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China-South Sudan Relations: From Margin to the Spotlight

David Ceasar Wani

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As China is marching up its Pac, into Africa, (Rotberg, 2008) since the new century, its relations with some, fragile states, in Africa are increasingly coming under the international attention. Given the remarkable internal weakness of those countries, an obvious spread of widespread conflicts, and that includes, lack of social integration and ineffective institution, China’s engagement not only brings risks to herself but also exercise far-reaching implications to the efforts of international community to tackle,, state fragility,, in the African continent.

Chinas South Sudan relation is right a case from the point. As the youngest nation in Africa, South Sudan gained formal independence from Sudan on July 2011 through a referendum, after more than 22 years of bloodstained civil war with the North.

Nevertheless, China established diplomatic relations with South Sudan the same day when the latter gained formal independence. As the most important bilateral relations outside Africa for South Sudan, – China-South Sudan relations witnessed both warmth and schisms in the past seven years. Though mainly constructive, this relationship also experienced difficult times as a result of different standpoints, misunderstandings and interest conflict between both sides.

China-South Sudan Relations: From Margin to the Spotlight

According to the Chinese embassy in the capital Juba, China began friendly exchange relations with Southern Sudan in the 1970s when China decided to send the first medical team of agricultural experts in order to provide assistance for the South Sudanese people. In January 2005, China was one of the eyewitnesses to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the north and the south of Sudan, which ended the 22-years of the civil war and pronounced the formation of the self-governing which is the government of South Sudan. Since then, China has started official friendly relations with South Sudan and the bilateral cooperation in numerous fields has increased progressively.

Nevertheless, the bilateral cooperation never ended there but In February 2007, Chinese President Hu Jintao made his first visit to Sudan and met in Khartoum with the First Vice President Salva Kiir Mayardit who was also President of the southern autonomous government. Then Kiir visited China twice in March 2005 and July 2007.

In September 2008, China opened the Consulate General in Juba. In February 2011, the Chinese government proclaimed its recognition of the referendum results in Southern Sudan and China was one of the world’s first countries to recognize the results. On July 9, 2011, when the Republic of South Sudan was established, China Housing and Urban-Rural Development Minister Jiang Weixin were invited as a special envoy of Hu to participate in the independence celebrations. On behalf of the Chinese government, Jiang signed the Joint Communiqué on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries with South Sudan’s Foreign Minister Deng AlorKol, meaning on the founding day of South Sudan, China established official diplomatic relations with the new country and became one of the first countries to establish such relation with South Sudan.

In addition, the government of South Sudan states in the Joint Communiqué that there is only one China in the world, which is the government of the People’s Republic of China and it’s the sole legitimate government representing China and Taiwan and it is an inalienable part of China. Correspondingly On the same day, Chinese Ambassador to South Sudan opened the embassy. From April 23 to 26 in 2012, South Sudan’s President Kiir made a state visit to China honoring the invitation of President Hu. During the visit, Hu held talks with Kiir, alongside with Other Chinese leaders, including Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Wu Bangguo, and Vice Premier, member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee Li Keqiang respectively.

In conclusions, China-South Sudan relations represent a typical unequal relationship, which is structured by an outstanding capacity asymmetry between two sides. Capacity differences between China and South Sudan predetermine their respective perspectives towards each other, laying in mutual misperception and interest conflicts in their last interaction. What’s more, capacity asymmetry is a structural factor in china-south Sudan relationship, meaning that it cannot be overcome by the chosen action of the two countries. As intensely demonstrated by the evaluation of both China-South Sudan relationships the efforts of both sides to manage their unequal relationship only served to prevent a total breakdown of the relationship. In the foreseeable future, China-South Sudan relationship will continue to be structured by capacity asymmetry and plagued by resulting different perspectives, misunderstanding and interest conflict. Consequently how to properly manage their asymmetrical relationship will continue to be an important task for both China and South Sudan. On the one hand, China should continue to devote equal attention and resources to the needs of South Sudan, It’s also in China’s interest to actively mediate South Sudan disputes and South Sudan’s peace process, either individually or coordinately with other regional or international actors. On the other hand, Juba should continue to pursue its strategy to buffer its relationship with Beijing. To make this strategy more effective, however, Juba needs to improve the security on the ground as well as its human rights record, both of which can hardly be achieved in the future.

