Connect with us

South Asia

21st Century Great Power Scramble Rush to Indian Ocean

Ramla Khan

Published

on

The Indian Ocean Region (IOR),dubbed as the 21stcentury’s “pecuniary cauldron” has emerged to be the modern competitive zone for existing and emerging powers of the world. The global power patterns at present remain in the transformational stage. However, in the past the international community has seen spectrum of power shifting from bipolar to unipolar whereas at the present junction, the growing expectations are of a clash within materializing multipolarity. John Mearsheimer, renowned international relations scholar, deduces that in a multipolar world order there are greater likelihood for war, particularly when states in order to address “security dilemma” practice the offensive realpolitik approach.

Great power states are espying their futures in the high waters of the Indian Ocean that is third largest on the world map and is heavily packed with eccentric sea resources. India and China considering their geographical proximity remain the elitist contenders that are striving hard for the steering. The United States (US) remains a key player in the emerging scenario with the “Pivot towards Asia” gaining an exponential credibility under the Trump administration that looks towards the region under the broadly coined term “Indo-Pacific”. It also signifies the strategic interest of the Americans, underlying that US is not ready to compromise on both ends. The policy of bandwagon with potential allies allows the “sole superpower” in wake of its declining power and influence to remain “hand-dipped” and relevant in the waters of the Indian Ocean. The years after British departure, US strengthened its footsteps in IOR by inheriting the Diego Garcia island base. At present, it continues to back India to contain China’s “peaceful rise”. The activities are supported by the Fifth Fleet which continues to rest beside the major choke points. The fleet has substantial presence near the Red Sea located at the closure of Bad-el-Mandab Strait. The naval convoys have long provided US the operational easiness since the Second World War against its potential foes. The fleet has since then with an intermission in its presence has extended its diameter to the Indian Ocean in the post-Cold war period.

The region holds overriding significance for China, whose staunch presence provides it with the prospect to pursue its economic and political interests in the South China Sea. It relies on ‘The Sea Lines of Communication (SLOC)’for the essential energy consumption. The approximate of 80 percent of its oil requirement is fulfilled through these lanes from Middle East. In this ongoing setting, any blockade of Malacca and Hormuz Strait is almost exorbitant to the Chinese economy that is aiming to surpass the US economy in times to come. The oil-rich Middle East transports its petro-minerals via the Indian Ocean routes to the East and West. Any disruption in these communication lines can lead to economic collapses of major power relations, analogous to what was witnessed during the First and Second World War. Indian Ocean stores immense amount of resources in the form of islands, bays and straits in the waters and on the bordering regions whose control will remain reason for perpetual conflict. The Bay of Bengal holds in it range of fossil fuels and hydrocarbons. Andaman and Nicobar Islands located in the bay’s premises are militarized by India.It has stationed its special naval forces in the demesne and aims to increase the patrolling networks in the region. India and China are contradicting each other with the apophthegm‘enemy of your enemy is your friend’. Beijing coupled with Pakistan considering it as the classical rival to India whereas India openly sides with the US. With the ‘Look East Policy’, Delhi has gained new allies, most of whom are China’s adversaries in the troubled waters of the South China Sea that are prescribed to react to the ‘Strings of Pearls’.

Chinese enlargement in Gwadar via the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) project with Pakistan, has made its economic presence firm and permanent in the area. The country has rendered a foreign policy as sympathizer to the developing states but Indian analyst describe is as a curtain of its goodwill knitted by China under the aim to grow its military control all across Indian Ocean borders. The Indian Ocean allows China to achieve its long-term goals to sustain immense fiscal growth, providing it a stronger position to deter enemies and contenders alike. The Omni presence of Beijing has raised inquisitive period in the international arena about the new potentials of Xi’s administration. Will the Indian Ocean become another South China Sea and is an escalation likely, is an interesting question.US being not a direct participatory in region, has allowed India and China to exercise more openly in a region that is home to three nuclear powers.

Like always, there is uncertainty in what lies ahead in international relations. The ‘peaceful rise of China’, which can be labeled as the US equivalent to a ‘new world order’ seems to tackle the situation with diligence by providing a win-win situation to all parties. It also depends largely on the US and India, as to how far they are willing to push China, that could in the near future to influence the regional and international geopolitical setting. The economies of the People’s Republic of China and India are flourishing day by day whereas the US economy remains contracted with the domestic and international opposition to the President Trump’s economic vision. Yet, the economy of US remains at-least two fold greater than that of Beijing. However, the “Red Regan” is swiftly catching up and can fill the void in the decades to come. The puzzle considering the present geopolitical complexions remains uncertain as to which of the power would gain supremacy in the maritime space of the Indian Ocean. International law gives freedom of navigation in the international waters under the United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 1982. However, with the speculation of historical evidences, international law could never have an eminent effect on the realist power maximization intentions of states.

