Today the European Commission has recommended a set of operational steps and measures to ensure a high level of cybersecurity of 5G networks across the EU.
Fifth generation (5G) networks will form the future backbone of our societies and economies, connecting billions of objects and systems, including in critical sectors such as energy, transport, banking, and health, as well as industrial control systems carrying sensitive information and supporting safety systems. Democratic processes, such as elections, increasingly rely on digital infrastructures and 5G networks, highlighting the need to address any vulnerabilities and making the Commission’s recommendations all the more pertinent ahead of the European Parliament elections in May.
Following the support from Heads of State or Government expressed at the European Council on 22 March for a concerted approach to the security of 5G networks, the European Commission is today recommending a set of concrete actions to assess cybersecurity risks of 5G networks and to strengthen preventive measures. The recommendations are a combination of legislative and policy instruments meant to protect our economies, societies and democratic systems. With worldwide 5G revenues estimated at €225 billion in 2025, 5G is a key asset for Europe to compete in the global market and its cybersecurity is crucial for ensuring the strategic autonomy of the Union.
Vice-President Andrus Ansip, in charge of the Digital Single Market, said:”5G technology will transform our economy and society and open massive opportunities for people and businesses. But we cannot accept this happening without full security built in. It is therefore essential that 5G infrastructures in the EU are resilient and fully secure from technical or legal backdoors.”
Commissioner Julian King, in charge of the Security Union, stated: “The resilience of our digital infrastructure is critical to government, business, the security of our personal data and the functioning of our democratic institutions. We need to develop a European approach to protecting the integrity of 5G, which is going to be the digital plumbing of our interconnected lives.”
Commissioner Mariya Gabriel, in charge of the Digital Economy and Society, added:“Protecting 5G networks aims at protecting the infrastructure that will support vital societal and economic functions – such as energy, transport, banking, and health, as well as the much more automated factories of the future. It also means protecting our democratic processes, such as elections, against interference and the spread of disinformation.”
Any vulnerability in 5G networks or a cyber-attack targeting the future networks in one Member State would affect the Union as a whole. This is why concerted measures taken both at national and European levels must ensure a high level of cybersecurity.
Today’s Recommendation sets out a series of operational measures:
At national level
Each Member State should complete a national risk assessment of 5G network infrastructures by the end of June 2019. On this basis, Member States should update existing security requirements for network providers and include conditions for ensuring the security of public networks, especially when granting rights of use for radio frequencies in 5G bands. These measures should include reinforced obligations on suppliers and operators to ensure the security of the networks. The national risk assessments and measures should consider various risk factors, such as technical risks and risks linked to the behaviour of suppliers or operators, including those from third countries. National risk assessments will be a central element towards building a coordinated EU risk assessment.
EU Member States have the right to exclude companies from their markets for national security reasons, if they do not comply with the country’s standards and legal framework.
At EU level
Member States should exchange information with each other and with the support of the Commission and the European Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA), will complete a coordinated risk assessment by 1 October 2019. On that basis, Member States will agree on a set of mitigating measures that can be used at national level. These can include certification requirements, tests, controls, as well as the identification of products or suppliers that are considered potentially non-secure. This work will be done by the Cooperation Group of competent authorities, as set out under the Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems, with the help of the Commission and ENISA. This coordinated work should support Member States’ actions at national level and provide guidance to the Commission for possible further steps at EU level. In addition, Member States should develop specific security requirements that could apply in the context of public procurement related to 5G networks, including mandatory requirements to implement cybersecurity certification schemes.
Today’s Recommendation will make use of the wide-range of instruments already in place or agreed to reinforce cooperation against cyber-attacks and enable the EU to act collectively in protecting its economy and society, including the first EU-wide legislation on cybersecurity (Directive on Security of Network and Information Systems), the Cybersecurity Act recently approved by the European Parliament, and the new telecoms rules. The Recommendation will help Member States to implement these new instruments in a coherent manner when it comes to 5G security.
In the field of cybersecurity, the future European cybersecurity certification framework for digital products, processes and services foreseen in the Cybersecurity Act should provide an essential supporting tool to promote consistent levels of security. When implementing it, Member States should also immediately and actively engage with all other involved stakeholders in the development of dedicated EU-wide certification schemes related to 5G. Once they become available, Member States should make certification in this area mandatory through national technical regulations.
In the field of telecoms, Member States have to ensure that the integrity and security of public communications networks are maintained, with obligations to ensure that operators take technical and organisational measures to appropriately manage the risks posed to security of networks and services.
Member States should complete their national risk assessments by 30 June 2019 and update necessary security measures. The national risk assessment should be transmitted to the Commission and European Agency for Cybersecurity by 15 July 2019.
In parallel, Member States and the Commission will start coordination work within the NIS Cooperation Group. ENISA will complete a 5G threat landscape that will support Member States in the delivery by 1 October 2019 of the EU-wide risk assessment.
