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“Operating System Upgrade” Needed to Renew Globalization, Avoid Future Crises

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The World Economic Forum today calls for a global public-private campaign to strengthen and modernize international cooperation and two key areas of domestic governance.

The call for engagement comes two months after the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting and 10 years to the day since the London G20 Leaders Summit, when concerted global action was credited with helping avert a deeper and more protracted global economic crisis.

In a new white paper, Globalization 4.0: Shaping a New Global Architecture in the Age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the Forum argues that major shifts underway in technology, geopolitics, environment and society are combining to give birth to a new phase of globalization – Globalization 4.0 – whose trajectory will depend in large part on how well governance at multiple levels – governmental, corporate and international – adapts to these changes.

The emergence of these four transformations as driving forces of Globalization 4.0, the paper argues, calls for a new approach by governments, companies, civil society institutions and citizens to strengthen and modernize international cooperation and domestic governance. The paper also urges leaders to heed the lessons of 2009 and work together now rather than become complacent about the gaps in national and global governance that accumulated as a result of changes in technology, markets and macroeconomic conditions, which ultimately led to the global financial crisis of 2008-2009.

A new era for global governance

In the run-up to the 75th anniversary of the United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions in 2020, the Forum seeks to inspire engagement by facilitating a year-long process of dialogue in cooperation with other institutions. The white paper is intended to help concretize these discussions and place them in systemic context. Drawing on discussions and consultations undertaken on its platform before, during and after the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting in Davos in January, it presents:

– 8 general design specifications of effective international cooperative architecture and domestic governance in this new era

– 100 architectural innovations – existing initiatives and proposals embodying these specifications that would go a long way towards modernizing and strengthening the effectiveness of institutions and arrangements in such areas as trade, finance, environment, technology and cybersecurity, as well as domestic corporate governance and labour policies

These are presented to raise the level of ambition and appreciation of the impressive array of practical opportunities for progress that are available and mainly awaiting wider support. Nearly 60 multilateral and intergovernmental governance initiatives are highlighted, including more than 20 led by the UN and 15 by the Bretton Woods institutions, OECD and WTO. In addition, 45 multistakeholder initiatives to strengthen global governance and cooperation are spotlighted, including 25 that are facilitated by or linked to the World Economic Forum’s platform.

The white paper argues that implementation of a substantial portion of these would amount to an “operating system upgrade” for international cooperation and its indispensable core of multilateral institutions. Much of the remarkable progress humanity has experienced since the Second World War has been constructed on the foundation of norms and shared policy and action agendas organized through the United Nations system and Bretton Woods institutions. The white paper includes a summary of these achievements and argues for strengthening this precious institutional infrastructure, while anchoring it in a wider, multidimensional geometry of cooperative arrangements – a more robust underlying operating system – that advances common objectives even further.

“Crisis need not and should not be relied upon again to be the mother of invention for improvements in governance required by our rapidly changing world. This report illustrates that there is no lack of opportunities to strengthen international cooperation and domestic governance now, so we do not have to resort to an emergency response later like the London G20 Summit a decade ago. The best way we can mark the 75th anniversary of the United Nations and Bretton Woods institutions next year is for all stakeholders to begin engaging this year in a sustained effort to strengthen and supplement the multilateral system,” said Richard Samans, Managing Director and Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum.

Other key messages in the white paper include:

– “There has been a systematic underappreciation of the human impact of rapid economic change, whether due to technology or policy liberalization, in the priorities of national economic policy and the corresponding international institutional architecture.”

– “There are three practical steps countries can take to improve social justice and economic growth simultaneously. They each involve raising the level of investment in people across the public and private sectors.” This is the crux of what it means for a country to strengthen its social contract in the world economy of the 21st century. It also represents the basis of a new, human-centred growth and development model that may be the best hope for sustaining the world economy’s momentum as the two growth engines on which many countries have been relying – extraordinary macroeconomic stimulus and export-led production – continue to lose steam.

– “Implementing the Paris accord will therefore require us to think beyond, and build upon, it.” The white paper outlines four “new dimensions of climate change cooperative architecture – industry sector, value chain, plurilateral intergovernmental and bottom-up societal – that would facilitate the implementation of the NDCs registered by governments, likely strengthening the political confidence necessary to raise the ambition of such commitments in future years as foreseen by the Paris agreement.”

– “The Fourth Industrial Revolution and Globalization 4.0 are accentuating several risks that henceforth will require more explicit and proactive attention by boards. Loss of trust stemming from problems in any of them can reverse years of advances in market value and threaten a firm’s very existence. These relate to the use of personal and other sensitive data; the deployment of algorithms in internal processes and external products and services; the implications of climate change; corruption and financial crime; and labour practices.”

