russians living in Ukraine’s Donetsk and Luhansk regions, and eliminate threats to Russian security, said Mr. Lavrov, that the EU and United States-led NATO military alliance had consistently created in the territory, since what he described as the “bloody coup” by the current “Kyiv regime”, in 2014.

“I am convinced that any sovereign, self-respecting State would do the same in our stead, which understands its responsibility to its own people.”

‘Throwing a fit’

Mr. Lavrov accused the West of “throwing a fit” over this weekend’s referenda being conducted in the Donbas and other Russian-controlled areas on becoming a part of the Russian Federation, countering that people there were simply following an order from Kyiv, to “get out and to go to Russia”.

The Russian Foreign Minister said the crises surrounding the war were growing, and the international situation was rapidly deteriorating, but instead of having an honest dialogue and searching for compromise, the West was “undermining confidence in international institutions” and encouraging negative tendencies within the United Nations as well.

He said the United States was trying to turn the whole world into its “backyard”, and together with its partners, punishing dissenters from its world view, through what he called “illegal unilateral sanctions” which violate the UN Charter, and hurt poor citizens in poorer countries, targeting their medicines, vaccines and food imports.

‘Provocations’

Attempts by the US to impose dividing lines, telling nations “you’re either with us or against us”, meant that instead of “honest dialogue” there was instead “disinformation, crude staging, and provocations”.

He praised the UN Secretary-General for mobilizing efforts to overcome the global food and energy crisis fuelled by the war but blamed the West for economic mismanagement in the pandemic, claiming that sanctions against his country amounted to an “economic war against Russia.”

He praised the Black Sea Grain Initiative to free up food and fertilizer from Ukraine, and Russia, to alleviate price inflation and supply, but said the poorest countries were still not benefitting, and again criticized the US and EU for not fully removing “obstacles” to Russian exports he said were trapped in European ports.

‘Russophobia’ claim

Mr. Lavrov told the Assembly that there was now a “crusade by the West against the objectionables”, with NATO seeing Russia as simply a threat to its domination of the region and beyond.

Furthermore, Russophobia, he said, had reached unprecedented proportions, with Western powers making no secret of their ambition to militarily defeat Russia, and try to “destroy and fracture Russia…What they want to do is to remove from the global map, a geopolitical entity, which has become all too independent.”

He warned countries beyond Europe and North America, that the Western alliance, in an effort to impose its will, was seeking to expand influence and hegemony further into Asia, South America, and Africa, and ended his remarks by quoting the hugely influential and charismatic second UN Secretary-General, Dag Hammarskjöld:

Save humanity from hell

“The UN wasn’t created to take mankind to paradise, but rather to save humanity from hell. These are very topical words. They call upon us, to understand our individual and collective responsibility for creating conditions for a peaceful and harmonious development for our future generations, and everyone needs to show political will for that.”

Ending his speech on a conciliatory note, and a nod to a brighter future for multilateralism, he said he was convinced that the stability of the world order could be ensured, by returning to “the origins of UN diplomacy”, based on the key principle of “sovereign equality of States”.

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War crimes have been committed in Ukraine conflict

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Dozens of bodies near the cemetery in Bucha. Photo By Rodrigo Abd. Image source: war.ukraine.ua

Almost seven months to the day since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, UN-appointed independent human rights investigators said that war crimes have indeed been committed in the conflict.

The finding came in the first report by the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine, which was set up in March this year, at the request of Human Rights Council Member States.

Much of the Commission’s work focused on investigations in the regions of Kyiv, Chernihiv, Kharkiv, and Sumy, where allegations of the most serious rights violations were made against Russian, or Russian-backed forces, early in the war.

Thorough investigation

Commission chairperson Erik Møse said that investigators visited 27 towns and settlements and interviewed more than 150 victims and witnesses. They also inspected “sites of destruction, graves, places of detention and torture”, as well as remnants of weapons.

Based on the evidence gathered so far during the Commission’s existence, we found out after having carried out the investigations in these four areas just mentioned, we found that war crimes have been committed in Ukraine,” he told journalists in Geneva.

