EP negotiators struck a deal with EU ministers on minimum rights for workers with on-demand, voucher-based or platform jobs, such as Uber or Deliveroo.
Every person who has an employment contract or employment relationship as defined by law, collective agreements or practice in force in each member state should be covered by these new rights. The case law of the Court of Justice, stating that a worker performs services for a certain time for and under the direction of another person in return for remuneration, should be also taken into account.
This would mean that workers in casual or short-term employment, on-demand workers, intermittent workers, voucher-based workers, platform workers, as well as paid trainees and apprentices, deserve a set of minimum rights, as long as they meet these criteria and pass the threshold of working 3 hours per week and 12 hours per 4 weeks on average.
Genuinely self-employed workers would be excluded from the new rules.
According to the approved text, all workers need to be informed from day one as a general principle, and no later than seven days where justified, of the essential aspects of their employment contract, such as a description of duties, a starting date, the duration, remuneration, standard working day or reference hours for those with unpredictable work schedules.
MEPs successfully pushed for a maximal coverage of workers across the EU on the basis of common EU case law, not excluding major groups due to varying national definitions. MEPs also strongly pushed for providing key information to be shared once work starts.
Better protection for new forms of employment
To cover new forms of employment, the agreement defines a specific set of rights.
- Predictable working hours and deadline for cancellation: workers under on-demand contracts or similar forms of employment should benefit from a minimum level of predictability such as predetermined reference hours and reference days. Workers should be able to refuse, without consequences, an assignment outside predetermined hours or be compensated if the assignment was not cancelled in time.
- Member states shall adopt measures to prevent abusive practices in on-demand or similar employment contracts. Such measures can include limits to the use and duration of the contract, a rebuttable presumption on the existence of an employment contract with a minimum amount of paid hours, based on the average hours worked during a given period, or other measures with an equivalent effect. Such measures will need to be communicated to the Commission.
- More than one job: the employer should not prohibit, penalise or hinder workers from taking jobs with other companies if this falls outside the work schedule established with that employer.
New rules for probationary period and training
Probationary periods should be no longer than six months or proportionate to the expected duration of the contract in case of fixed-term employment. A renewed contract for the same function should not result in a new probationary period.
Mandatory training foreseen in European and national legislation should be provided free of charge by the employer and count as working time. When possible, such training should be completed within working hours.
Enrique Calvet Chambon (ALDE, ES), the rapporteur said, “Today is an important day for citizens. We have obtained a provisional agreement to establish a minimum level of protection for workers, and we have significantly updated and adapted the current framework and rules to new forms of employment: flexible labour contracts but with minimum protection, increased transparency and predictability.”
It was crucial to deliver the first EU legislation on working conditions and increased minimum rights after almost 20 years. I believe that we have achieved the best possible deal and that the more vulnerable workers will benefit from a European minimum protection framework that will fight abuse and regulate the flexibility of new forms of employment with minimum rights.
These minimum rights matters to the life of 500 million Europeans; it’s a response to their expectations and will contribute to balance flexibility with security. This is a big step forward to reinforce and enhance the European social model and cohesion for the future. These new forms of employment will now be supported by basic minimum concrete rights at European level. “
EU responses to climate change
Fighting climate change is a priority for the Parliament. Below you will find details of the solutions the EU and the Parliament are working on.
Limiting global warming: a matter of 2°C increase
Average global temperatures have risen significantly since the industrial revolution and the last decade (2008–2017) was the warmest decade on record. Of the 17 warmest years, 16 have occurred since 2000.
Data from the Copernicus Climate Change Service shows that 2018 was also one of the three warmest years on record for Europe. The majority of evidence indicates that this is due to the rise of greenhouse gas emissions produced by human activity.
The average global temperature is today 0.85°C higher than at the end of the 19th century. Scientists consider an increase of 2°C compared to pre-industrialised levels as a threshold with dangerous and catastrophic consequences for climate and the environment.
This is why the international community agrees that global warming needs to stay well below a 2°C increase.
Why is an EU response important?
According to the European Environment Agency, the EU is the world’s third biggest greenhouse gases emitter after China and the US. The energy sector was responsible for 78% of EU greenhouse gas emissions in 2015. Common mitigation efforts are key as climate change affects all EU countries, even if not in the same way.
The Mediterranean region can
expect more heat extremes and less rain, while countries in the continental
region face higher risk of river floods
and forest fires.
EU efforts are paying off. In 2008, the EU set the target to cut emissions by 20% compared to 1990 levels by 2020. It is well on track to reach this goal: in 2015 the level of greenhouse gas emissions in the EU represented a decrease of 22% compared with 1990 levels.