– “Companies have not only a legal obligation to pay taxes, but also a broader fiduciary responsibility stemming from their long-term value-creation mandate to ensure that they pay their fair share, which may not always be the same amount as that resulting from aggressive, multijurisdictional tax planning. Boards have a responsibility to ensure that their firms are acting not only legally, but also in keeping with the trust society has placed in them to contribute fairly and responsibly to the long-term viability of the economy in which they operate.”

– In the absence of an international organization dedicated to governance of advanced technologies, “the Forum itself launched the Centre for the Fourth Industrial Revolution Network in 2017 to serve as a public-private platform for the collaborative development and refinement of governance frameworks and protocols that more fully anticipate the risks and accelerate the benefits for societies of advanced technologies. It brings together governments, business organizations, dynamic start-ups, civil society, academia and international organizations to co-design human-centred governance protocols and policy frameworks, and pilot them with government and industry partners. It is establishing leader-level global councils composed of ministers and heads of regulatory agencies, chief executive officers, and leading technical and civil society experts to help shape the global technology policy and corporate governance agenda by providing a unique place in the international system where policy dialogue, practical learning and international agenda setting can take place across stakeholders and regions on an ongoing basis.”

– We do not face a stark choice between free trade and protectionism, technology and jobs, immigration and national identity or economic growth and social equity. These are false dichotomies. However, the prominence of these polemics in contemporary political discourse illustrates how underprepared we are for Globalization 4.0.

– “The paper should not be read as a general treatise or comprehensive overview of global governance but rather as a set of architectural blueprints for helping public and private institutions remain ‘up to code’ in Globalization 4.0, as well as a practical “users guide” of opportunities for immediate engagement by all stakeholders.”

The paper does not seek to be exhaustive or prescriptive but rather illustrative and suggestive. Nor does it represent a formal position of the World Economic Forum or its members, partners, communities or constituents.

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EU Politics

Commission proposes to strengthen coordination of safe travel in the EU

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European Commission has proposed to update the rules on coordination of safe and free movement in the EU, which were put in place in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Since the summer, vaccine uptake has increased significantly and the EU Digital COVID Certificate has been rolled out successfully, with more than 650 million certificates issued to date. At the same time, the epidemiological situation in the EU continues to develop with some Member States taking additional public health measures, including administering booster vaccines. Taking into account all those factors, the Commission is proposing a stronger focus on a ‘person-based’ approach to travel measures and a standard acceptance period for vaccination certificates of 9 months since the primary vaccination series. The 9 month period takes into account the guidance of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the administration of booster doses as of 6 months, and provides for an additional period of 3 months to ensure that national vaccination campaigns can adjust and citizens can have access to boosters.

The Commission is also proposing updates to the EU traffic light map; as well as a simplified ‘emergency brake’ procedure. 

The Commission is also proposing today to update the rules on external travel to the EU [press release available as of 14:15].

Didier Reynders, Commissioner for Justice, said: “Since the start of the pandemic, the Commission has been fully active in finding solutions to guarantee the safe free movement of people in a coordinated manner. In light of the latest developments and scientific evidence, we are proposing a new recommendation to be adopted by the Council. Based on our common tool, the EU Digital COVID Certificate, which has become a real standard, we are moving to a ‘person-based’ approach. Our main objective is avoid diverging measures throughout the EU. This also applies to the question of boosters, which will be essential to fight the virus. Among other measures, we propose today that the Council agrees on a standard validity period for vaccination certificates issued following the primary series. Agreeing on this proposal will be crucial for the months ahead and the protection of the safe free movement for citizens.”

Stella Kyriakides, Commissioner for Health and Food Safety added:  “The EU Digital COVID Certificate and our coordinated approach to travel measures have greatly contributed to safe free movement, with the protection of public health as our priority. We have vaccinated over 65% of the total EU population, but this is not enough. There are still too many people who are not protected. For everyone to travel and live as safely as possible, we need to reach significantly higher vaccination rates – urgently. We also need to reinforce our immunity with booster vaccines. Taking into account the guidance from ECDC, and to allow Member States to adjust their vaccination campaigns and for citizens to have access to boosters, we propose a standard acceptance period for vaccination certificates. At the same time, we have to continue to strongly encouraging everyone to continue to respect public health measures. Our masks need to stay on.”

Key updates to the common approach to travel measures within the EU proposed by the Commission are:

Focus on a ‘person-based approach’: a person who has a valid EU Digital COVID Certificate should in principle not be subject to additional restrictions, such as tests or quarantine, regardless of their place of departure in the EU. Persons without an EU Digital COVID Certificate could be required to undergo a test carried out prior to or after arrival.

