Connect with us

Science & Technology

The future of Artificial Intelligence in Africa: A joint responsibility

Published

on

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Africa and universal access to information and knowledge were at the heart of discussions during the UNESCO Forum on Artificial Intelligence in Africa that took place at the Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, in Benguerir, Morocco, on 12 and 13 December 2018.

The two-day Forum was opened by UNESCO’s Director-General Audrey Azoulay, Morocco’s Education Minister Saaid Amzazi and the President of the General Conference of UNESCO, Zohour Alaoui. It brought together ministers, representatives of the private sector, experts, researchers and representatives of international and regional organizations, as well as NGOs and civil society actors from all parts of the world. Through round tables and thematic sessions, the conference examined the future of Artificial Intelligence in Africa, ethical issues for the continent, and ways in which AI can serve as a lever for sustainable development.

Artificial Intelligence is not only relevant to developed countries, but also important for developing countries, including in Africa. While the African continent sees a number of innovative uses of Artificial Intelligence, more can be done to guarantee access to information and knowledge through AI.

Countries in Africa face specific challenges in terms of infrastructure, skills, knowledge gaps, research capacities and availability of local data, which need to be overcome to fully harness the deployment of AI. To avoid exacerbating the existing digital and knowledge divides, it is essential to address these challenges and to raise awareness of the potential of AI for sustainable development.

Harnessing the potential of AI for Africa

The panel discussion on universal access to information and knowledge, and AI in Africa, moderated by UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information Moez Chakchouk, highlighted the efforts of governments and various stakeholders to fully harness the potential of AI.

Morocco underlined that its digital strategy takes AI into account, and the country has enhanced data access through the launch of an open data portal. Ruhiya Seward from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) presented how the centre has been actively supporting North-South cooperation in the mapping of AI ecosystems, as well as the promotion and establishment of regional networks in this regard.

Discussions also highlighted how the UNESCO Chair in Artificial Intelligence and the Knowledge for All (K4All) Foundation are carrying out a mapping of Artificial Intelligence start-ups, research centres and civil society organizations. Microsoft equally underlined how the company provides support to AI strategic plans for a range of countries, while also building capacities for start-ups through its 4Afrika AppFactory, which develops the digital skills, coding capabilities and workplace readiness of young people.

An inclusive approach for the development of AI

Panellists emphasized the importance of involving young people and innovative local AI start-up ecosystems to ensure access to information and knowledge. Davor Orlic from the Jožef Stefan Institute stated that Africa is not lagging behind, and that the continent would gain a lot from listening to its local AI ecosystem. Local start-ups can serve as incubators for skills development and business modelling to ensure AI entrepreneurship solves local development issues in innovative and efficient ways, with a particular focus on youth and women.

Nicolas Miailhe of the Future Society further underlined the importance of ensuring multi-stakeholder consultation processes, including through online platforms, to ensure the participatory development of public policies on AI.

Finally, in interacting with the audience, panellists also discussed the dangers of AI in encroaching on human rights issues such as privacy. Julie Owono, Executive Director of Internet Sans Frontières, underlined that “the Universal Declaration of Human Rights must be the reference framework for all aspects related to Artificial Intelligence, and more generally to all aspects associated with the Internet.”

UNESCO

Continue Reading
Comments

Science & Technology

Cybersecurity depends on the user

Published

on

Businesses and pharmaceutical companies have become prime targets for cyber criminals. For many employees switching to work from home has made them more vulnerable to cyber attacks. Amid the continuing coronavirus pandemic the focus is shifting on digital hygiene and training. These are top issues outlined by the participants of a round table which  took place at TASS Press Center under the title “Cybersecurity: new threats and protection against them”.

At present, a large number of high-tech medical equipment is connected to the Internet. Given that medical institutions are not used to new threats, they often fall prey to cyber criminals. At times, hospitals have to pay ransom in order to restart the equipment vital for patients’ lives.  The participants in the round table cited yet more tragic cases when the ambulance equipment glitch forced the driver to head for other hospitals, which means that patients in critical condition may not make it there.

Cyber threats have been haunting not only the  medical industry. President of Check Point Software Technologies in Russia and CIS Vasily Diaghilev has singled out 3 key challenges in the new reality. Firstly, the decision-taking time limit has shortened considerably, — the market proved unprepared for this (unlike in the past, when months were given to elaborate decisions on cyber security, now a mere days are given to do so). Secondly, the criminal groups which had to go online as well, were provided with new financing to “work” in the cyber sphere. Thirdly, user vulnerability went up due to a wide variety of hacking methods.

Alexei Novikov, Director of Security at Positive Technologies, disagrees with such a view. The transition to online work has increased the number of vulnerabilities making it possible for the criminals to find new loops. Hence cyber security has come to depend on the competence of particular individuals. Earlier, information security was guaranteed “along the perimeter of corporate network”. Now, when practically everyone is working from home, family members have got access to the data too. In  addition, employees often connect  their  personal “smart devices” of the  Internet of  things to their corporate networks.