By 31 December 2019, the NIS Cooperation Group should agree on mitigating measures to address the cybersecurity risks identified at national and EU levels.
Once the Cybersecurity Act, recently approved by the European Parliament, enters into force in the coming weeks, the Commission and ENISA will set up the EU-wide certification framework. Member States are encouraged to cooperate with the Commission and ENISA to prioritise a certification scheme covering 5G networks and equipment.
By 1 October 2020, Member States – in cooperation with the Commission – should assess the effects of the Recommendation in order to determine whether there is a need for further action. This assessment should take into account the outcome of the coordinated European risk assessment and of the effectiveness of the toolbox.
In its conclusions of 22 March, the European Council expressed its support for the European Commission recommending a concerted approach to the security of 5G networks. The European Parliament’s Resolution on security threats connected with the rising Chinese technological presence in the Union, voted on 12 March, also calls on the Commission and Member States to take action at Union level.
In addition, the cybersecurity of 5G networks is key for ensuring the strategic autonomy of the Union, as underlined in the Joint Communication “EU-China, a Strategic Outlook”. That is why it is essential and urgent to review and strengthen existing security rules in this area to ensure that they reflect the strategic importance of 5G networks, as well as the evolution of the threats, including the growing number and sophistication of cyber-attacks. 5G is a key asset for Europe to compete in the global market. Worldwide 5G revenues should reach the equivalent of €225 billion in 2025. Another source indicates that the benefits of the introduction of 5G across four key industrial sectors, namely automotive, health, transport and energy, may reach €114 billion per year.
The beginner’s guide to backup program files like an expert
The invention of the internet was a revolution for the computer industry. It caused an exponential increase in the sales of desktops and laptops. With technological advancements, the laptops are being upgraded within two to three years as well. Thus, there will be a time when you will have to upgrade your laptop. Backing up your important files and documents will be needed for a smooth transition from one PC to another. Moreover, there are other risks like hardware failure, hacks, etc. due to which you can lose your precious data also. So, if you are not taking backup periodically, there is a high risk of data loss.
The data backup process takes some effort. But thanks to new software and hardware services, it has become easier than ever. In this article, we will take you through the details of the data backup process.
Types of PC Backup
Backing up of data can be as simple as creating duplicates of your important files or creating a full disk image. There are a lot of tools available at your disposal that you can choose from either of these methods for backing up your files. The factors that you must consider while picking up a data backup option are redundancy, security, and accessibility. Thus, review these parameters before zeroing-in on a specific backup method. Let’s have a look at all the options available to you:
Backing Up data on an external storage device
One of the simplest ways backing up data is by copying it to an external storage device. Devices like USB, an SD card, or an external hard disk can be used for this activity. If your device has USB 3.0, then the file transfer will be faster. Ensure that you have enough space to transfer all the relevant files on the external device that you have chosen. Once you have the device with you, connect it with your PC, and copy all the relevant files.
The data transfer by this process can be time-consuming. Moreover, you will have to manually select all the files and documents that you want to backup. Thus, there are chances of data loss if you aren’t cautious while selecting the files. Files like emails, system settings, program settings, etc. cannot be copied in this process. Thus, this process of data backup isn’t recommended.
Cloning a full disc image
Your entire PC’s data can be backed up by creating a full disc image. You would need a secondary storage device like a USB drive, memory card, an external hard disk, or a cloud-based service. Taking backup on your device’s hard disc is not recommended because if it fails, the entire data is lost. Follow the below steps for backing up the image:
- In the ‘Start Menu’ on your device click on ‘Settings’.
- Click on the ‘Update & Security’ button.
- You will see a ‘Backup’ option which will let you create a full system image to back up your entire system files.
- Pick the location where you want to back up the data and hit the ‘Go’ icon.
The data backup process is automatic and will take around an hour to complete.
System backup with software
Using data backup software is a great way to automate the data backup process. Software like Zinstall Backup helps you in backing up all your files, programs, and software without any data loss. Follow the below steps for backing up data:
- Connect your system to an external USB device or an external hard disk or a cloud storage service.
- Download and install Zinstall Backup software.
- Run the software once installed. It will automatically detect available backup locations.
- Click the “Settings” button to select the backup location you want to store your data in.
- Click the on button on the left, and Zinstall Backup will start working.
All the files, programs, and software will be backed up to your storage device within an hour. The process is executed automatically and there are no chances of data loss. You can also set a periodic backup option. In this case, only the changed files and documents are backed up which reduces the number of reads and writes the data backup requires.
System failure or hacking attacks can happen anytime. Thus, it is important to keep a backup of your important files and documents. We hope the above article can get you started with the data backup process.
Modernizing data collection enhances resilience of statistical offices in times of crisis
A virtual UNECE workshop concludes today in which experts on surveys, censuses and alternative data collection methods have revealed their brand-new learning about the best ways to maintain core data collection, and collect newly-demanded data, in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.