Ramla Khan is an MPhil Research Scholar at NDU, Islamabad. She writes for various policy institutes, journals and blogs. Her area of expertise is Disinformation Operations. (ramla.khan2418[at]gmail.com)

Continue Reading
Comments

South Asia

PTI Government in Pakistan: To full-fill its promise on curbing Corruption

Published

on

Big achievements of PTI (Pakistan Tehreek-E-Insaf) Government in Pakistan. Corruption is an international phenomenon, especially among developing and underdeveloped countries. Corruption is a major hurdle in the fight against poverty and development. However, the beneficiary of corruption is still the developed world. The rulers from developing and underdeveloped world, transfer all their black money to developed countries and in the end, developed world enjoy out of their black money.

Pakistan, being a developing country, no exception to this curse. During the last few governments, it was very much visible. Either it was financial corruption of moral corruption, all are equally harmful to the country. Previous few governments, appointed corrupt and unqualified persons on key posts and used them as their front men in corruption.

Some of their front men were an evil genius and committed heinous crimes in such a technical manner that it is very difficult to find out evidence. Either it is fake accounts or various forms of money laundering or in the form of subsidies or government grants, commissions or kickbacks in projects or procurement, bribes or gift, all are the same but with different forms to harm the socio-economic of this country.

It was in the manifesto of PTI, and part of its slogan during the election campaign, to fight against corruption. Prime Minister Imran Khan in his speech on several occasions has promised with the nation that, he will fix all corrupt, irrespective of their status in the society. It is logical to start from the big fish and later on to common corrupt officials at junior levels.

Pakistan’s judiciary and the military are also on the same page and extending full support to the PTI government’s mission to eliminate corruption from this society once for all. The recent arrests are just the beginning of accountability and have to go on a long journey. May it take one term or even next term, but the accountability process must keep on going till the eradication of corruption completely.

Pakistan is under the heavy foreign-debt, worth US Dollars 100 billion approximately. Who took this huge loan? Have they worked out, how to pay back? Have they spent all the loans on the development of Pakistan? Why this loan has not been trickled down impact? Why this heavy loan could not improve Pakistan’s economy? How useful was this loan to common man of Pakistan? Why IMF could not improve the governance of Pakistan? Why IMF failed to improve performance of Pakistan? Why IMF could not give positive advice to Government of Pakistan? The lenders also need to be blamed for lending without any feasibility and failure of IMF packages offered to Pakistan during last one decade or so long. Why few families (rulers) become more rich and country become poorer?

If the sitting governments of that times have been borrowing without any planning or homework or without considering how to pay back, all of them must be held responsible for this heinous crime against the nation. Whether they are inside Pakistan or left the country, they must be arrested and brought back to face justice.

If only a few corrupt families are arrested and asked for the return of looted money, Pakistan can get rid of its major part of foreign-debt. We may not need any bailout package from the IMF or any help from any friendly country. All the looted money must be returned, all the illegal assets must be confiscated and suctioned out. All the recovered money must be used to pay back our foreign-debt.

There is no need to impose additional taxes and duties on the common man. Electricity, Fuel, Gas and consumer products may be kept on the original position. It is illogical that the common man, who is not responsible for the debt and still suffers due to the corruption of rulers.  It is desired, the previous rulers, who have pushed the country into economic chaos, should be held responsible and all damages need to be compensated by them only. There is no need to punish the whole nation for few criminals. Recovery from previous corrupt rulers is very much do-able and very much possible, above all very much desired. There are examples available in the world, how they recovered looted money from their big shots.  Saudi Arabia has done it well. China is a role model to be followed in this regard.  The Chinese government is willing to share its experience and expertise in fighting against corruption.

Our internal resources may be utilized fully to control corruption and recover all black money. Even if there is a need to introduce new legislation, the Government should not hesitate. Masses in Pakistan stands with Government on this issue. The government should move smartly in this direction with full strength and confidence. Public support is already there.  However, if the Government fails to accomplish this task, it may lose popularity.

