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Indonesian Government and Partners Announce Next Steps to Tackle Plastic Pollution

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The Government of Indonesia, in partnership with the Global Plastic Action Partnership (GPAP), today announced new measures in the country’s ambitious national plan to reduce marine plastic debris by 70%, reduce solid waste by 30%, and to handle 70% of solid waste by 2025.

The Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs and the Ministry of Environment and Forestry will work with local businesses and stakeholders and global partners to evaluate viable solutions for plastic pollution, develop an investment and action plan to reduce it, prioritize investment opportunities and advance a roadmap for implementation.

Hosted by the World Economic Forum, GPAP aims to redesign the global “take-make-dispose” economy as a circular one. The partnership has been designed so that Indonesia’s approach to address plastic pollution can act as an example to be adapted and implemented in other countries.

Indonesia’s Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs, Luhut B. Pandjaitan, whose ministry has been at the forefront of the region’s battle with plastic waste, said that if the plan is achieved, his children and grandchildren will be able to enjoy pristine waters around Indonesia that are rich in biodiversity and free of plastic pollution.

“We want to see the next generation in Indonesia having a much better quality of life and health than our generation today,” he said. “Through collaboration and strong teamwork with the World Economic Forum, we can mobilize public, private and community support to safeguard the richness of our marine biodiversity for our children and grandchildren.”

GPAP is working with stakeholders across the plastics ecosystem to co-develop a roadmap of actionable solutions. Successful implementation will depend on the quality of underlying data and analysis.

To support this, PEW Charitable Trusts and SYSTEMIQ will develop an analytical model for data-driven decision making. A team in Jakarta is collecting local waste management data and building a model that evaluates solutions that can contribute to the 70% reduction target. These solutions include:

– Reducing overpackaging

– Innovating recyclable plastic material

– Substituting materials

– Increasing recycling rates

– Improving waste collection rates.

For each solution, the model will estimate the investment needed, timeline, environmental footprint and greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the impact on people’s lives.

In Indonesia, the work of the partnership will be chaired by Minister Luhut. The partnership engages with business, civil society and government organisations from a range of sectors, including: Chandra Asri Petrochemical, Coca-Cola Amatil, the Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Dow, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Evoware, Giti Group, the Indonesian Business Council for Sustainable Development (IBCSD), Indorama Synthetics, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Indofood CBP Sukses Makmur, PepsiCo, Nestlé, The World Bank, and WWF Indonesia.

“Communities, entrepreneurs and government agencies across Indonesia are stepping up in the battle against plastic pollution,” said Dominic Waughray, Head of the Centre for Global Public Goods, Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum. “The uniqueness of the Global Plastic Action Partnership is to show to the world that through fast, concerted, science-based multistakeholder action, we can fix these seemingly intractable problems and preserve our natural heritage for future generations.”

Kristin Hughes, newly appointed Director of the Global Plastic Action Partnership said, “I am thrilled to be joining this important initiative. Thanks to the leadership of Indonesia’s government and the innovative approach of local industry, other countries will be able to learn from their experiences to turn commitments into actions.”

The effort is the first national partnership of GPAP, a public-private partnership launched last year to translate political and corporate commitment to address plastic pollution into tangible strategies and investible actions plans. These include, for example, the efforts of the Commonwealth Clean Oceans Alliance, the Ocean Plastics Charter as well as the New Plastics Economy Global Commitment from the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.

GPAP is hosted by the World Economic Forum with support from the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom as well as global companies including The Coca-Cola Company, Dow, PepsiCo and Nestlé. It is an initiative of the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE) and The Friends of Ocean Action.

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Eating better – for us and the planet

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Industrialized farming has been a reliable way to produce lots of food, at a relatively low cost. But it’s not the bargain it was once believed to be. Unsustainable agriculture can pollute water, air and soil; is a source of greenhouse gas; and destroys wildlife – an environmental cost equivalent to about US$3 trillion every year. The use of chemicals and antimicrobials can have adverse health effects and lead to resistant infections. And to top it all off, our production and consumption habits have been linked to the emergence of zoonotic diseases, such as COVID-19.

To mark World Food Day on 16 October, we take a closer look at sustainable agriculture – how it can help reduce our environmental footprint, improve our health and even create jobs.

What exactly is sustainable agriculture?

It is farming that meets the needs of existing and future generations, while also ensuring profitability, environmental health and social and economic equity. It favours techniques that emulate nature–to preserve soil fertility, prevent water pollution and protect biodiversity. It is also a way to support the achievement of global objectives, like the Sustainable Development Goals and Zero Hunger.

Does sustainable agriculture really make a difference to the environment?

Yes. It uses up to 56 per cent less energy per unit of crops produced, creates 64 per cent fewer greenhouse gas emissions per hectare and supports greater levels of biodiversity than conventional farming.

Why does sustainably produced food seem more expensive?