The EU and international climate policy
The EU is a key player in UN
climate negotiations. In 2015,
it ratified the Paris Agreement, the first universal agreement to combat
climate change. Its goal is to mitigate climate change by maintaining the
increase in global temperature at 1.5°C compared to pre-industrialised times.
Under the Paris Agreement, the EU committed to cutting greenhouse gas emissions in the EU by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2030. It has put several measures in place to reach this target.
Cutting greenhouse gas
The EU has put in place different types of mechanisms depending on the sector.
To cut emissions from power
stations and industry, the EU has put into place the first major carbon
market. With the Emissions Trading System (ETS), companies have to buy
permits to emit CO2, so the less they pollute, the less they pay. This system
covers 45% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions.
For other sectors such as construction or agriculture, reductions will be achieved through agreed national emissions targets, which are calculated, based on countries’ gross domestic product per capita.
Regarding road transport, in
early 2019, the European Parliament backed legislations to reduce CO2 emissions
by 37.5% for new cars, 31% for vans and 30% for new trucks by 2030
The EU also wants to use the CO2 absorption power of forests to fight climate change. In 2017 MEPs voted in favour of a regulation to prevent emissions resulting from deforestation and change of land use.
Addressing the energy challenge
The EU also fights climate
change with a new clean energy policy adopted by the Parliament in 2018. The
focus is on increasing the share of renewable energy consumed to 32% by 2030
and creating the possibility for people to produce their own green energy.
In addition the EU wants to improve energy efficiency 32.5% by 2030 and adopted legislation on buildings and household appliances.
EU funding for climate
Climate mitigation and adaptation goals are integrated into the EU’s main spending programmes. The EU agreed to make at least 20% of EU expenditure climate-related in 2014-2020, including the €3.4 billion LIFE environment and action programme.
GDPR one year on: 73% of Europeans have heard of at least one of their rights
Today, at the occasion of a stock-taking event to mark the first year of application of the EU General Data Protection Regulation, the European Commission is publishing the results of a special Eurobarometer survey on data protection. The results show that Europeans are relatively well aware of the new data protection rules, their rights and the existence of national data protection authorities, to whom they can turn for help when their rights are violated.
Andrus Ansip, Vice-President for the Digital Single Market said: “European citizens have become more aware of their digital rights and this is encouraging news. However, only three in ten Europeans have heard of all their new data rights. For companies, their customers’ trust is hard currency and this trust starts with the customers’ understanding of, and confidence in, privacy settings. Being aware is a precondition to being able to exercise your rights. Both sides can only win from clearer and simpler application of data protection rules.”
Věra Jourová, Commissioner for Justice, Consumers and Gender Equality added: “Helping Europeans regain control over their personal data is one of our biggest priorities. But, of the 60% Europeans who read their privacy statements, only 13% read them fully. This is because the statements are too long or too difficult to understand. I once again urge all online companies to provide privacy statements that are concise, transparent and easily understandable by all users. I also encourage all Europeans to use their data protection rights and to optimise their privacy settings”.
Based on the views of 27,000 Europeans, the Eurobarometer results show that 73% of respondents have heard of at least one of the six tested rights guaranteed by the General Data Protection Regulation. The highest levels of awareness among citizens are recorded for the right to access their own data (65%), the right to correct the data if they are wrong (61%), the right to object to receiving direct marketing (59%) and the right to have their own data deleted (57%).
In addition, 67% of respondents know about the General Data Protection Regulation and 57% of respondents know about their national data protection authorities. The results also show that data protection is a concern, as 62% of respondents are concerned that they do not have complete control over the personal data provided online.
Also today, the European Commission organises an event bringing together national and EU authorities and businesses to mark the first year of implementation of the EU General Data Protection Regulation, in the presence of Commissioner Jourová.
The Commission is launching today an awareness raising campaign to encourage citizens to read privacy statements and to optimise their privacy settings so that they only share the data they are willing to share.
The Commission will also report on the application of General Data Protection Regulation in 2020.
The General Data Protection Regulation is a single set of rules with a common EU approach to the protection of personal data, directly applicable in the Member States. It reinforces trust by putting individuals back in control of their personal data and at the same time guarantees the free flow of personal data between EU Member States. The protection of personal data is a fundamental right in the European Union.
The GDPR has been applicable since 25 May 2018. Since then, nearly all Member States have adapted their national laws in the light of GDPR. The national Data Protection Authorities are in charge of enforcing the new rules and are better coordinating their actions thanks to the new cooperation mechanisms and the European Data Protection Board. They are issuing guidelines on key aspects of the GDPR to support the implementation of the new rules.
Deepening Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union
Ahead of the Euro Summit on 21 June 2019, the European Commission today takes stock of the progress made to deepen Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union since the Five Presidents’ Report and calls on Member States to take further concrete steps.