Continue Reading

South Asia

Gentlemen’s game or Propaganda? Cricket and the India-Pakistan Voices

Published

on

Can a sport be utilized as an effective propaganda tool? And if so, does it ideally mean that government intrusion is a necessity for its success? The answer to this question lies in the reflection of the cricket scenario in Asia. Although recognized as a gentlemen’s game, much can be said about its dichotomy as a weapon in the ever-growing war between India and Pakistan. Cricket propaganda has become a major trend over the past decade between the two countries as competition remains scarce with the political tensions and matches are seen as a great opportunity to reflect those political tensions. 

Recently, the tension between the two countries escalated with a suicide bombing attack sponsored by the terror group, Jaish-e-Mohammed in the Pulwama district of Jammu & Kashmir. This grave attack resulted in the death of 40 Central Reserve Police Force personnel, which in the opinion of the Indian government was an act of war leading them to raise the issue on the global platform. Surprising, one of the biggest acts of public response, with the usual backlash of the country’s rights over the Kashmir valley, was a call to abandon the upcoming match between the two countries following the start of the ICC cricket world cup. Although, the Modi government did conduct airstrikes against Pakistan, leading to a major confrontation between the two countries along the ‘line of control’ (the de facto border between the two countries), a large scale debate about whether India should abandon the game was a hotly debated topic in the country.

It is worth noticing that later the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), did hand over the matter to the Modi government, after which the decision was inclined towards the sportsmanship of the country, however, both the Indian cricket team and the BCCI were not ready to desert the will of the public that easily. Involved in an ODI series with Australia, the Indian team walked out wearing military caps as a sign of apparent solidarity with the troopers killed in the terrorist attack. Never before had Team India taken it upon themselves to spread such jingoistic propaganda on a global scale and make such overt statement. The rise of the protestors in Pakistan were met with official statements from the International body of Cricket (ICC), stating their approval as a means of “support” to the Indian team for a fund-raising effort for their fallen soldiers.  

Similarly, in an act of nationalistic fervor, the BCCI decided to get Pakistan banned from the upcoming world-cup prior to its commencement but was severely backlashed by the International Cricket Council (ICC), to keep politics away from the sanctity of the game. Although BCCI was unsuccessful in passing an unrealistic degree of order, given their large scale influence on the International body, it was clear that cricket had become an additional weapon of mass destruction and means of propaganda between the two countries.

So has the situation become better now? Recently, an Ad-war following the start of the world cup has emerged between the two countries, given their highly anticipated upcoming clash on the 16th of June. Ahead of the Sunday clash-guaranteed to put both the nations at a standstill- Star Sport’s Mauka ad ( loosely translated to a chance of winning) has captured the attention of the Indian fans, as the video has garnered over 2.5 million views after it was published on 10th June 2019. This video currently stands as a reprise an extension of the “Patakhe kab podhenge” campaign (clumsily translated to “When will be get to burn crackers”), wherein a Pakistani fan never gets a chance to burn his crackers as Pakistan is always defeated by India on a world cup stage, as indicated by the records as well. However, the new Mauka ad seems to recognize the importance of June 16th as Father’s day and does not fail to interject the role of India as a father in comparison Pakistan, as a means of cheeky humor which received large scale reaction from the Pakistani fans.

As a means of response, a Pakistani news channel Jazz Tv published a video with a character impersonating Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman, the Indian air force pilot who was captured, briefly held and then released under the pretense of the Geneva Convention. The character is seen sporting the pilot’s handlebar mustache with a fake South Indian accent and is dressed in the Indian team jersey, following which an interrogator asks him to give back the teacup he has been holding, as a means to denote how the cup belongs to Pakistan. This video was met with the usual support from the Pakistani fans and deemed ‘racist’ by the Indian fans, accounting to the portrayal of the esteemed pilot with a fake southern accent. Although, tension has been running high between the countries for some time now, both the nations have resorted to extending their tensions to the cricket pitch as well, ensuring large scale traction for their upcoming matches.

Continue Reading

South Asia

Modi’s Operandi

Syed Nasir Hassan

Published

on

Same old Modi puts himself in throne again but with different mandate this time. This time he came with much force and appeared more vigilant. Sweeping an electoral win with more than 300 seats out of 543 and restricting Indian National Congress to mere 52 seats. This clearly shows that India gave priority to nationalism over any other set of idea. Prior to previous electoral year i.e. 2014,Modi lured with promises of social and economic reforms and upheaval. Which sunk badly as some of the predicaments are still in the society. From being miserable in improving the job sector that gave rise to unemployment rate to the inducing grieves to the farmers, Modi bagged some failures as well in his previous tenure.