It may be more costly because it is more labour-intensive. It is often certified in a way that requires it to be separated from conventional foods during processing and transport. The costs associated with marketing and distribution of relatively small volumes of product are often comparatively high. And, sometimes, the supply of certain sustainably produced foods is limited.

Why are some foods so much more affordable–even when they require processing and packaging?

The heavy use of chemicals, medicines and genetic modification allows some foods to be produced cheaply and in reliably high volumes, so the retail price tag may be lower. But this is deceiving because it does not reflect the costs of environmental damage or the price of healthcare that is required to treat diet-related diseases. Ultra-processed foods are often high in energy and low in nutrients and may contribute to the development of heart disease, stroke, diabetes and some forms of cancer. This is particularly concerning amid the COVID-19 pandemic; the disease is especially risky for those with pre-existing health problems.

Do we all have to be vegan?

No. But most of us should eat less animal protein. Livestock production is a major cause of climate change and in most parts of the world, people already consume more animal-sourced food than is healthy. But even small dietary shifts can have a positive impact. The average person consumes 100 grams of meat daily.  Reducing that by 10 grams could improve human health while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. 

Is sustainable agriculture possible in developing countries?

Yes. Because sustainably produced food is typically more labour-intensive than conventionally made food, it has the potential to create 30 per cent more jobs. And because it can command higher prices, it can also generate more money for farmers.

Is it possible to make sustainably produced food that is affordable for everyone?

Yes. As demand for certain foods increases, the costs associated with production, processing, distribution and marketing will drop, which should make them less expensive for consumers.  Policymakers can also play a role, facilitating market access and leveling the financial and regulatory playing field.

If it is so important, why hasn’t sustainable farming been adopted as a global standard?

There is a lack of understanding of the way that agriculture, the environment and human health intersect. Policymakers do not typically consider nature as a form of capital, so legislation is not designed to prevent pollution and other kinds of environmental degradation. And consumers may not realize how their dietary choices affect the environment or even their own health. In the absence of either legal obligations or consumer demand, there is little incentive for producers to change their approach.

What are some ways to consume food more sustainably?

Diversify your diet and cook more meals at home. Eat more plant-based foods; enjoy pulses, peas, beans and chickpeas as sources of protein. Eat local, seasonal foods. Purchase sustainably produced foods and learn more about farming practices and labeling. Avoid excessive packaging, which is likely to end up as landfill. Don’t waste food: eliminating food waste could reduce global carbon emissions by 8-10 per cent. Cultivate your own garden, even if it is a small one in your kitchen. Support organizations, policies and projects that promote sustainable food systems. And discuss the importance of healthy and sustainable foods with producers, vendors, policymakers, friends and family.

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Reviewing progress on transboundary water cooperation in the world

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40 percent of the world’s population lives in one of the 275 transboundary river basins. Transboundary waters account for 60 percent of the world’s freshwater flows. Cooperation for the management of shared water resources is therefore crucial for economic development, peace and environmental protection as well as for the achievement of the SDGs. It is even more crucial now, when the COVID-19 pandemic showed the absolute necessity to provide safe and sufficient water and adequate sanitation and hygiene to all to protect human health.

In this context, more than 200 experts representing governmental authorities from 78 countries, joint bodies, non-governmental as well as international organizations academia and the private sector reviewed progress during the 15th meeting of the Working Group on Integrated Water Resources Management (30 September-2 October).

Participants warmly welcomed Ghana as the 44th Party to the Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (Water Convention, serviced by UNECE).

Ben Ampomah, Executive Secretary of Water Resources Commission of Ghana, which acceded to the Convention in June 2020, highlighted “the need for international legal agreements, specifically the 1992 Water Convention and the 1997 Watercourses Convention, to serve as vital tools to guide, foster and secure the required transboundary water cooperation” and encouraged other interested countries to join the global Water Convention. Ghana’s accession was welcomed by Ardak Zebeshev (Kazakhstan), Chair of the Convention, and Peter Kovacs (Hungary), vice-Chair, as well as by Jean-Paul Adam, Director of Technology, Climate Change and Natural Resources Management at the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, who indicated readiness to support countries interested in acceding to the Convention.

Numerous other countries reported significant advances in their national processes of accession to the Water Convention, including Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Côte d’Ivoire, Iraq, Nigeria, Paraguay, Tanzania, Togo and Uganda.

Participants reviewed progress achieved during the last year in the implementation of the programme of work of the Convention, including increased application of the Convention’s principles, promotion of an integrated and intersectoral approach to water management at all levels and facilitation of  financing of transboundary water cooperation. 

Two tools under development were presented: a handbook on water allocation in a transboundary context, and a checklist on the development of legal frameworks for transboundary water cooperation.

Participants also welcomed progress in the second reporting cycle on transboundary water cooperation, with 110 countries having submitted national reports on SDG indicator 6.5.2 (out of 153 countries sharing transboundary waters) so far.

