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New Era of Pakistan- Malaysia relations

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Malaysia and Pakistan enjoys very cordial relations. Both are Muslim states and developing countries. Both are facing similar issues like corruption. There exist many areas where Malaysia is good experience and Pakistan may learn from Malaysia. There also exist some areas, where Pakistan can contribute to Malaysian developments.

The diplomatic relations between Malaysia and Pakistan were established in 1957. Although the relations between two countries have been passing through few challenges and ups-downs. But most of them were based on misunderstandings. But, when the relations have been normal, Pakistan became a supporter to the Federation of Malaysia which they refused to accept the non-inclusion of Brunei and the leaving of Singapore from the Malaysian Federation, Pakistan only established relations with those countries when Malaysia had done so. On 2 October 2005, Malaysian Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi held out assurance to Pakistani Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz during an hour-long meeting that Malaysia will support Pakistan’s bid for a full dialogue partner of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).

Both countries collaborate in many sectors, especially, in higher education. Thousands of Pakistani youth are studying PhD and Master level programmes in Malaysia. Malaysia has become one of major contributor in human resource development for Pakistan. The educational standard in Malaysia is equivalent to British in quality almost but at much more affordable priced. At the same time, many leading professors from Pakistan are serving in Malaysian Universities. Collaboration between two brotherly nations is excellent and will grow further in future.

Malaysia has very good experience in tourism industry, while Pakistan wanted to exploit its natural beauty for tourism. Collaboration in tourism Industry, may be beneficial for both countries. Pakistan has offered incentive based opportunities in this sector. Malaysian investors may avail this opportunity to make more profit and at the same time help Pakistan to boost tourism.

Malaysian Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad has attended Pakistan’s National Day celebrations as guest of honor. His visit was given high importance and considered as beginning of new era of our friendship. Pakistan and Malaysia have agreed to elevate their bilateral relations into a strategic partnership. It marks a new level of the bilateral cooperation between both countries in various fields, namely trade in palm oil, agricultural products, food retail, halal products, automotive parts, energy, science and technology, and telecommunication investment.

This new level of partnership will entail further engagement and enhance cooperation between the two countries in all dimensions.

There exists many similarities between Prime Minister Imran Khan and Prime Minister Mahatir Bin Muhammad. Both are honest, visionary and patriot leaders. Both shares similar views on national and international issues. During the recent visit, they held a restricted meeting, which was termed fruitful and in-depth discussions, took place in a warm and cordial atmosphere. The discussion covered a wide range of bilateral, regional and international issues of mutual interests.

In a landmark cooperation in the automotive industry between Pakistan-Malaysia, Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad and Prime Minister Imran Khan jointly officiated the Symbolic Ground-Breaking Ceremony of PROTON plant in Islamabad, Pakistan which will boost the manufacturing and services industry for both countries.

Pakistan and Malaysia reaffirmed the importance of the cooperation between the private sectors of both countries. Both Leaders witnessed the signing of Agreement and Memorandum of Understanding in the field of investment and cooperation, particularly in the telecommunication sector. They also acknowledged that this investment would serve to promote and strengthen the economic ties between both countries.

Malaysia took note of the massive counter-terrorism efforts that Pakistan has successfully undertaken in an effort to eliminate terrorism. Cooperation in this area is expected to enhance.

Cooperation in growing momentum for halal products among consumers worldwide. Prime Minister Dr. Mahathir Mohamad conveyed his readiness to share Malaysia’s experience and expertise in the halal industry with Pakistan. Pakistan has huge potential in halal food, which will be exploited fully with collaboration with Malaysia.

As two peace-loving Islamic nations, the two Leaders agreed to increase their collaborative efforts to uphold the true values of Islam in international fora while strengthening the solidarity of the Muslim Ummah. Both sides reaffirmed their commitment to collaborate more closely on issues affecting the Muslim world including taking joint efforts in underscoring Muslim sensitivities that target Muslim holy personalities and religious belief. Both stressed that terrorism cannot be associated with any religion or belief.