Experts who took part in the round table provided specific recommendations as to how to boost digital security. Founder and General Director of Zecurion Alexei Raevsky warned companies which are not supposed to store loads of data against doing so. Alexei Raevsky described all the data (for example, for electronic passes), which they collect on a regular basis in the conditions of a quarantine, as a “time bomb”. Vasily Diaghilev has urged individuals to refrain from using (and called on companies to impose restrictions on this practice on a mandatory basis) corporate passwords on external servers, in addition, he recommended coding corporate data, and in order to secure protection against destructive files, he advises to switch to the safe pdf-format in paperwork. “Info security should enter mass market as a taxi – a kind of digital security outsourcing”, — Lev Matveev, Chairman of the Board of “SearchInfoorm”, member of the Association of Software Manufacturers “Russoft”, says. Besides, he recommended including VPN-apps and services into public (free) WiFi-networks.

From our partner International Affairs

Continue Reading

Science & Technology

Top 10 Emerging Technologies to Watch in 2020

Published

on

From virtual patients to pain-free needles, synthesizing whole-genomes, and digital medicine, these top 10 emerging technologies are transforming our post-COVID-19 lives. An international steering group of experts singled out these and other emerging technologies as the ones most likely to impact the world in the next three to five years.

For example, a Swiss group was able to synthesize the entire COVID-19 genome by reproducing the genetic sequence uploaded by Chinese scientists. They were essentially teleporting the virus into their laboratory for study without waiting for physical samples. The ability to write our genome will inevitably help doctors to cure genetic diseases.

As we now move to clinical trials of a COVID-19 vaccine, virtual patients, instead of living humans, could help identify successful vaccine candidates, reduce costs, and speed up research. It would also prevent the testing of imperfect vaccine candidates on living volunteers.

While the outbreak unfolded, dozens of medical apps and bots were developed, expanding the digital medicine landscape. These apps could detect depression and provided counselling. Bots answered over 200 million inquiries about COVID symptoms and treatments. COVID-19 will continue to shape our lives, and these emerging technologies could fill the gaps created by the pandemic.

The list also includes new technologies that can help combat climate change by tackling major polluting industries. These new green technologies include innovative planes, new concrete formulations and using sunlight to power refineries.

Top 10 technologies to make the list are:

Virtual Patients

Virtual patients, instead of living humans, could make vaccine trials quicker and inexpensive. This technology would significantly reduce the number of human subjects needed for experimentation.

Microneedles for Painless Injections and Tests

These tiny needles promise pain-free injections and blood testing. Microneedles do not touch nerve endings. Since the process does not need costly equipment or a lot of training, they can be used in areas that do not normally receive cutting-edge medical technologies.

Whole-Genome Synthesis

Whole-genome synthesizing will transform cell engineering. The ability to write our genome will inevitably help doctors to cure genetic diseases.

Digital Medicine

Digital medicine is a collection of apps that detect and monitor the mental and physical health of patients. These apps and bots can enhance traditional medicine and provide support to patients with limited access to healthcare.

Electric Aviation

Electric propulsion motors would eliminate direct carbon emissions. This technology could also reduce fuel costs by up to 90%, maintenance by up to 50% and noise by nearly 70%. Currently, about 170 electric airplane projects are underway.

Lower-Carbon Cement

Concrete, the most widely used human-made material, shapes much of our built world. If cement production were a country, it would be the third-largest emitter after China and the US. Researchers are working on lower-carbon approaches by changing the recipe, using different materials, and using carbon capture and storage technologies.

Sun-Powered Chemistry

This approach uses sunlight to convert carbon dioxide waste into needed chemicals manufactured from fossil fuel. This approach could reduce emissions in two ways – by using unwanted gas as raw material and using sunlight as the source of energy instead of fossil fuels.

Green Hydrogen

Current methods of producing hydrogen are not environmentally efficient. Green hydrogen, produced through electrolysis, has no by-product, unlike current processes. Green hydrogen could transform industries that require high-energy fuel.

Spatial Computing

“Spatial computing” will bring together raise reality apps and sensors to facilitate human-machine and machine-machine interactions to a new level. It combines these capabilities and controls objects’ movements and interactions, allowing a person to navigate the digital and physical world.

Quantum Sensing

Quantum sensors enable autonomous vehicles that can “see” around corners, underwater navigation systems, early-warning systems for volcanic activity and earthquakes, and portable scanners that monitor a person’s brain activity during daily life.

Continue Reading

Science & Technology

Can ‘Open Science’ speed up the search for a COVID-19 vaccine? 5 things you need to know

Published

on

The UN is calling for authoritative scientific information and research to be made freely available, to accelerate research into an effective vaccine against the COVID-19 virus, help counter misinformation, and “unlock the full potential of science”.

