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Advancing South–South Learning in Asia to Tackle Development Challenges

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Asian countries have a vital role to play in advancing South–South cooperation and much to gain from closer interaction. Links across the global south in trade, finance, and technology are not only getting stronger but expanding into new areas. Foremost among these is sharing knowledge and know-how on development to tackle the newer challenges facing the region, such as climate change and finding new sources of growth.

The latest thinking on intensifying South–South cooperation from Asia’s perspective, particularly for knowledge sharing, was presented at an international conference on Advancing South–South Learning in Asia in Seoul on 4 July. The event was organized by the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Independent Evaluation Department, the Korea Development Institute (KDI), the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, and The Asia Foundation.

“Strengthening South–South cooperation, especially on sharing knowledge and assistance, will be essential for tackling the broad and demanding 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,” said ADB Independent Evaluation Director General Mr. Marvin Taylor-Dormond.

“Poverty is widespread in the global south and this resonates strongly in Asia where eradicating extreme poverty remains a very significant unfinished development agenda, despite the region’s extraordinary economic success over the past three decades,” said Mr. Taylor-Dormond.

KDI Vice President Mr. Youngjae Lim said 21st century development cooperation has changed dramatically due to the growth of South–South cooperation.

“New patterns of economic partnership and development cooperation among southern countries have emerged,” said Mr. Lim. “Cooperation based on mutually beneficial trade, aid, diplomacy, or strategic partnerships between and among countries at similar stages of development exist, and Asia has become both a generator of development resources and an incubator for new ideas and practices.”

Even though links are getting stronger, the visibility of South–South cooperation needs to be raised to bring greater awareness of its value and impact on development, and to promote a stronger South–South voice in global decision-making. Strengthening this cooperation will provide a platform to bring countries together to share work on common development challenges.

Having the private sector as an enthusiastic partner in deepening South–South cooperation will help policymakers understand new and more efficient ways of carrying out their economic and development plans. The conference examined how South–South cooperation can be used by Asian countries to share best practices for growing their private sectors and to make it easier for entrepreneurship to flourish.

The Republic of Korea is increasingly seen as an Asian leader in knowledge sharing for the region and beyond given its strong economic and development performance in recent decades.

“Korea, as one of the few countries that has rapidly transitioned from aid recipient to donor country, aspires to serve as a bridge between North–South cooperation,” said Mr. Lim.

A senior Ministry of Strategy and Finance official likened success factors in knowledge sharing to the Republic of Korea’s win against Germany in the World Cup: “I pondered how the lessons from this match can be applied to knowledge sharing,” said the Director General of the ministry’s International Economic Affairs Bureau Mr. Byong Yol Woo. “The Korean national team recruited top coaches from Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, and other top-tier countries to learn their skills and strategies.”

Development banks working in the global south, including ADB, the African Development Bank, and the World Bank, have a big contribution to make in advancing South–South learning and cooperation, as they expand their role as lenders for development to the knowledge frontier. These institutions have accumulated a wealth of knowledge on development—what works, what doesn’t, and why—and are continuously creating new learning from evaluations of their projects and programs.

“Capturing knowledge that is often hidden and hard to express conventionally—so-called tact knowledge—is important in the transfer of learning and in ensuring that lessons from elsewhere add value to our operations,” said ADB Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department Director General Mr. Woochong Um. “We also need to be innovative in the way we capture and disseminate knowledge through IT technology and social media.”

An aim of the Seoul conference was to seek an effective approach among organizations and sectors working on South–South cooperation to strengthen partnerships and networks to accelerate this process. Middle-income countries in the global south and beyond, as emerging donors and technical cooperation providers, can be game-changers in this effort.

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Israel gives Ukraine intelligence. “The best thing” that could have happened to Israel-NATO relations?

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NATO sources tell ‘Haaretz’ some of the intel is on the Iranian drones in Ukraine, writes Yossi Melman at Israeli newspaper.

Israel has stepped up its intelligence assistance to Ukraine in recent weeks via NATO, sources in Brussels told ‘Haaretz’, with Jerusalem remaining keen to keep its aid to the embattled country indirect.

