During the meeting with Vladimir Putin, the Supreme Leader considered the US sanctions a very strong point of exchange for economic transactions outside the Dollar framework. He described the Iranian-Russian cooperation in Syria as an example of “American containment” and emphasized that “the same stand and success of the Islamic Republic is another successful example of American control, and Iran-Russia cooperation on global issues can restrain America.” By explaining and analyzing these words of leadership, we find that their positions take into account the realities of the region and the international scene and express their “strategic depth” to future issues of the world and the region.
Americans are in a difficult position, and they have to retreat from the implementation of the “policy toward zero export of Iranian oil” despite the high cost of diplomacy because they know they will succeed in implementing this policy, which will be able to report the closure of the Strait of Hormuz in the newspaper. In the morning, without worrying about rising fuel prices for their cars in the afternoon! “To the extent that Bob Woodward, the American author of the book,” Fears, “admits,” the defeat and anger are the characteristics of these days of the White House. “Because of this, the United States announced that it would take the necessary measures to exempt countries from penalties.
Iran’s successful experience in resisting and circumventing previous sanctions, opposition from different countries to new sanctions, US embargo on other countries … Finally, the emergence of “the determination to stand up to US sanctions policies in the world” The American Sanctions Weapon razor becomes slower than ever. American think tanks of the Atlantic Council, Heritage, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies have reported in separate reports that “complex economic and geopolitical considerations make it extremely difficult to predict the effectiveness of sanctions, and that Tramp’s tweets about the most severe sanctions against Iran are just a psychological warfare. » US Ambassador to Tel Aviv David Friedman also said in response to the Israeli news agency Hume: “I’m not a Prophet to predict the future of sanctions!” So the US’s excessive use of sanctions against more than twenty countries in the world has led them to think of forming a “new economic-political bloc” that can be the basis for the collapse of the domination system in international relations. As evidence of progress toward this apparent “International sanctions have warned that” US sanctions will create an “ecosystem of sanctioned actors” that can make sanctions “ineffective” on the basis of “independent policies” and “common interests”. Russia also writes “In the near future, the sanctions imposed on the first and quickest action by replacing the national currency the commercial amalgam will leave the dollar “.
The important thing is that in the new economic block, there is a Shiite country, such as Iran, to the Sunni countries, such as Turkey, and to other non-Muslim countries, such as China and Russia, and other media spaces do not allow the United States to make the Islamic Republic a Shiite crescent. Accuse and form NATO in Arabic! The issue that caused the US disappointment is that Pakistan has become an adversary in the premiership of Imran Khan, with Malaysia and Indonesia, with the Republic of Saudi Arabia outside the camp.
Although the Americans refer to the centennial of the dollar, the dollar seeks to induce dangerous denial of the dollar, but first, the current value of the dollar itself is exaggerated and does not come from known financial backing, such as gold or other precious metals. Secondly, with the openness of the global trade gate, the wider circle of the front of the “war against the dollar” is the main victim of the dollar itself. Thirdly, opposition to the sanctions policy inside America has become a major challenge for the dollar. On the one hand, the United States Federal Reserve warned in its report that “global companies have been pushing for investment in the United States because of international trade tensions caused by US sanctions” and, on the other hand, more than sixty US-US trade unions have formed a coalition to tackle politics US sanctions “. Earlier, Trump’s senior aides also announced the formation of a core of resistance to the policies of the US president. So the time for the change of other systems was spent through sanctions and dollars, so that after seven years of bloody military intervention in Syria and the cost of billions of dollars failed to succeed in the policy of overthrowing the Syrian regime, and now it is stretching beyond the borders, not only Syria.
The new economic-political bloc can, firstly, accelerate trade relations between member countries by completely eliminating the dollar and challenging the role of the dollar in the global economy. Secondly, the member states can coordinate all their assets from banks in the United States and the West and invest in their own countries, which in the first act of Russia is withdrawing their gold reserves from the United States. This action, in addition to the surprising effects that affect the economies of the countries It can prevent the US and Western economies from challenging them to impose sanctions and pressure on them by blocking the properties of other countries. Thirdly, in such a situation, Europeans may also be forced to trade at least with the euro, which will also help the collapse of the dollar’s dominance. Fourth, this new block can help bilateral trade and multilateral treaties eliminate the full dollar from trade between member states. Fifth the new economic-political bloc can be formed with the expansion of organizations like Shanghai, or it can help them stand up against the dollar.