That conclusion is in line with findings published earlier this year by the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine (HRMMU).

It documented unlawful killings – including summary executions of civilians – in more than 30 settlements in Kyiv, Chernihiv, Kharkiv and Sumy regions, by Russian armed forces while they controlled these areas in late February and March.

Brutal executions

Other key findings from the report include the surprisingly “large number of executions” in 16 towns and settlements, where “common elements” of the crimes included “visible signs of executions on bodies, such as hands tied behind backs, gunshot wounds to the head, and slit throats”.

The report, delivered to the Human Rights Council earlier on Friday, also documented how explosive weapons had been used by the Russian Federation forces, “without distinguishing between civilians and combatants in populated areas”.

“We were struck by a large number of executions and other violations by Russian forces, and the Commission received consistent accounts of torture and ill-treatment.”

Sexual violence, including against children

Horrific allegations of sexual violence against Ukrainian communities – including children – were also found to be based in fact.

“The Commission investigated cases of sexual gender-based violence. It documented cases in which some Russian Federation soldiers made such crime,” said Commissioner Jasminka Džumhur.

Ukrainian forces were also responsible for human rights violations, said Commissioner Pablo de Greiff: “We have found two instances of ill-treatment of Russian Federation soldiers by Ukrainian soldiers, and we mentioned this in our statement. We have found obviously significantly larger numbers of instances that amount to war crimes on the part of the Russian Federation.”

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Ireland: Rights experts call for redress for 50 years of systemic racism in childcare institutions

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UN-appointed independent human rights experts on Friday called on Irish authorities to provide adequate redress for victims of racial discrimination and system racism in Irish childcare institutions, stretching over more than 50 years.

Citing information received, 10 experts issued a joint statement saying that systemic racism in childcare institutions between the 1940s and 1990s, has “resulted in the higher institutionalization rate of children of African and Irish descent”.

During their prolonged time there, children were exposed to heightened risk of corporal punishment, sexual, physical and verbal abuse, with lifelong consequences, including infringing their right to enjoy the highest standard of physical and mental health. Some of them were also subjected to vaccine trials.

Exchanging letters

Despite welcoming the Irish Government’s Action Plan to provide tangible benefits for survivors and former residents of mother and baby and county home institutions, the experts sent them a letter containing their allegations of racial discrimination in April.

In it, they raised the alarm that children of African and Irish descent were “subjected to differential treatment because of their race, colour and/or descent, leading to further violations of their human rights”.

In response, the Irish Government referred to the official State apology offered on 13 January 2021 in which the country recognized the “additional impact which a lack of knowledge and understanding had on the treatment and outcomes of mothers and children with different racial and cultural heritage”.

It continued, acknowledging that such “discriminatory attitudes exacerbated the shame and stigma felt by some of our most vulnerable citizens, especially where opportunities for non-institutional placement of children were restricted by an unjust belief that they were unsuitable for placement with families”.

Stolen childhoods

Although the State apology is an important element of the restorative justice process, the experts said it was “not enough”.

Because of the systemic racial discrimination that prevailed in the childcare institutions at the time, the experts underscored that they had, in effect, had their “childhood stolen” from them.

“We are seriously concerned over the severe and continuing effects that racial discrimination and systematic racism have had on the lives of the adults who are currently seeking redress,” the statement read.

Restorative justice

Under international law, States have an obligation to ensure accountability for past human rights violations and provide full reparation to the victims, when these violations still have an impact.

The independent experts called on the Irish Government to “take further action to provide those who were subjected to differential treatment in childcare institutions with effective remedies”.

A future scheme to address rights violations, “must recognize and provide redress for all the human rights violations perpetrated against children during the entire duration of their stay in Irish institutions, including mother and baby homes, industrial schools, reformatories, Magdalen Laundries and analogous institutions, as well as life-long impacts”, the statement continued.

In conclusion, they noted that a proposed “Bill Payment Scheme” provides an avenue of redress “for the harms caused due to racial discrimination and systemic racism to which children of African and Irish descent were subjected”.

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