“Iran’s decision to supply drones and increase its military cooperation with Russia is a strategic mistake by Tehran and the best thing that could have happened to Israel-NATO relations,” an Israeli defense source told ‘Haaretz’.

Only a month and a half ago, Defense Minister Benny Gantz and the chief of staff of the Israel Defense Forces, Aviv Kochavi, turned down a proposal by Ukraine’s defense minister to share information on the Iranian drones being shot down over his country. These details would have come in return for the passing on of Israeli intelligence. Israel feared that Russia might respond by hampering the Israel Air Force’s freedom in Syria’s skies, as Iran tries to deepen its presence against Israel to the north.

But American pressure and the stepped-up Iranian aid to Russia have convinced Israel to abandon its policy of apathy.

Last month, senior European officials told ‘Haaretz’ that under American pressure, Israel agreed to underwrite the purchase of millions of dollars of “strategic materials” for Ukraine. The materials were transferred via a NATO country, and Israel agreed to let NATO countries transfer to Ukraine weapons including electro-optical and fire-control systems made by Israeli firms.

Over several years, the Mossad, Military Intelligence, the IAF and the navy have built up a database on Iran’s drones. If Brussels gains access to this data, Ukraine and NATO countries will benefit, as will other states such as the United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Japan and Australia.

In 1994, Israel signed an agreement granting it status as a NATO “partner.” This lets it appoint an ambassador and a military attaché, and take part in the alliance’s air and sea exercises in the Baltic states, Montenegro and the Indian Ocean.

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Berlin doesn’t trust Washington. Scholz doesn’t trust the U.S.

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Image source: twitter @Bundeskanzler

“If the U.S. is involved directly it’s more likely to use military force to defend its allies in Europe,” Carlo Masala, a German military expert with strong ties to the country’s political establishment, said on German public television. “That’s a very strong rationale for Scholz and why he insists that the U.S. is involved,” quotes POLITICO.

The breakthrough on sending Western-made battle tanks to Ukraine sparked hopes in both Washington and Europe that the tortured transatlantic debate over arming the country had been resolved once and for all. But… Just hours after German Chancellor Olaf Scholz cleared the way for the export of German-made tanks to the country, the focus shifted to the who, what, where and when of supplying fighter jets to Ukraine.

Once again, Scholz was the first to slam on the brakes, repeatedly warning in recent days of the dangers of “escalation,” while insisting that NATO would not become directly involved in the conflict. If you feel like you’ve seen this movie before, join the club.

It turns out that an even bigger fear for Scholz than escalation is that NATO, and in particular the U.S., wouldn’t get involved if Russia were to retaliate against, say Germany. That worry — according to an adviser to the German government — is the reason that Scholz insisted that Washington agree to supply Ukraine with M1 Abrams tanks before the chancellor would lift his veto on delivering German-made Leopard 2 tanks.

While the NATO treaty’s Article 5 calls on alliance members to support one another in the event of an attack, it doesn’t require allies to respond with military force. In other words, Scholz doesn’t trust the U.S.

Given that Washington has about 40,000 troops in Germany and has already committed roughly $30 billion in military aid to Ukraine (more than 10 times the German total), one might reasonably question the logic underlying Scholz’s argument.

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How an American ‘Mozart Group’ imploded in Ukraine

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The Mozart Group, one of the most prominent, private American military organizations in Ukraine, has collapsed under a cloud of accusations ranging from financial improprieties to alcohol-addled misjudgments, writes Jeffrey Gettleman at ‘The New York Times’.

Its struggles provide a revealing window into the world of foreign volunteer groups that have flocked to Ukraine with noble intentions only to be tripped up by the stresses of managing a complicated enterprise in a war zone. The Mozart Group was training Ukrainian soldiers and evacuating frontline residents until the money ran out. Its collapse sheds light on the stresses faced by such groups.

Jeffrey Gettleman writes: “Andrew Milburn, a former American Marine colonel and leader of the Mozart Group, stood in a chilly meeting room on the second floor of an apartment building in Kyiv about to deliver some bad news. In front of him sat half a dozen men who had traveled to Ukraine on their own dime to work for him.