Prime Minister Imran Khan said Pakistan has always looked upon Malaysian Prime Minister as a Muslim statesman who changed his country. In fact, Malaysia is one of the most modern, developed and Muslim country. Its achievements in economic front, tourism, harmony among all religions & races, while keep strict Islamic ideology and practices, can be role model for whole Muslim World. Especially, under the emerging of Islamophobia in the world, which has badly affected the Muslims all over the world. Pakistan and Malaysia can also cooperate on this particular issue with the aim to bring improvement in the perception of Muslims and reduce hatred and fear towards Muslims.

Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan, Sinologist (ex-Diplomat), Non-Resident Fellow of CCG (Center for China and Globalization), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

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Southeast Asia

Sustainable tourism and fisheries key to growth in post-COVID Pacific

Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana

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Developing countries of Asia and the Pacific are experiencing unbalanced tolls of the COVID-19 pandemic. Grim milestones in infections and deaths have left countless devastated. Yet, we must look at the economic and social impacts in small island developing States (SIDS), where setbacks are likely to undo years of development gains and push many people back into poverty.

Compared to other developing countries, SIDS in the Asia-Pacific region have done well in containing the spread of the virus. So far, available data indicates relatively few cases of infections, with 15 deaths in total in Maldives, Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. Yet while rapid border closures have contained the human cost of the virus, the economic and social impacts of the pandemic on SIDS will place the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) even farther out of their reach. This is worrying as SIDS in Asia and the Pacific were only on track to reach SDG 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure and SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production and as they had in fact regressed in SDG 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth, a crucial driver of inclusive development and key to reaching all SDGs.

One reason SIDS’ economies are severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic is their dependence on tourism. Tourism earnings exceed 50 per cent of GDP in Maldives and Palau and comprised 30 per cent of GDP in Samoa and Vanuatu in 2018. Measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic, including restricting entrance to countries and halting international travel, will have a profound impact on the development of these economies in 2020 and beyond, with estimates of international tourist arrivals declining globally by 60-80 per cent in 2020. The pandemic has particularly affected the cruise ship industry, which plays an important role in many SIDS.  

The severe impact of COVID-19 on these economies is also a result of heavy reliance on fisheries, which represent a main source of SIDS’ marine wealth and bring much-needed public revenues. The COVID-19 pandemic crisis will jeopardize these income streams as a result of a slowdown in fisheries activity. However, it is important to note that the COVID-19 pandemic may also create a small window for stocks to recover if it leads to a global slowdown of the commercial fishing industry.

Despite the tourism and fisheries sectors’ susceptibility to shocks, ESCAP’s latest report, the Asia-Pacific Countries with Special Needs Development Report: Leveraging Ocean Resources for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, emphasizes fisheries and tourism will remain drivers of sustainable development in small island developing States of Asia and the Pacific. They are among the most important sectors in their contribution to output and their importance for livelihoods. In the short term, addressing the consequences of the COVID‑19 pandemic must take priority, but the long-term global context will usher in an era supportive of tourism development in Asia-Pacific SIDS. This is due to an increasing demand from the emerging middle class of developing Asia and the ageing society in the developed countries on the Pacific Rim.

As part of post COVID-19 recovery, new foundations for sustainable tourism and fisheries in Asia-Pacific SIDS must be built. These sectors must not only have extensive links to local communities and economies, but also be resilient to external shocks. Enhancing economic resilience must focus on building both the necessary physical infrastructure and creating institutional response mechanisms. For example, a ‘green tax’ for tourists can generate revenues for environmental protection. Such fees serve as an additional benefit for local populations and regulate the impact of tourism on SIDS’ fragile natural environment. SIDS may consider innovative financing instruments like blue bonds and and debt for conservation swaps to expand their fiscal space. Open data sharing, and the collection, harmonization and use of fisheries data can be strengthened for integrated and nuanced analysis on the state of fish stocks.