In the four years since the publication of the report, marked progress has been made to strengthen the single currency area and make Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union more robust than ever. Many of the gaps revealed by the post-2007 economic, financial and social crisis have been addressed. Yet, important steps still need to be taken. The single currency and the coordination of economic policy-making are means to an end: more jobs, growth, investment, social fairness and macroeconomic stability for the members of the euro area as well as the EU as a whole.
European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker said: “This Commission has fought hard for the completion of the Economic and Monetary Union: a lot has been achieved but a lot remains to be done. This is about creating jobs, growth and social fairness for our citizens. It is about preserving the stability and resilience of our economies and it is about Europe’s capacity to take its future into its own hands.”
Ahead of the Euro Summit of 21 June, the Commission invites EU leaders:
To reach an agreement on the main features of the Budgetary Instrument for Convergence and Competitiveness with a view to supporting a swift adoption by the European Parliament and the Council. To agree on its size in the context of the Multiannual Financial Framework.
To finalise the changes to the Treaty establishing the European Stability Mechanism with a view to a swift ratification by the euro-area Member States, including an operational and effective common backstop, the provision of liquidity in resolution and active and effective precautionary instruments. To preserve a clear delineation of responsibilities between actors and the possibility to adjust the EU Single Rulebook for banks according to the Community method. To integrate the European Stability Mechanism into EU law over time.
To make a renewed effort to complete the Banking Union starting with political negotiations on the European Deposit Insurance Scheme.
To accelerate progress on the Capital Markets Union and step up work to strengthen the international role of the euro.
The Commission also reviews the main progress of recent years beyond the deliverables expected at the Euro Summit of June 2019 and maps out the way forward for the coming years.
Since the Euro Summit of December 2018, discussions have proceeded on the future Budgetary Instrument for Convergence and Competitiveness for the euro area, building on the Commission’s proposal for a Reform Support Programme; a compromise is within reach and should be taken forward with determination.
Discussions have also taken place on the reform of the European Stability Mechanism, in particular to provide for a backstop to the Single Resolution Fund in the form of a credit line. The backstop is expected to serve as a last resort to support effective and credible bank crises management within the Single Resolution Mechanism. It will be repaid via contributions from the European banking sector.
The completion of the Banking Union and Capital Markets Union (CMU) is also essential when it comes to bolstering the resilience and stability of the euro.
Significant progress has been made in further reducing risk in the Banking Union. The Commission’s latest progress report shows that the ratio of non-performing loans for all EU banks continues to decline and is down to 3.3% in the third-quarter of 2018, continuing its downward trajectory towards pre-crisis levels. Looking ahead, it is essential to progress with a common deposit insurance scheme for the euro area.
The CMU will foster further market integration and help ensure that Europe’s capital markets can withstand major internal or external challenges to the stability of the Economic and Monetary Union.
Encouraged by Leaders in December to continue its work on the file, the Commission also takes stock of the ongoing work towards developing the international use of the euro. The euro is twenty years young and is the world’s second currency, which remained strong even at the height of the financial and debt crisis. To understand better how to boost the global use of the euro – and to identify any obstacles to this – the Commission in recent months actively consulted market participants in different sectors (foreign exchange, energy, raw materials, agricultural commodities and transport).
These consultations showed that:
there is broad support for reducing dependence on a single dominant global currency;
the euro is the only currency with all of the necessary attributes that market participants seek to use as an alternative to the US dollar;
the energy sector will remain a key currency driver of use of the euro, with scope to further increase its use, such as in the gas sector;
there is recognition that the EU, through the euro, can reinforce its economic sovereignty and play a more important global role to benefit EU business and consumers.
The Commission, together with the European Central Bank, will continue to work with Member States, market participants and other stakeholders, and calls upon the European Parliament, the Council and all interested parties to support the efforts increase the international role of the euro.
Almost exactly four years ago, President Jean-Claude Juncker, together with the President of the Euro Summit, Donald Tusk, the then-President of the Eurogroup, Jeroen Dijsselbloem, the President of the European Central Bank, Mario Draghi, and the then-President of the European Parliament, Martin Schulz, published an ambitious plan on how to deepen Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) by latest 2025.
Building on the vision of the Five Presidents’ Report, the Commission followed up with the White Paper on the Future of Europe of March 2017, the thematic Reflection Papers on the Deepening of the Economic and Monetary Union and the Future of EU Finances in May 2017. In December 2017, the Juncker Commission set out a roadmap and adopted a number of concrete proposals with the overall aim of enhancing the unity, efficiency and democratic accountability of Europe’s Economic and Monetary Union by 2025.
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