Standard validity of vaccination certificates: To avoid diverging and disruptive approaches, the Commission proposes a standard acceptance period of 9-month for vaccination certificates issued following the completion of the primary vaccination series. The 9 month period takes into account the guidance of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the administration of booster doses as of 6 months, and provides for an additional period of 3 months to ensure that national vaccination campaigns can adjust and citizens can have access to boosters. This means that, in the context of travel, Member States should not refuse a vaccination certificate that has been issued less than 9 months since the administration of the last dose of the primary vaccination. Member States should immediately take all necessary steps to ensure access to vaccination for those population groups whose previously issued vaccination certificates approach the 9-month limit.

Booster shots: As of yet, there are no studies expressly addressing the effectiveness of boosters on transmission of COVID-19 and therefore it is not possible to determine an acceptance period for boosters. However, given the emerging data it can be expected that protection from booster vaccinations may last longer than that resulting from the primary vaccination series. The Commission will closely monitor newly emerging scientific evidence on this issue. On the basis of such evidence, the Commission may, if needed, propose an appropriate acceptance period also for vaccination certificates issued following a booster.

The EU traffic light map is adapted: combining new cases with a region’s vaccine uptake. The map would be mainly for information purposes, but would also serve to coordinate measures for areas with particularly low (‘green’) or particularly high level (‘dark red’) of circulation of the virus. For these areas, specific rules would apply by derogation from the ‘persons-based approach’. For travellers from ‘green’ areas, no restrictions should be applied. Travel to and from ‘dark red’ areas should be discouraged, given the high number of new infections there, and persons who are neither vaccinated nor have recovered from the virus should be required to undergo a pre-departure test and quarantine after arrival (with special rules for essential travelers and children under 12 years old).

Exemptions from certain travel measures: should apply for cross-border commuters, children under 12 and essential travellers. The list of essential travellers should be reduced as many travellers included in the current list have had the opportunity to be vaccinated in the meantime.

Simplified ‘emergency brake’ procedure: the emergency procedure intended to delay the spread of possible new COVID-19 variants or address particularly serious situations should be simplified and more operational. It would include a Member State notification to the Commission and the Council and a roundtable at the Council’s Integrated Political Crisis Response (IPCR).

To allow for sufficient time for the coordinated approach to be implemented, the Commission proposes that these updates apply as of 10 January 2022.

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Tech News

What is the Difference between a Sensor and Transducer?

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quantum technology

What Do We Understand by a Transducer?

A transducer is an electrical gadget or device that can convert energy from one of its forms into another through the process known as transduction. In most cases and general scenarios, the appliance or instrument can transform a signal from one state into another. The conversion of electrical energy into its mechanical variation is an example of the kind or type of work a transducer can perform. 

The most common places where a transducer finds application are the boundaries and margins of control systems, measurements, and automation. The electrical gadget can perform its actions and functions for a few specific conditions and circumstances. Let us choose an example to understand it. A transducer works when a given electrical energy or signal experiences transformation from any form or state of a physical quantity to another. The latter variable or parameter can include force position, motion, light, torque, etc. 

What Do We Understand by a Sensor?

A sensor is a unique type of transducer. It receives a signal or a stimulus from a specified physical system and sends a response for it. The device generates and produces a return signal that depicts and represents the data and information of the entire arrangement. Such an approach can get used in different and distinct kinds or sorts of control, statistical, or telemetric systems. 

A sensor comes with the ability and capability to detect distinct alterations and changes in its surroundings and environment. After locating the variations, it sends the collected and interpreted material and information to some other form or version of electronics. In general instances, it entails a computer processor. In other cases, manual and human deciphering can also get chosen. 

What are the Various Types or Categories of Transducer?

Based on several factors, a transducer can get divided into different types or categories. The first basis of classification can comprise the manner or fashion in which the electrical instrument functions and operates. The kind of work it performs can also get included. In such a case, a transducer can be of the following two varieties or types:

  • Mechanical Transducer

A mechanical transducer can change any physical quantity. It can transform it into its mechanical counterpart and form.

  • Electrical Transducer

An electrical transducer can change any physical quantity. It can transform it into its electrical counterpart and form.

Besides the mentioned basis of categorization, a transducer can be of two more types. It depends on the style of job that the instrument performs. 

  • Input Transducer

An input transducer utilizes a specific state or particular form of a physical quantity or variable. It converts it into a readable and interpretable signal. An example that falls under this category includes a microphone. It accepts the produced and created sound waves and works to change them into an electrical form of signal. After that, the parameter or element can get moved or transported to the amplifier. It is feasible with the help of a wire connection system.

  • Output Transducer

An output transducer operates in a manner that is the exact opposite of an input transducer. It utilizes the received electrical signals and changes them into some other state or form of energy. An example that falls under this category includes a lamp. It accepts electricity and alters into light energy. 

What are the Various Types or Categories of Sensors?

A sensor can be of several types, a few of which entails:

  • Position Sensor

A position sensor computes the distance traveled by a body from its reference or starting point. It measures the angular or the linear position. The device does so by comparing the acquired value with a specified location. Furthermore, it can determine the presence and location of an object. 