“Guys, I’m gutted,” he said. “The Mozart Group is dead.”

The men stared back at him with blank faces.

One asked as he walked toward the door, “What should I do with my helmet?”

“I’ve seen this happen many times,” said one of Mozart’s veteran trainers, who, like many others, spoke only anonymously out of concerns that the Russians might target him. “You got to run these groups like a business. We didn’t do that.”

Hundreds if not thousands of foreign veterans and volunteers have passed through Ukraine. Many of them, like Mr. Milburn and his group, are hard-living men who have spent their adult lives steeped in violence, solo fliers trying to work together in a very dangerous environment without a lot of structure or rules.”

“After months struggling to hold itself together, Mozart was plagued by defections, infighting, a break-in at its office headquarters and a lawsuit filed by the company’s chief financial officer, Andrew Bain, seeking the ouster of Mr. Milburn.

The lawsuit, filed in Wyoming, where Mozart is registered as a limited liability company, is a litany of petty and serious allegations, accusing Mr. Milburn among other things of making derogatory comments about Ukraine’s leadership while “significantly intoxicated,” letting his dog urinate in a borrowed apartment and “diverting company funds” and other financial malfeasance.

When Mr. Milburn showed up in Ukraine in early March last year, the capital, Kyiv, was seemingly on the precipice. Russian forces were blasting their way in from the suburbs and Ukraine was rushing thousands of inexperienced soldiers to the front.

That’s when, through a mutual friend, Mr. Milburn, 59, met Mr. Bain, 58. Also a former Marine colonel, Mr. Bain had been working in media and marketing in Ukraine for more than 30 years. Mr. Milburn, whose career has tracked America’s wars of the past three decades, from Somalia to Iraq, had both the combat experience and the contacts. He counts Marine heavyweights like the author Bing West and a former defense secretary, Gen. James Mattis, as friends.

Mr. Bain had the organization. For eight years, since Russia invaded eastern Ukraine in 2014, he had been running the Ukrainian Freedom Fund, a charity he set up that turned donations into desperately needed gear for the Ukrainian military.

The two founded Mozart, the name a saucy response to the Russian mercenary force that uses the name of another famous composer, the Wagner Group. They also ran a short-lived podcast called “Two Marines in Kyiv.”

With the Ukrainian military desperate for all the Western support it could get, Mozart quickly expanded from a handful of combat vets to more than 50 employees from a dozen countries. The group’s two specialties became last-chance extractions of civilians trapped on the front lines, which was extremely dangerous work, and condensed military training.

As spring passed to summer, more Ukrainian military units asked Mozart for training. But the Ukrainians could not pay for it, leaving Mozart reliant on a small pool of steady donors, including a group of East Coast financiers with Jewish-Ukrainian roots and a Texas tycoon.

Everyone involved said it became stressful just making payroll. And several employees said that the way the money flowed into the organization, which was overseen by Mr. Bain, was opaque.

On top of that, the people Mozart hired were not the easiest to manage. Many were grizzled combat vets who admitted to struggling with PTSD and heavy drinking. When they weren’t working, they gravitated to Kyiv’s strip clubs, bars and online dating. “There was a lot of cursing, a lot of womanizing, a lot of things you wouldn’t want to take to mass,” said another trainer, Rob.

In September, they lost an important funding stream when a charity called Allied Extract decided to use less expensive Ukrainian teams to rescue civilians.  

Not long after that, a clip of Mr. Milburn disparaging Ukraine’s leadership circulated widely on social media. “I happen to have a Ukraine flag tied to my bag, but I’m not, ‘Oh my God, Ukraine is so awesome,’” he said. “I understand that there are plenty of screwed-up people running Ukraine.” The clip was taken from The Team House podcast, in which guests are invited into a living room setting to drink hard liquor with the hosts.

Mr. Milburn has rented a new office in Kyiv and says he is determined to resurrect the operation. But he’s not going back to the front anytime soon.

Wearing a gray sweatshirt, black sweatpants and running shoes, he spent hours this week in front of his laptop. He’s scouting out new business, such as training courses for hostile environments. He’s writing emails to donors.”

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