Preparations for the 9th session of the Meeting of the Parties to the Convention, that will be held in Tallinn from 29 September to 1 October 2021, were presented by Estonia, including the upcoming identification of priorities for future work under the Water Convention.

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Climate change: Proof in numbers

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Photo by UNEP

UNEP’s novel ‘World Environment Situation Room’ provides real-time data on PM2.5 levels across the planet, informing scientists, policy-makers and citizens alike.

Last month, as wildfires continued to rage across the American West, Pascal Peduzzi, a climate scientist with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in Geneva, followed the situation with air quality in Mammoth Lakes, a town high in California’s Sierra Nevada mountains.

On Wednesday 23 September on the town’s Ranch Road the PM2.5 measurement – the tally of airborne particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 micrometres – reached 501mg per cubic metre (µg/m3) of air. That is over 50 times the threshold that the World Health Organisation (WHO) considers safe for the average PM2.5 reading over one year. It is more than 20 times the level considered safe for a 24-hour period.

“I’ve never seen it that high,” Peduzzi stated.

The scientist was not in California, nor in the US. He was in Switzerland, over 9,000km away. Nonetheless, he, and anyone with an internet connection, can now follow in detail PM2.5 levels in the West Coast fire zone, and across the planet, via UNEP’s World Environment Situation Room (WESR). This online portal offers a near-real-time monitor of global air quality.

“The intention of this platform was to connect to people,” said Sean Khan, an expert on air pollution with UNEP in Nairobi. “It was designed to inspire and stimulate action, whether that’s communities trying to convince policymakers to do things or vice versa.”

In August, following record-breaking high temperatures, lightning strikes from severe thunderstorms ignited fires in California, Oregon and Washington. By the end of September, these blazes had consumed over 2 million hectares of land across the three states. They had destroyed over 7,000 structures and left at least 40 people dead.

“We now currently have five active fires that are five of the most destructive fires in the history of the state,” Gavin Newsom, the governor of California, said on 11 September, standing in smoky air among scorched trees.

The fires threw fine particulate matter into the atmosphere. Alongside producing the extraordinary orange skies seen in television reports, studies have linked elevated PM2.5 levels with a range of health problems. These include asthma, respiratory inflammation, jeopardised lung function and even cancer.

One study conducted for seven years (from 2000 to 2007) in the US indicated that average life span extends by 0.35 years for every 10 µg/m3 decrease in PM2.5. Another, which tracked 1.2 million American adults for 26 years from 1982 to 2008, found that the mortality of lung cancer increased by 15–27% when PM2.5 air concentrations increased by 10 µg/m3

“If you are someone with pulmonary complications, then you are vulnerable, you’ll be at risk,” Khan said. The WESR Air Portal includes a mobile app which offers weekly and daily hyperlocal forecasts in addition to user customised alerts for PM2.5.

In the last 20 years, California experienced more years of drought – as classified on the US Drought Monitor’s (USDM) five-point scale – than it did without drought. The USDM gradings range from D0 – an area experiencing short-term dryness – up to D4, an area experiencing “exceptional and widespread crop and pasture losses, fire risk, and water shortages that result in water emergencies.”

There were droughts between 2001 and 2005, 2007 and 2010, and from 2012 to 2017. These became more intense over time. The most severe period, between January 2014 and January 2017, led to a severe water deficit in both the soil and underground aquifers.

“It’s definitely a shift in climate, it’s no longer a 10%, extreme event,” Pascal Peduzzi said. The changing climate also creates loop effects; warmer temperatures generate more evaporation, drying out soils and vegetation, in turn leaving them more susceptible to fire. The fires themselves, meanwhile, add carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, alongside particulates, further contributing to climate change.  

“If you have dry soils, and basically no precipitation, put a bit more wind on that and someone lighting a barbecue, and that’s it,” Peduzzi added. “It’s a recipe for disaster.”  

The WESR platform is a collaboration between the UN and Swiss firm IQAir, which operates its own air quality monitoring platform.

At maximum zoom-out, it shows a map of the planet, with arrows depicting wind patterns and air quality in particular areas represented by a shading system; green is good, yellow moderate, orange is unhealthy for sensitive groups.

Red represents unhealthy conditions, while two shades of purple show very unhealthy and hazardous levels. Last Friday, 5,185,211,024 people, or 66.4% of the world’s population, were exposed to polluted air worse than WHO recommended limits. That figure updates every four hours.

Zoom in and you come to circles containing numbers, at first average PM2.5 readings across a region and then down to individual sensors like that on Ranch Road in Mammoth Lakes. Flame icons show burning fires. By Friday the PM2.5 tally on Ranch Road had fallen to 32.8 µg/m3

However, a mobile monitoring station in Pollock Pines, further north in the Sierra Nevada, was registering 706.4 µg/m3. The US wildfire season is not over yet.

UN Environment

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