The Islamic Republic, with the experience of creating a military-defense bloc in the region centered around the flow of resistance and failure of American terrorists, can play a central role in shaping the new economic-political bloc, provided that the government, by abandoning passive politics, In front of the United States, and with the disappointment of Europeans and the activation of all their diplomatic capabilities, “Interacting with the World” does not just mean a relationship with the United States and several European countries! Unfortunately, despite the fact that the elimination of the dollar as an intermediary currency was the subject of the sixth program and 60% of our trade with other countries could be made with a bilateral monetary agreement, Iran has not yet been bilaterally a treaty with any country !? While China and Russia now have bilateral monetary agreements with about 35 countries, they have announced that they will use national currency in deals with all Middle East, Africa, Asia and Latin America a day ago, with Xi Jinping and Putin in Moscow. Contrary to Mr. Zarif’s claim that “the world is not prepared to stand up to America’s policies,” it is a fact that the international scene “America against the world and the world against the dollar” has risen, and “consensus against the US and the dollar” can be a major deterrent to stability. The path to “consensus on the Islamic Republic”. Unfortunately, the government and the State Department are seeking to approve the FATF rather than pursuing this important issue, which will, unlike the spatial environment, cause, in addition to Europe, other countries will not be able to trade with Iran! As the Revolutionary Guard warned, “it’s not necessary to join the conventions we do not know about depth.”
As the American Supreme Power struggles with the victory of the Islamic Revolution collapsed in the world, we can now see the collapse of the “dollar domination.” It’s not an optimistic claim, but a fact, because hatred of America’s policies is heavily influenced not only in the West Asian region and Islamic countries, but also around the world, are intensifying and, before any change in another country occurs, the global rage against the dollar may lead to a change in its own system. Even many European politicians, despite their resistance to anti-American alliances, concluded that their countries’ interests were to resist US sanctions. Wolfgang Ischinger, a German veteran diplomat and US ambassador to the United States who heads the Munich Security Conference, emphasized in an interview with Reuters on the eve of the publication of his book “The Rise of the World,” in an interview with Reuters. “With American policies, the need to distance America is felt more and more. The growing strength of the anti-American alliances and the diversion of countries into the coalition of Iran, Russia and China have increased. “The interior minister and Italian Deputy Prime Minister also warned on sanctions losses on the Arte Network that sanctions are lacking in logic and will continue to work to change this policy. This is the same thing in Leadership in Nowshahr, which stated that “the political and intelligent analysts of the world are surprised at the fact that Iran has failed the world powers and admit it to this fact.” Therefore, it should be regarded as “the first US policy” failed and believed not only the world as well as the United States itself has unwittingly resurrected against the dollar, and the time of “curbing the US” has come up with the “fall of the dollar”!
Post Trump Palestine
The unconditional United States’ political, financial and military support to Israel enabled the latter to occupy the Palestinian territories. The former became involved in Israeli-Palestinian conflict as an arbiter to resolve the issue. But the foreign policy of US has always remained tilt to Israeli interests. From recognizing Israel as sovereign state in 1947 to accepting Jerusalem as capital of Israel has clearly unearthed the biased attitude of US for Israel.
Similarly, Trump also adopted the traditional stance of Washington on Palestine, i.e. outright support for Israel. Trump’s policy regarding Israeli-Palestinian conflict was more aggressive but not in contradiction with his predecessors’. For instance, he brought into reality the law passed by US congress in 1995 that recognized Jerusalem as the capital of Israel, shifted US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, closed office of Palestine Liberation Organization PLO in Washington DC in Sept 2018 and closed US consulate in East Jerusalem the area under Palestinian control. His bigotry against Palestinians unveiled more distinctly when he announced defunding of United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestinian Refugees (UNRWA), the UN agency that provides food, education and healthcare to the refugees. Moreover during his regime in November 2018 the state department of US proclaimed that the construction of Israeli settlements in West Bank does not come under the ambit of violation of international humanitarian laws. Certainly, the belligerent policies in last four years of trump era paved the way for the colonization of Palestine by Israel and helped the latter to put unlawful restrictions on Palestinians making them deprived of all civil liberties and peace.