Arguing that no-one is safe until everyone is safe, the World Health Organization (WHO) has, for several months, been urging countries and scientists to collaborate, in a bid to bring the pandemic under control. This has involved the creation, alongside governments, scientists, foundations, the private sector and other partners, of a groundbreaking platform to accelerate the development of tests, treatments and vaccines.

In October, the head of the agency, Tedros Ghebreyesus Adhanom, alongside human rights chief Michelle Bachelet, and Audrey Azoulay, Director-General of science, culture and education agency UNESCO, issued a call for “Open Science”, describing it as a “fundamental matter of human rights”, and arguing for cutting-edge technologies and discoveries to be available for those who need them most.

But what exactly does Open Science mean, and why does the UN insist on making it more widespread?

1) What is ‘Open Science’?

Open Science has been described as a growing movement aimed at making the scientific process more transparent and inclusive by making scientific knowledge, methods, data and evidence freely available and accessible for everyone.

The Open Science movement has emerged from the scientific community and has rapidly spread across nations. Investors, entrepreneurs, policy makers and citizens are joining this call.

However, the agency also warns that, in the fragmented scientific and policy environment, a global understanding of the meaning, opportunities and challenges of Open Science is still missing.

2) Why is Open Science important?

Open Science facilitates scientific collaboration and the sharing of information for the benefit of science and society, creating more and better scientific knowledge, and spreading it to the wider population.

UNESCO has described Open Science as a “true game changer”: by making information widely available, more people can benefit from scientific and technological innovation.

3) Why is it needed now?

Because, in a world that is more inter-connected than ever before, many of today’s challenges do not respect political or geographic borders, and strong international scientific collaboration is essential to overcome the problems. The COVID-19 pandemic is a prime example.

We also have the tools to make it happen: with digitalization becoming ever more widespread, it is far easier than ever before to share scientific knowledge and data, which are needed to enable decisions that can lead to overcoming global challenges to be based on reliable evidence.

4) What is the impact of Open Science on the pandemic?

In this global health emergency, thanks to international collaboration, scientists have improved their understanding of the coronavirus with unprecedented speed and openness, embracing the principles of Open Science. Journals, universities, private labs, and data repositories have joined the movement, allowing open access to data and information: some 115,000 publications have released information related to the virus and the pandemic, and more than 80 per cent of them can be viewed, for free, by the general public.

Early in the pandemic, for example, Chinese scientists readily shared the genome of the virus, jumpstarting all following research into the virus, and the diagnostic testing, treatments, and vaccines that have since been developed.

Finally, the crisis has underlined the urgent need to bring science closer to decision making and to society as a whole. Fighting misinformation and promoting evidence-based decision-making, supported by well-informed citizens, has proven to be of vital importance in the fight against COVID 19.

5) What is the UN doing to promote Open Science?

To ensure that Open Science truly meets its potential, and benefits both developed and developing countries, UNESCO is taking the lead in building a global consensus on values and principles for Open Science that are relevant for every scientists and every person independently of their place of origin, gender, age or economic and social background.

The future UNESCO Recommendation on Open Science is expected to be the international instrument to set the right and just standards for Open Science globally, which fulfil the human right to science and leave no one behind.  

In a statement released on World Science Day for Peace and Development, celebrated on 10 November, Ms. Azoulay said that widening the scope of Open Science will help science to “unlock its full potential”, making it more effective and diverse by “enabling anyone to contribute, but also to bring its objectives in line with the needs of society, by developing scientific literacy in an informed citizenry who take responsibility and are involved in collective decision-making”.

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

Environment32 mins ago

The race to zero emissions, and why the world depends on it

A host of countries have recently announced major commitments to significantly cut their carbon emissions, promising to reach “net zero”...

Economy3 hours ago

Future Economy: Micro-Manufacturing & Micro-Exports

Recovery now forces economies to emerge as dynamic entrepreneurial landscapes; today, the massively displaced working citizenry of the world may...

Africa5 hours ago

Scientific and trade cooperation between China and Africa

China was crumbling into misery, degradation and despair, in the middle of that 109-year period (1840-1949) known as the era...

Defense7 hours ago

The Need to Reorient New Delhi in the Indo-Pacific

Beijing’s overt expansionism in South Asia and the South China Sea (SCS) continues to threaten India’s maritime security. The rise...

Environment9 hours ago

EU greenhouse gas emissions fell in 2019 to the lowest level in three decades

The Commission today adopted its annual EU Climate Action Progress Report, covering the EU’s progress in cutting greenhouse gas emissions...

Human Rights11 hours ago

Global Experts To Convene Online To Discuss Values In A Post-Covid World

Leading Islamic scholars and experts from around the world, representing government and civil society will convene online to attend the...

EU Politics13 hours ago

Towards a stronger and more resilient Schengen area

The first ever Schengen Forum, convened today by the Commission, allowed for constructive exchanges towards building a stronger and more...

Trending