Whereas this time bait was the Hindu nationalistic sentiments, which Mr. Modi and his members of the den enjoyed the feast by winning the election. By using hate mandate, Modi successfully maneuvered himself and his party in to the realms of Delhi. Before elections, his unfortunate adventurous voyage with its neighbor and rival Pakistan made a lucid chance to portray himself as heroic figure. Modi flaunted anger and hate towards its immediate neighbor. It profited him in shape of getting a majority in the lower house of the Indian political saga. Hate sentiments were provoked and inducted in common minds. Question herby rises that how Hindu nationalism can or will transform India?

During previous reign of Mr. Modi, clear social and religious divisions were drawn onto the Indian society. This was mechanized in recent elections as well by promoting nationalism or more likely Hinduism. One of the tactics that was opted by BJP and Modi is persuasion of fears of Indian society and Hindu ideology and presenting himself as the only savior. Modi portrayed himself as the only option for Hindu caste to save Hindu ideology from external threats.

Modi has always been fond of shifting Indian secular discourse towards a Hindu nationalist sermon. His previous tenure and the plight minorities faced during that time testifies his aims. Now he has been elected for another five years. This time he has secured almost 56% of the lower house that clearly means that Mr. Modi will have to face no hurdle in his way towards passing a legislation.

Media and Modi has always been close aides to each other. This nexus was also prominent in the recent elections as Social and Electronic media, both were eminent in glaring Modi-ism. It ultimately cultivated his ideology in the minds of a common viewer hence reflecting it in the election results. His election campaign was given more coverage than any other thing on TV. The election soap series continued feeding the people of the India. Without any doubt, there have been immense flow of monetary funds in the veins on Indian media during the election time.

Modi’s Bharatya Jantya Party or BJP’s Modi have already drawn a plan to be executed in the society. Selection of candidates that were given tickets and won were some of the most extremist in nature. Shakshi Mahraj, a newly elected member of parliament on BJP’s seat already has more than 30 criminal cases against him. Another newly elected BJP’s Member of Parliament, Pragya Singh Thakur remarked Mahatma Gandhi’s assassin as “a patriot”. Not only this, selections for new cabinet members clearly indicated where Mr. Modi would be leading Indian society. Amit Shah who is also a president of BJP has ironically been selected as India’s Home Minister. There is a clear chance thatnew reforms might be religion centric rather than being focused on governance. BJP will clearly exhibit the Hindu ideology in governance that would further raise concerns for the minorities in India.

The Indian future and the question of Indian minorities seems bleak. Modi created a narrative on abhorrence and nationalism, he won elections on this mandate but now he has to defend it and every word of hatred that came out of his mouth may be realized through his actions. It puts Indian society in a dismal situation.

It is arduous to analyze that how large populous has voted in favor of hate mandate prompted by Modi. But there is a chance that Indian society might be falling prey to reverse psychology. It indulged itself so deep and intense in criticizing and accusing its neighbor, Pakistan, for being extremist and conservative society that it itself is becoming one.

Continue Reading

Latest

Newsdesk2 hours ago

Improved Skills and Job Opportunities for Youth in Maldives

The World Bank Board of Directors today approved a $20 million financing to provide market relevant skills and increase employment...

Economy6 hours ago

8 facts you don’t know about the money migrants send back home

Here are eight things you might not know about the transformative power of these often small – yet major –...

Middle East9 hours ago

The tension between Iran and the United States

At the beginning of last summer, precisely on May 8, 2018, US President Donald J. Trump carried out one of...

Science & Technology11 hours ago

Girls Don’t Code? In The Caribbean, They Lead Tech Startups

Research shows that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) are still male-dominated fields. According to the U.S. Department of Commerce, in...

Energy News12 hours ago

IEA takes part in G20 Energy and Environment Ministerial in Japan

The International Energy Agency has provided in-depth support for this weekend’s meeting of G20 energy and environment ministers, including the publication...

Southeast Asia15 hours ago

Building cohesive societies: Southeast Asian states take on gargantuan challenge

Several Southeast Asian governments and social movements are seeking to counter mounting polarization and inter-communal strife across the globe fuelled...

Africa17 hours ago

Water Diplomacy: Creating Spaces for Nile Cooperation

The Nile River is the longest river on the earth, with eleven nation states sharing it and over 487 million...

Trending

Copyright © 2019 Modern Diplomacy