As per world report-2020by Human Rights Watch HRW, Palestinian citizens are restrained from all basic necessities of life such that, education, basic healthcare, clean water and electricity. The movement of people and goods to and from Gaza strip is also inhibited. According to World Health Organization WHO 34 percent of applications by Palestinians, for medical appointments outside Gaza strip, were not addressed by Israeli army. Moreover, HRW report states that the Israeli government destroyed 504 homes of Palestinians in West Bank during 2019 and facilitated 5995 housing settlements for Israelis. The country is trying at utmost to eradicate indigenous Palestinians from their home land. According to United Nations’ Office of Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UNOCHA, the demolitions of Palestinian homes displaced 642 people in 2019 and 472 in 2018.Moreover, the illicit attacks by Israeli side have killed hundreds of innocent citizens in the same years. According to UNOCHA on November 11, 2020, 71 innocent Palestinian citizens were killed by Israeli forces while 11,453 were lethally injured in a single day. Furthermore, UN secretary general exhorted that Israeli armed forces have infringed the children’s rights during the conflict as in 2018, 56 Palestinian children were killed by Israeli armed forces.
While, other international actors criticized the Israeli annexations of the region and declared it as violation of international humanitarian laws, US supported the Israeli escalations in West Bank. The former also stopped aid support through USAID for Gaza strip where eighty percent of population depends upon aid. Such partial attitude of US has put the country outside the international consensus on the issue. Apparently, US pretend its position as arbiter but her policies accredited the colonization of Palestine by Israel.
Thus, it seems futile to expect any big change in US policies regarding Israeli-Palestinian issue during forthcoming administrations. However, the president-elect Joe Bidden may alter some of the trump’s decisions such as reopening of Palestine Liberation Organization PLO in Washington, resuming funding of UNRWA and reopening of US consulate in East Jerusalem. But his policies will not contradict the congress’ stance on the issue. As, he and his team have clearly mentioned prior to elections that they will not shift back the US embassy to Tel Aviv as it seems politically and practically insensible to them. Moreover, Blinken, the candidate for secretary of state in Joe’s upcoming regime, made it clear through his controversial statements, that the imminent president will inherit historic US position on Palestine-Israel dispute. Further, Chinese expansionism, Russian intervention in American and European affairs and Iran nuclear deal issue would remain the main concerns of foreign affairs of US during initial period of Joe Biden’s regime. He is likely to favor the status quo in Palestine and remain focused on other foreign interests. In addition to this the inclination of Arabian Gulf to develop relations with Israel will also hinder the adherence for Palestinians from the gulf countries. Subsequently, it will enable Israelis to continue seizing the Palestinian territories into Israel and leave indigenous Palestinians stateless in their own land.
Summing up, it is significant for Palestinians to continue their struggle for the homeland and seek support from other international actors to marginalize Israel’s annexation of Palestinian territories. As well as, the peace accord of 1993 signed in between both nations, to share the holy land, should also be revoked by both countries. Both nations should try to resolve the issue on equitable grounds by negotiations so that either side could not be deprived of its interests.
An Enemy Among Us
The upcoming talks regarding the tensions in the Eastern Mediterranean, that are due to take place on January 25, should not disillusion us from the dangers of Turkey’s unilateral aggression on all fronts. Erdogan has made no real efforts to improve ties with the EU, except for the occasional vain promise of turning over a new leaf. Since October, he has urged the Muslim world to boycott French products, continued gas exploration in the Eastern Mediterranean, blatantly ignored the arms embargo in Libya and has aided Azerbaijan in committing war crimes in Nagorno-Karabakh.
Despite the numerous warnings issued by the EU and the many failed attempts at resolving the crisis in the East Med diplomatically, the latest EU summit concluded with an anti-climactic promise to sanction certain Turkish officials regarding the East Med. This minimally symbolic promise could only be described as a mere slap on the wrist that will prove unsuccessful in deterring Turkey’s belligerent tendencies. Turkey’s increasingly hostile attitude, its callous use of the refugee crisis and its clear violation of international law in the East Med, Libya, Syria and Nagorno-Karabakh represent a danger to European values, identity and security.