  • Strain Gauge

A strain gauge works to compute strain or force. Its resistance changes with the degree of applied force, leading to various electrical outputs. This method helps assess pressure, weight, and tension. 

  • Flow and Level Switch

A flow and level switch computes liquid or dry substances using a relay, millivolt, or current outputs. 

  • Vibration Sensor

A vibration sensor computes a machine, system, or equipment’s vibration frequency. The obtained results help to find and determine imbalances and other issues. It also works to correct them. 

  • Photo Optic Sensor

A photo optic sensor determines the distance and presence of an object. It does so using a photoelectric receiver as well as a light transmitter. 

  • Humidity Sensor

A humidity sensor computes air humidity conditions at any time and place. 

  • Force Sensor

A force sensor computes the magnitudes of load, strain, compression, and force. 

  • Pressure Sensor

A pressure sensor regulates various electrical gadgets and appliances. It also measures a fluid or a gas’ flow and speeds indirectly. 

  • Fluid Property Sensor

A fluid property sensor checks the dynamic and proportionate relationship between different physical properties. It helps assess the quality, contaminant load, and condition of the fluid. 

  • Piezo Sensor

A piezo sensor converts a physical variable like acceleration or pressure into an electrical signal. In addition, it can gauge the change in strain, acceleration, and pressure. 

  • Temperature Sensor

A temperature sensor computes the change in temperature of a gaseous, liquid, or solid matter. 

How Does a Sensor Differ From a Transducer?

A sensor is a type of transducer. Nevertheless, each of the electrical instruments has significant points of difference between themselves. A few of their distinctions comprise:

  • Nature

A transducer resembles a translator. On the other hand, a sensor is more like a detector.

  • Components

A transducer comprises a signal conditioning component and a sensor. A sensor has no additional parts. 

  • Performance Complexity

The working and operation of a transducer are more complicated than that of a sensor. 

  • Feedback System

A transducer delivers feedback to a specified system with the help of an output device. It happens after the processing steps end in the signal conditioning component. However, a sensor cannot do so. 

  • Output Signal Form

A transducer converts the output signal into an electrical form, while a sensor makes no changes. 

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Human Rights

Russian mining giant builds new settlement for indigenous peoples

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The FPIC procedure, first used in Russia by the Norilsk Nickel mining company, has entered a new stage. A second round of consultations with residents of the Arctic workers’ village of Tukhard (in the Taimyr Dolgano-Nenets District of the Krasnoyarsk Territory) took place. The company reported in a press release.

In October 2021, it was reported that FPIC procedure was started.

At the gathering of residents in the framework of the second round, the issues of consent of the residents of the village to the procedure for obtaining FPIC, as well as the formation of a body for making collective decisions of the residents of Tukhard (Council of Representatives) were brought up. The gathering was attended by 78 residents of the village and tundra reindeer herders.

Tukhard was established as a temporary residence for shift workers producing gas in the area in 1970th, and the development of the village did not provide for the creation of any infrastructure. Due to the lack of possible infrastructure development, taking care of the quality of life, safety and health, the company operating in this region – Norilsk Nickel, offered residents the opportunity to choose a better option for life.

Independent international experts invited by the organizer of the procedure, the Interregional Public Organization for the Protection of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples “KMNSOYUZ”, took part in the meetings with residents. Among them are Alexey Tsykarev, a member of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, Corporate Advisor to the World Bank on Indigenous Issues, author of the current World Bank policies on indigenous peoples’ rights Navin K. Rai, lawyers in the field of protecting the rights of indigenous peoples of the Russian Federation Mikhail Todyshev and Antonina Gorbunova. The procedure was advised by the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, Professor James Anaya and other experts.

Dr. Navin Rai, who is visiting the Taimyr Peninsula as an Independent Expert for drafting the Indigenous Peoples Policy, noted that “the indigenous peoples of Tukhard, including those families who practice reindeer herding in the tundra, are currently negotiating with the Norilsk Nickel Company the specific parameters for the proposed physical relocation.” He underlined that “the principle of Free, Prior and Informed Consent (FPIC) requires that these indigenous peoples have the right to say “no.” However, the result of the negotiations may result in an outcome that is acceptable to both the indigenous peoples and the Company.”

During the gathering, a Council of representatives of the inhabitants of the village of Tukhard was formed, consisting of 7 people. It included both those who in the future wish to move to other settlements, and those who wish to continue their life in Tukhard. The Council also includes reindeer herders who live on a permanent basis in the tundra. Taking into account the interests of reindeer herders who are registered in Tukhard but do not have a permanent place of residence in the village is one of the main requirements of international experts.

The next round of FPIC negotiations is expected in the first quarter of 2022.

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