Given the limited capacity of the health-care systems of many Asia-Pacific SIDS, shutting down access to many of these economies was a wise and necessary short-term policy choice. Opening ‘travel bubbles’ with countries where the virus has been brought under control is now important. In the longer term, the effective implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development must take priority. This entails ensuring sustainable use of existing ocean resources and developing sectors that provide productive employment, including specific types of tourism and fisheries.  SIDS can do more to embrace the blue economy to foster sustainable development and greater regional cooperation is an important element for creating an enabling framework. Regional cooperation is especially important given the nature of fisheries as a common property resource and the remote locations of most Asia-Pacific SIDS.

The COVID-19 pandemic has provided a stark reminder of the price of weaknesses in health systems, social protection and public services. It also provides a historic opportunity to advocate for policy decisions that are pro-environment, pro-climate and pro-poor. Progress in our region’s SIDS through sustainable tourism and fisheries are vital components of a global roadmap for an inclusive and sustainable future.

UN ESCAP

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Southeast Asia

Indonesia Needs New Maritime Approach in the Sea of Natuna Island

Ronny P. Sasmita

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The Indonesian Coast Guard wards off a foreign fishing boat in the North Natuna Sea on Feb. 24, 2019. (Photo courtesy of the Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Ministry)

The Indonesia-China conflict in the sea of the Natuna Islands Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) which was recently reportedly massively was not new. A similar event had occurred in March 2016, after eight Chinese fishermen were arrested by the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Unit 11 Shark Boat officers. And the response made by the Chinese government at that time was similar. PRC still feels innocent because it considers Natuna sea as a traditional fishing location for a long time.In other words, the land is claimed as part of the U-shaped South China Sea area (known as the Nine-Dash Line). The area was declared by China in 1947. Therefore, the Chinese fishing vessels finally seemed to be shaking in and out even though Indonesia’s claim on the Natuna Islands EEZ was based on the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

Actually, the maritime border agreement which covers continental shelf, territorial sea, and exclusive economic zone with neighboring countries and the international community is not yet complete. Indonesia and Malaysia signed the establishment of continental shelf boundaries in November 1969. The approval for the establishment of Indonesian and Vietnamese continental shelf boundaries was signed in June 2013. Indonesia jurisdictional maps issued by the Indonesian Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Center shows that the EEZ boundary line (Exclusive Economic Zone) with Vietnam and Malaysia on the Natuna sea border many still need agreement. In EEZ – as the name implies – a country’s sovereign rights are limited and exclusive to economic rights, such as the exploration of marine resources, or oil and gas under the sea. Other countries, even including countries that do not have sea borders (land locked states) have certain access to the EEZ such as the rights of peaceful crossing vessels and flying in the sky above, laying cables and pipes under the sea, with regard to (shall have due regards) rights other countries’ rights

According to the Law of the Sea Convention, in the event of a dispute in EEZ, the settlement is not based on the jurisdiction and legal point of view of the state of EE jurisdiction, but on the principle of equality. This is by taking into account other relevant matters for the parties to the dispute and the international community as a whole. It should be noted in the Law of the Sea Convention that governing EEZ is in Chapter V whose templates constitute the sovereign rights of coastal states, and restrictions on those rights against other countries.

While the rights of an island nation are placed in Chapter IV whose templates include regulating the rights of other countries in waters in an island nation (such as the right to navigate peacefully and to fly, in a designated path). Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and China are coastal countries, while Indonesia is an archipelago. Considering the loosening of these rights, it is very important that a country that has EEZ jurisdiction as Indonesia proves to the international community the EEZ’s tenure and effective management capabilities. This includes maintaining and upholding their rights. It is not enough if a patrol boat or airplane is just circling around.

The problem, Natuna Island is not directly connected to China Sea. That’s why Indonesia is not the first and direct actor in South China Sea dispute. It is understandable that the act of China which claims to have the right or even territory over the territory in the South China Sea has long infuriated ASEAN countries, but not for Natuna. Malaysia brought violations and unilateral Chinese claims to the South China Sea to the United Nations. The proposal was submitted by the Malaysian government in mid-December. Earlier, in 2016, the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) under the auspices of the United Nations won the Philippines against China’s unilateral claim to the South China sea area. But China never show even just a little bit of respect to Philippines in South China Sea

The PCA court, which based its decision on the 1982 UNCLOS, ruled China had violated Philippine sovereign rights. The Nine Dash Line used as the reason for China were declared not to meet international legal requirements, and there is no historical evidence that China controls and controls resources in the South China Sea. However, the Chinese government did not accept the ruling. Another ASEAN country, Vietnam, is also involved in regional conflicts with China in the South China Sea.