We are witnessing before our eyes a dictator in the making who dreams of a return of the Ottoman empire and seeks to destroy the democratic and secular legacy of Atatürk. He is a fervent supporter of political islam – particularly the muslim brotherhood – and he relentlessly accuses the West of wanting to ‘relaunch the crusades’ against Islam. In fact, since 2014, Erdogan and the National Intelligence Organization (MIT) have continuously facilitated cross-border movement into Syria and shipped illegal arms to a number of radical jihadist groups. The Turkish government also uses SADAT Defense, an islamist paramilitary group loyal to Erdogan, to aid groups that can be considered as terrorist organizations such as Sultan Murad Division and Ahrar al-Sham in Northern Syria and use their jihadi fighters to send to Libya, Nagorno-Karabakh and, most recently, Kashmir in order to bolster Turkey’s foreign policy.
Erdogan uses a mixture of islamism and nationalism to expand Turkey’s influence around the world and to consolidate power within. The two most influential factions in Turkey are the radical islamists and secular neo-nationalists, who despise each other but share a deep disdain for the west. Courtesy of neo-nationalist and former Maoist terrorist leader Dogu Perinçek, the NATO member has also enjoyed warmer ties with Russia and China over the past 5 years. As a result of these shifts in alliances and growing anti-western sentiments, Turkey is becoming increasingly at odds with the West.
Furthermore, the growing discontent at home pushes him to adopt more aggressive tactics, divisive policies and his behavior mirrors that of a panicked authoritarian leader. Erdogan is desperately looking for a conflict to distract the Turkish population from the fall of the lira, the spread and mishandling of COVID-19, and the overall declining economy that predates the pandemic. Turkey’s future will most likely be determined by the upcoming general election that is set to take place within the next three years. If Erdogan wins the next election, it will solidify his power and bring him one step closer in turning Turkey into a dictatorship. During his stay in power, he has already conducted a series of purges to weaken and silence dissidents. Turkey now has the most imprisoned journalists in the world.
Yet, the loss of Istanbul and Ankara in the last municipal election of 2019 demonstrate his declining popularity, and offer a glimmer of hope for the opposition. Political figures like the new mayor of Istanbul, Ekrem İmamoğlu, or the new mayor of Ankara, Mansur Yavaş, represent a brighter future for Turkey. Erdogan currently finds himself in a position of weakness, which represents a rare window of opportunity for the EU to strike. Unfortunately, the EU remains deeply divided on how to handle a situation that continues to deteriorate. It seems that some member states, particularly Germany, are holding on to the naive belief that Erdogan can still be reasoned with.
Our reluctance to impose the slightest sanctions against Turkey demonstrates our division and weakness, which emboldens the neo-sultan. A strong and united response from the European Union is the only way to curb Erdogan’s expansionist agenda. This should include renegotiating the migrant pact, imposing targeted sanctions against SADAT Defense and its leader Adnan Tanrıverdi, imposing an arms embargo, suspending the EU-Turkey customs union and finally suspending Turkey’s membership in NATO.
Ultimately, Erdogan’s bellicose foreign policy and his contentious nationalist-islamist rhetoric makes it impossible to consider Erdogan’s Turkey as our ally. As the EU reaches out yet another olive branch, Erdogan has his eye on the wars to come.
Is Erdogan’s Obsession with Demirtas a Personal Vendetta or a Calculated Strategy?
The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) Grand Chamber ruled that the former co-chair of the pro-Kurdish People’s Democratic Party (HDP), Selahattin Demirtaş must be immediately released. The Court ruled that his years-long detention “had pursued the ulterior purpose of stifling pluralism and limiting freedom of political debate”. Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan swiftly reacted to the ECHR’s ruling and characterized the decision as ‘hypocritical’ and accused the Court of defending a ‘terrorist.’
To many, Erdogan’s reaction to the Court’s ruling should not be a surprise,but his resentment and anger toward Demirtaş are quite shocking. So, why does Erdogan pursue a vendetta against him? Or is it a calculated political strategy? How could Demirtaş’s release affect the political landscape in Turkey? What could be the implications of releasing or not releasing him be on the US-Turkey relations during the Biden era?