Furthermore, both Beijing and Juba should be more sensitive to the asymmetry nature of their bilateral relations. Both sides should be more sensitive to the perspective from the other side. Beijing should understand the fact that Juba is more exposed to the bilateral relationship between them and Juba’s high expectation on, it is reasonably comprehensible since this bilateral relationship weights more to Juba. In dissimilarity, Juba should be vibrant that its relationship with Beijing is not a priority for the batter and any idealistic demands will be turned back by Beijing. For Juba, how to manage its expectation on Beijing will be a delicate issue in the years to come, but basing on the legacy records between the both countries China and South Sudan will remain stable in only one condition which is enhancement of both bilateral ties and that should lay on mutual respect, mutual benefit and mutual understanding.

DAVID CEASAR WANI, South Sudanese with a master’s degree in International Relations from Jilin University China, and correspondingly graduated with honors from Cavendish University Uganda with bachelor degree in international relations and diplomatic studies. Diplomat, scholar, currently working with a company as Director of Administration.

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Africa

Ethiopia and Russia Need to Catch Up

Kester Kenn Klomegah

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“There is a need to catch up. We agreed to hold meetings regularly,” Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said at a media conference after diplomatic talks with his counterpart, Gedu Andargachew in Moscow. According to official reports, Lavrov and Andargachew held wide-ranging talks that were constructive and substantive, and focused on broadening cooperation between Russia and Ethiopia.

Ethiopia is one of Russia’s main partners in Africa. Both countries are tied by years of solidarity with the African countries in their fight for independence and decolonization. The creation of the African Union headquartered in the capital of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, was the culmination of the decolonization processes in Africa.

Throughout their partnership, they have gained extensive experience in mutually beneficial cooperation that meets the interests of both countries in various areas. As a result, Lavrov said they both agreed to stimulate the work of the joint economic commission and to encourage it to implement joint investment projects across a variety of fields, including energy, such as hydrocarbon energy, hydroelectric energy and nuclear energy.

They further noted the importance and interest of companies such as Rosatom, Inter RAO, GPB Global Resources, Russian Railways, KAMAZ and UAZ in working in Ethiopia.

There is a potential for cooperation between Russia and Ethiopia in science and education. Russia pledged to support biological research under the Joint Russian-Ethiopian Biological Expedition, which has been operating there for more 30 years.

Many Ethiopian students study at Russian universities, including civilian universities and those operated by the Defence Ministry and the Interior Ministry. Russia will expand this practice. And at the request from the Ethiopian government, Moscow will conduct two specialized courses for Ethiopian diplomats at the Foreign Ministry’s Diplomatic Academy next year.

With regard to other promising areas of interaction, which has a rich history, include military-technical and military cooperation. Ethiopian Minister of National Defence, Aisha Mussa, took part in the talks as part of the delegation. Discussions here was about agreeing on additional regulatory documents which will allow more effectively to promote cooperation in supplying military equipment and in other areas.

Lavrov and Andargachew exchanged views on regional and global questions. “We are on the same page on most issues, consistently advocate for strengthening fair and democratic principles of international relations, and searching for collective answers to large-scale challenges and threats, and respecting the right of each nation to independently determine its future,” top Russian diplomat said.

With regard to the African countries and the African continent, Lavrov and Andargachew strongly support the idea that Africans should have the decisive role in deciding on the paths to resolve African problems. There is no alternative to resolving these crises, or crises in any other part of the world, through peaceful political means, while relying on an inclusive national dialogue. The situation in Africa and the goals that need to be vigorously addressed in order to overcome several crises and conflicts, primarily, on the Horn of Africa, South Sudan and Somalia. 

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Africans Must Focus on What Unites Them Not What Separates Them

MD Staff

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The majority of South Africans are appalled at the attacks on African migrants and refugees in the country by South Africans, said its Finance Minister Tito Mboweni at the opening plenary of the World Economic Forum on Africa.

“We welcome all Africans who have come to this conference; we welcome all Africans who live in South Africa. We are all Africans. We need to tell our people that what they are doing is wrong. These artificial barriers we have created and the hatred among ourselves must really become a thing of the past,” he said.

Responding to a question about the African Continental Free Trade Area, Mboweni said if Africa wants the free movement of goods, it also needs to ensure the free movement of people. “If free movement is supposed to happen, one cannot be in a position where you allow this person and not the other.”

Mboweni was standing in for Cyril Ramaphosa, President of South Africa, who was at Parliament to address protestors demanding action from the government on violence against women. Elsie Kanza, Head of Africa at the World Economic Forum, said that addressing systemic violence against women is a top priority for the meeting and she urged all leaders to act against the problem.

Amina Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations, said leaders at all levels, not just at the political level, must “dig deep to bring back social cohesion. We need to look at what binds us and not what separates us.”

Speaking on the issue of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, Mohammed said that, while advances in technology are exciting, “the picture has shadows as well as light.”