Apart from the legal aspects of the South China Sea and Natuna ZEE, the real theft of fish by Chinese vessels has been going on for a long time but only now has wide attention. China really acts like a legal master of Natuna Sea and in many times show the bullying moves. That’s why the government of Indonesia needs new ways to improve the management of marine resources while improving the capabilities of maritime operations. The country’s geostrategic complexity, which consists of thousands of islands and comprises three Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Lanes areas and is open to international parties, requires the reliability of military operations. Especially those related to maritime interception operations. The operation must be carried out in any waters, both in the Republic of Indonesia and outside.

Maritime operations require the reliability of the maritime security infrastructure and renewal of sea defense doctrine that puts forward intelligence and technology aspects. The maritime intelligence field must be improved so as to achieve strong surveillance capabilities. The world situation demands Indonesia be able to realize its sophisticated maritime intelligence capabilities. Maritime intelligence is a part of strategic intelligence in an effort to ensure national stability and efforts for sensing the strategic environment both at home and abroad.

Maritime intelligence focuses on its activities related to the maritime field or that influences the maritime capabilities of foreign countries and the country itself. National intelligence capacity and posture should be directed to strengthen maritime intelligence capabilities. No more sectarian intelligence operations, that is, those that limit the security and sectoral dimensions. For example, the Navy (Navy) no longer limits to naval intelligence, but more broadly namely maritime intelligence that is able to provide strategic information to national maritime institutions. Such as the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, the Ministry of Transportation, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry of Environment, Customs and Police.

For this reason, the urgency of building a number of base infrastructure and facilities for maintaining warships is inevitable. The infrastructure is primarily to support the effectiveness of the third Fleet Command Headquarters located in Sorong, West Papua. During this time the Navy’s combat strength still relies on two regional fleets, namely west (Armabar), and east (Armatim). The number of warships owned by the Indonesian Navy is only 151 units (on the process of increasing). In fact, the number of Indonesian warships in the 1960s amounted to 162 ships.

The fleet command system tasked with fostering the ability of the Integrated Armed Weapon System (IAWS) consisting of warships, aircraft, marines and bases should be more synergized with other agencies that also manage the sea area. The capabilities of marine warfare and the readiness of marine operations at this time should be able to turn into non-war operations that support the enforcement of sovereignty and law at sea, and secure economic potential at sea.

The next important task is to form a reliable national system of marine inspectors with three important aspects. First, the informative aspect. The system must provide complete information about national marine conditions, both in terms of marine resources, water conditions, weather, important events at sea (accidents and incidents), signs of sea navigation that are very helpful for sailing ships, and all information about the sea the other. Second, integrative aspects. The overlapping of infrastructure procurement and installation of supervision equipment between departments can be overcome, so that there are savings in the state budget.

Because the amount of equipment or systems built do not collide in terms of coverage in an area or system and its functions. In addition, with interoperability solutions, the problem of intermittent owner of equipment along the critical strait, such as the Malacca Strait can be integrated. Third, is the collaborative aspect. This is more focused on the status of data exchanged. For example, data to eradicate Illegal Unregulated and Unreported Fishing Fishing such as fishing vessel lines (position, speed, heading), including Owner, Company Identity, Ship size, fishing gear type, permit expiration date, then log book database (fish species, location), marine biology parameter data (chlorophyll, upwelling), and boundary data. So in short, permanent strategic synergy is needed between the three institutions that have been the main managers of the national marine system, namely the Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, the Navy, and the Director General of Sea Transportation  of the Ministry of Transportation.