The need for statistics isn’t put on hold during a national or international crisis—in fact demand increases, as decision-makers rely on numbers to guide their next moves. National statistical offices (NSOs) are experienced in maintaining business continuity in the face of adversity, be it hurricanes, earthquakes, civil unrest or political upheaval. But never before have so many NSOs had to deal with a situation that has placed such enormous and wide-ranging restrictions on their ability to collect data. The businesses that provide economic and labour force data have been closed; the staff that conduct surveys and analyze data have been locked-down in their homes, with new staff hired and trained online; survey-takers and respondents have had to observe new and changing health protection rules such as social distancing and wearing personal protective equipment; and supply chains have been disrupted for the basic items needed to gather data, such as paper for printed questionnaires or tablets for electronic data gathering.
Maintaining essential data collection
From the very beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, the official statistics community has recognized how crucial it is to maintain data collection. Users of official statistics, from banks to businesses and from politicians to school pupils, still expect to be able to look up basic figures such as GDP, population, migration, unemployment. They expect these figures to be reliable and comparable with those they used before the pandemic. And they expect them to reflect the new realities of the current situation, such as current unemployment and earnings figures.
Presenters in this week’s UNECE workshop outlined the lengths they have gone to to keep gathering data. In Mexico, the pandemic struck as the country’s census was underway. New social distancing rules meant some census enumerators had to call out questions to respondents through their windows. In the Netherlands, an online portal was developed and tested at speed to gather data from businesses without traditional surveys. Ireland, Italy and Poland have employed a variety of techniques to communicate with respondents to secure their vital responses to surveys, from sending postcards and handwritten notes to increased use of telephone calls. Discussions revealed that the more advanced an NSO was before the pandemic in their move towards modern modes of data collection (electronic devices, Internet responses, video interviewing and so on), the easier it was for them to make the changes required by the Covid restrictions.
Collecting new data to measure new phenomena
The world has changed in countless ways since the onset of the pandemic. Responding to these changes requires information about things that previously were not measured—or at least not by national statistical offices. NSOs have found themselves at the centre of nationwide efforts to collect, coordinate and disseminate statistics on the virus itself—cases, tests, hospital admissions, mortality rates. And new survey questions or whole new surveys have sprung up across UNECE countries to gather data about the impacts of working from home and school closures on mental health, gender-based violence and unpaid care work; the economic fallout of business closures and furloughs; and the envionmental impacts of reduced mobility and industrial activity.
Examples showcased in this week’s event included new questions on covid impacts in Finland’s Consumer Confidence Survey; and new modules in a plethora of surveys in Poland on science, technology, culture, tourism and civil society. In the United Kingdom, a Business Impact of Coronavirus Survey was developed and conducted every two weeks starting in early March.
Long-term impacts on data collection
The UNECE programme on modernizing official statistics has for close to a decade supported countries in making a transition to using new modes of data collection, new data sources and new methods for integrating data from multiple sources. For many NSOs the pandemic has accelerated this transition, forcing the hands of cautious offices where the alternative may have been to stop collecting data altogether. The pace of change has been rapid, with one participant stating “we have had a greater impact in six months than in our whole careers so far”. While the panoply of new tools, techniques and statistical products may in time settle as the pandemic runs its course, the steps taken across the UNECE region in the direction of statistical modernization are undoubtedly permanent.
World Bank Supports Digital Connectivity in Haiti to Build Resilience
The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors approved today a US$60 million grant from the International Development Association (IDA) for the Haiti Digital Acceleration Project. This financing aims to increase access to broadband services in Haiti and establish the foundations of digital resilience to respond to health, climate and economic shocks.
“The COVID-19 crisis has highlighted the essential role that digital technologies play both during and after crisis. More widespread and affordable internet access could make Haiti more resilient to future shocks,” said Anabela Abreu, World Bank Country Director for Haiti. “The World Bank is supporting Haiti to increase access and affordability of digital services, while building the necessary skills for digital literacy. Increased broadband connectivity can help drive innovations and new industries that create jobs.”
The lack of affordable and reliable internet connectivity is a key constraint to inclusive growth in Haiti, as only 35 percent of the population has access to broadband internet. The Haiti Digital Acceleration Project will address key bottlenecks to digital development, and help develop the digital economy as a driver of growth, a stronger recovery from the COVID-19 crisis, and the ability to more effectively respond to future shocks. Given the potential for the project to enable better connectivity and digital services, it is expected to benefit the entire population of Haiti.
One of the key project activities will include technical assistance to help develop strategies and regulatory tools to promote competition in the digital infrastructure and services market. The project will also better prepare individuals and businesses for the jobs and economy of the future through the development of their digital skills. This includes opportunities particularly for women, girls, at-risk youth, and the rural population to access skills training. The project will also provide equipment, broadband, and software for the public administration to improve the efficiency of service delivery and the modernization of the Haitian Government.
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