Yes, the ECHR’s ruling is a significant and expected development. What is more significant is that Erdogan’s quick reaction shows his deeply rooted frustration with Demirtaş, which dates back to the pre-June 2015 elections. In March 2015,Demirtaş made a short but a spectacular speech at the Turkish Parliament when he said, “we will not make you the President.” He also said, “We are not a movement of bargaining, a party of bargaining. There has never been a dirty deal between us and the Justice and Development Party (AKP), and there will never be…” His reference to ‘dirty deal’ was believed to be an offer from the AKP to HDP in exchange for support during the general election. In the June 2015 election, HDP managed to secure the electoral threshold with 13% vote for the first time in the pro-Kurdish parties’ history. Additionally, they secured 80 seats in parliament which made them the second biggest opposition party in Turkey. This was an unprecedented victory for the pro-Kurdish party and a breakthrough in Turkish political history. It is fair to say that, based on the author’s experience, Demirtaş’s rising charisma has become a liability, not only for Erdogan but also for Ocalan, PKK’s once unquestionable leader.
Erdoğan’s hateful outburst towards the call for Demirtaş’s release is more about Erdoğan’s political self-interest and concerns than his personal vendetta. Demirtaş’s release could likely have far bigger implications on the political calculations in Turkey. They would primarily impact on the future of the People’s Alliance, the coalition between the Justice and Development Party (AK) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), where AKP focuses its efforts to maintain control over the Kurdish issue. For the AKP, having an alliance with the MHP has been beneficial so far but not without major tradeoffs. These includethe MHP’s stance against the Kurdish issue and its eroding voter support nationwide.
AKP’s strategy to maintain power partly relies on its ability to create factions within the existing political parties. The pro-Kurdish parties are no exception. Strategies include consolidating Kurdish votes around AKP or dividing them to create enough division as to not let the HDP run as one single dominant Kurdish party in the next elections.
Demirtaş’s release could pose risks for AKP’s three-fold strategy: Dominate, divide and maintain the status quo. First, by arresting MPs, local politicians, mayors, and activists, AKP aimed to paralyze and dominate the Kurdish voter base. So, preventing Demirtaş’s release could serve to kill the electoral enthusiasm at the party’s voting base and prevent unity among the Kurdish constituency. Demirtaş’s potential release could give rise to his popularity, not only among the Kurdish voters but also the left-wing secularists. Such a scenario could force the AKP towards more pro-Kurdish narratives and policies that could eventually weaken the AKP-MHP coalition.
Second, dividing and deepening fractions; and creating splinter parties would mean that the HDP could not consolidate the Kurdish constituency. Although having a smaller base, an Islamist Kurdish Free Cause Party (Hüda-Par)has supported Erdogan during the 2018 Presidential election. They are a group with alleged ties with the Kurdish Hezbollah, which has committed the atrocities in Turkey in the 1990s and early 2000s.Recently, the leader of Hüda-Par expressed his disappointment with ECHR’s ruling after he paid a visit to Erdogan in the Presidential Palace. Another example is establishing the Kurdish Democratic Party (KDP), allegedly politically in line with Barzani’s tradition, to divide HDP votes.
Third, by cutting new deals with Öcalan again, they aim to appeal to his supporters to maintain the status quo. Just like during the local elections in 2019, AKP might take another step to re-instrumentalize Öcalan despite his failed emissary role in the last Istanbul local re-run. Öcalan called for HDP’s neutrality, which meant not supporting the opposition candidate Ekrem Imamoglu. Öcalan’s message was contradicting with HDP’s former co-chair Selahattin Demirtas’s call for support for Imamoglu. Though AKP’s strategy of revitalizing Öcalan may not produce the desired outcome for AKP, it could buy some time by diverting public attention from the victimhood of Demirtaş and HDP.
While releasing Demirtas could pose challenges for the AKP and its leader Erdogan domestically, not releasing him could prove costly. As a pragmatic leader as anyone could be, to survive politically Erdogan has made several U-turns domestically and internationally. Facing an economic crisis and continuing decline in approval ratings Erdogan could, unwillingly, comply with the Court’s ruling. This could help him have a fresh start with President-elect Biden, who called Erdogan an autocrat.
Regardless of whether he would be released or not, as a political leader, Demirtaş will dominate domestic politics in Turkey and continue to be a critical actor in the region vis-à-vis the Kurdish issue.
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