Mohammed said technology is moving faster than the world’s ability to manage its impact and it is adding to the uncertainty of a world already unsettled by challenges such as climate change. “If governments cannot proactively manage the impacts, it will make our growth less inclusive with severe security implications.” Partnerships will be critical in addressing the challenges emerging from this new world.

Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, said the rapid pace of technology requires renewed frameworks for cooperation to be developed to deliver an inclusive and sustainable future for Africa.

“Africa cannot afford to be left behind. The Fourth Industrial Revolution can solve many of the issues that came with the first, second and third industrial revolutions. It is a catalyst for Africa to leapfrog into the 21st century,” said Schwab.

Cyril M. Ramaphosa, President of South Africa, in remarks read on his behalf by Mboweni, said Africa, along with the rest of the world, is dealing with the same question: how to harness the potential of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in pursuit of development and economic growth. “And importantly, how to ensure that, as we take this quantum leap into the future, we do not leave society’s most marginalized behind.”

“Disruptive trends and technologies are changing the way we live, the way we work and do business, and the way we govern. We must respond with agility to craft a roadmap for navigating this new environment. We must ensure that our citizens are prepared, and, if necessary, that they are shielded from any adverse consequences. Our response must be collaborative, multisectoral and inclusive,” said Ramaphosa.

Ramaphosa said South Africa is not only working with its neighbours to develop a continental strategy led by the African Telecommunications Union, but it has also established a Presidential Commission on the Fourth Industrial Revolution to position the country as a competitive global player in this new space.

Three new Forum initiatives were also announced at the plenary session: platforms dealing with youth and employment, risk resilience and e-commerce.

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Youth and Women Key to Making This Africa’s Century

MD Staff

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Africa can achieve a step change in economic growth by addressing shortfalls in governance, reducing barriers to trade and – crucially – embracing the potential of its youth and women, heads of state from across the continent told the World Economic Forum on Africa today.

“We have the wherewithal to be able to reach for higher levels of growth,” said Cyril Ramaphosa, President of South Africa. “The future is great. It looks very bright for the African continent. If there ever was a time when Africa definitely could be said to be on the rise, this is the time.”

Optimism about intra-African trade is on the rise following the creation of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), which includes nearly every country on the continent.

However, Botswana’s President Mokgweetsi Eric Keabetswe Masisi warned that leaders must now focus on the practicalities of easing cross-border commerce. “We need to remove all the barriers and put in the enablers to facilitate free trade, beginning in our neighbourhood,” he said.

If countries deliver on this, Ramaphosa said, AfCFTA could be “the greatest opportunity for economies on the continent to generate growth through trade.”

In a world where Europe faces shrinking workforces due to ageing and much of Asia soon will, Africa’s fast-growing population also offers a “demographic dividend” to drive future growth. Crowds of young Africans represent a huge resource to man the factories and service industries of the future, as well as a big potential market.
But that demographic dividend will only pay out if the young can find jobs – and that, in turn, will depend on skilling up the young.
“We need a rebirth of education for the 21st century,” said Amina Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations.
At the same time, women must be brought into the fold to a much greater extent, requiring a root-and-branch fight against gender discrimination. This must include opening up previously restricted areas of education such as science to women, said Ethiopian President Sahlework Zewde.
“The important thing is to invest in our young people … and empower women,” said Mandulo Ambrose Dlamini, Prime Minister of Eswatini, formerly known as Swaziland. “I learnt that if you include women in leadership in your team, the level of intelligence increases.”
Hopes for Africa’s economy have been raised before. The continent enjoyed boom times prior to the financial crash of 2008, thanks to a commodities “super cycle” that saw sustained high prices for its raw materials. But prices for Africa’s minerals are well down on those heady days, while few countries have yet to escape the extractive model by managing to add value to their commodities. Now, however, there is a growing determination to achieve this, with Zimbabwe’s President Emmerson Mnangagwa and Namibia’s President Hage Geingob both calling for value to be added to their country’s minerals before they are exported.

“The problem of investors or foreigners who come to Africa is that they come on their own terms. From now on, Africa must tell investors when they come, they come on our terms,” said Geingob. “Why should my diamonds go out in raw form?”

Mnangagwa, who said he is striving to rebuild Zimbabwe’s “collapsed economy”, said it is vital to understand the needs of the private sector for investment in technology that could add value locally.

The over-arching requirement is for African countries to reassure their own populations and investors that they can offer a framework for stable growth, said Seychelles President Danny Faure. “We need to deepen the reform that we are doing to better reflect the need for Africa have what is necessary in terms of good governance, transparency, accountability and the rule of law,” he said.

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