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Southeast Asia

A Story about a World Heritage in Bali

Alek Karci Kurniawan

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Monday, June 29, 2020, when you open the Google search engine, you will see a picture of a farmer sitting in a hut. His eyes lead to green fields. Google Doodle displays an image with the tagline “Celebrating Cultural Heritage, Subak”.

Subak is a tradition of the Balinese, Indonesia. When you visit the countryside in Bali, you will see a fields at the foot of the mountain with neat watering. The Subak irrigation system is able to accommodate the socio-technical dynamics of the local community.

The contours of the mountainous land in Bali make irrigation very difficult, along with the dense population. So water resources must be managed with the principles of justice, openness, harmony and togetherness, distributed in accordance with the benefits for the people. By combining all of these elements, Balinese farmers succeeded in managing the most efficient agriculture in the archipelago.

Reporting from Historia, written information about the practice of farming the Balinese people was first found in the Sukawarna Epigraphlisted to 882 Çaka (Çaka Era began in 78 AD). In that epigraph there is the word ‘huma’, which at that time was commonly used to refer for moving fields. Then in the Trunyan Epigraph dated 891 Çaka, the word “serdanu” was written, which means the head of lake water affairs.

The history of Bali Subak is also recorded in the Bebetin Epigraph (896 Çaka) and the Batuan Epigraph (1022 Çaka). In the two epigraphs, it explained that there was a special group of fields workers in Bali, their expertise is to make a water tunnel. Archaeological evidence shows that the Balinese people have known how to manage irrigation around the 10th century.

In administering the Subak System, the Subak Administrators are guided by customary law which is inherited by their ancestors. Subak Customary Law is based on the teachings of Tri Hita Karana, interpreted as “Three things that cause the prosperity”. The three causes of well-being are the harmonious relationship between human and God, the harmonious relationship with fellow human beings, and the harmonious relationship between human and nature and the environment.

How does the Subak System work?

The Bali Subak system works by using a continuous and rotating irrigation method. In the Subak System, farmers are organized and divided into two or three groups of fields. Each field group receives a fair distribution of irrigation water.

If subak areas are divided into two groups of fields (Group I and Group II for example), then in the rain season (First Planting Season/MT I) both groups receive irrigation water. Whereas in the dry season (MT II), group I planted rice and group II planted crops. Then in MT III, group I planted crops and group II planted rice. That is an example of the practice of the rotating method (in the local language called “nugel bumbung”).

If the fields are divided into three groups, in the rainy season all groups receive irrigation water, but in the dry season the upstream group ( fields in the upstream) receives the first water, then in the next growing season it gives to the group in the middle, and finally the downstream group.

In total Bali has around 1,200 water reservoirs and between 50 and 400 farmers manage water supplies from one water source. This property consists of five sites that exemplify the interconnected natural, religious and cultural components of a traditional system, where the Subak system is still fully functional, where farmers still plant rice in a traditional Balinese way, without the aid of fertilizers or pesticides, and where all landscapes are considered to have sacred connotations.

These sites are the Highest Water Temple of Ulun Danu Batur Temple on the shores of Lake Batur whose crater lake is considered the origin of every spring and river. Then the Subak Landscape in the Pakerisan River, the oldest known irrigation system in Bali. There is also the Angga Batukaru Chess Landscape with a terrace mentioned in the 10th century epigraph as the one of the oldest in Bali and the first example of classical Balinese temple architecture. Next, Taman Ayun Water Temple, is the largest and has a unique architectural shape.

This property fully covers the main attributes of the Subak system and the significant impact that own by Balinese landscape. The processes that shape the landscape, in the form of multilevel irrigation agriculture managed by the Subak system, still last for thousands of years. Agricultural areas are planted sustainably by local people and their water supply is managed democratically. therefore, UNESCO has declared Subak as one of the world’s cultural heritages.

As a World Cultural Heritage, we must protect and preserve Subak. The government has a mission to succeed food sovereignty, must be seized in policies pro to farmers, especially for those that produce our food. Farmers must prosper, so the young generation does not embarrasses to be a farmer.

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