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Advancing South–South Learning in Asia to Tackle Development Challenges

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Asian countries have a vital role to play in advancing South–South cooperation and much to gain from closer interaction. Links across the global south in trade, finance, and technology are not only getting stronger but expanding into new areas. Foremost among these is sharing knowledge and know-how on development to tackle the newer challenges facing the region, such as climate change and finding new sources of growth.

The latest thinking on intensifying South–South cooperation from Asia’s perspective, particularly for knowledge sharing, was presented at an international conference on Advancing South–South Learning in Asia in Seoul on 4 July. The event was organized by the Asian Development Bank’s (ADB) Independent Evaluation Department, the Korea Development Institute (KDI), the International Initiative for Impact Evaluation, and The Asia Foundation.

“Strengthening South–South cooperation, especially on sharing knowledge and assistance, will be essential for tackling the broad and demanding 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development,” said ADB Independent Evaluation Director General Mr. Marvin Taylor-Dormond.

“Poverty is widespread in the global south and this resonates strongly in Asia where eradicating extreme poverty remains a very significant unfinished development agenda, despite the region’s extraordinary economic success over the past three decades,” said Mr. Taylor-Dormond.

KDI Vice President Mr. Youngjae Lim said 21st century development cooperation has changed dramatically due to the growth of South–South cooperation.

“New patterns of economic partnership and development cooperation among southern countries have emerged,” said Mr. Lim. “Cooperation based on mutually beneficial trade, aid, diplomacy, or strategic partnerships between and among countries at similar stages of development exist, and Asia has become both a generator of development resources and an incubator for new ideas and practices.”

Even though links are getting stronger, the visibility of South–South cooperation needs to be raised to bring greater awareness of its value and impact on development, and to promote a stronger South–South voice in global decision-making. Strengthening this cooperation will provide a platform to bring countries together to share work on common development challenges.

Having the private sector as an enthusiastic partner in deepening South–South cooperation will help policymakers understand new and more efficient ways of carrying out their economic and development plans. The conference examined how South–South cooperation can be used by Asian countries to share best practices for growing their private sectors and to make it easier for entrepreneurship to flourish.

The Republic of Korea is increasingly seen as an Asian leader in knowledge sharing for the region and beyond given its strong economic and development performance in recent decades.

“Korea, as one of the few countries that has rapidly transitioned from aid recipient to donor country, aspires to serve as a bridge between North–South cooperation,” said Mr. Lim.

A senior Ministry of Strategy and Finance official likened success factors in knowledge sharing to the Republic of Korea’s win against Germany in the World Cup: “I pondered how the lessons from this match can be applied to knowledge sharing,” said the Director General of the ministry’s International Economic Affairs Bureau Mr. Byong Yol Woo. “The Korean national team recruited top coaches from Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, and other top-tier countries to learn their skills and strategies.”

Development banks working in the global south, including ADB, the African Development Bank, and the World Bank, have a big contribution to make in advancing South–South learning and cooperation, as they expand their role as lenders for development to the knowledge frontier. These institutions have accumulated a wealth of knowledge on development—what works, what doesn’t, and why—and are continuously creating new learning from evaluations of their projects and programs.

“Capturing knowledge that is often hidden and hard to express conventionally—so-called tact knowledge—is important in the transfer of learning and in ensuring that lessons from elsewhere add value to our operations,” said ADB Sustainable Development and Climate Change Department Director General Mr. Woochong Um. “We also need to be innovative in the way we capture and disseminate knowledge through IT technology and social media.”

An aim of the Seoul conference was to seek an effective approach among organizations and sectors working on South–South cooperation to strengthen partnerships and networks to accelerate this process. Middle-income countries in the global south and beyond, as emerging donors and technical cooperation providers, can be game-changers in this effort.

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EU Politics

Agreement on linking the emissions trading systems of the EU and Switzerland

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As ministers gather at the COP25 in Madrid to discuss the rules for international carbon markets, the EU and Switzerland finalised the process that allows for the link of their emissions trading systems to enter into force. As of 2020 allowances from both systems can be used for compliance to compensate for emissions occurring in either system. The Linking Agreement between the EU and Switzerland is the first of its kind, and demonstrates that emissions trading systems can pave the way to broader international carbon markets.

Executive Vice-President Frans Timmermans said: “The Linking Agreement between the EU and Switzerland, which also covers the aviation sector, sends a strong signal that we can create broader and more comprehensive carbon markets with benefits to our climate and environment.”

There are significant benefits to linking carbon markets. By expanding the market and increasing the availability of emission reduction opportunities, the cost-effectiveness of the linked systems can be increased and their liquidity enhanced, thus resulting in better burden sharing, more efficient emissions reductions, and decreased overall compliance costs. The European Green Deal will strongly support these principles, underlining that with linked carbon markets we can bring carbon prices in different countries closer together, which in turn may reduce carbon leakage risks. Linking also strengthens cooperation between parties with binding targets and encourages others to take action, as well as to support global cooperation on climate change and the development of a global carbon market.

Background

The EU ETS Directive allows for linking, provided both systems are compatible, mandatory and have an absolute emission caps. These conditions for linking have been laid down in the Annexes to the Linking Agreement and will ensure that both parties meet these requirements.

Negotiations on the Linking Agreement between the EU and Switzerland started in 2011. The linking agreement was signed at the end of 2017 and will enter into force on 1 January 2020.

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Environment

Are Nature Based Solutions the key to Africa’s climate response?

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While the UN climate talks are celebrating their 25th year, carbon emissions around the world have continued to climb. For many, that is where natural solutions could play a key role in managing a dramatic climate transition.

Nature-based solutions or the process of working with and around natural ecosystems to deliver real-world benefits for climate resilience and sustainable development, took center stage on day 4 of COP25 in Madrid).

The African Development Bank has three main approaches to nature-based solutions; namely, restoring damaged ecosystems (land, forests and water bodies), conserving biodiversity, and integrated natural resources management.

Vanessa Ushie, Manager of the Policy Analysis Division at the Bank’s African Natural Resource Centre, briefed delegates at COP 25 about the Centre’s work during a panel discussion on Tuesday.

“Nature-based solutions are easy to use, and very effective in improving community livelihoods and resilience to climate change. The AfDB is scaling up the use of nature-based solutions to address climate impacts on critical ecosystems and biodiversity in Africa,” Ushie said.

UN biodiversity expert Valerie Kapos described a range of natural solutions being implemented across Africa, and around the world. These included protecting rivers, forests, and marine solutions, to benefit local economies.

“We need to be applying that argument to whichever solutions we are choosing,” said Kapos, Head of Climate Change and Biodiversity at the UN Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC).

This is definitely true for the Seychelles, which has been appointed by the African Union to be the champion of the blue or ocean economy across the continent. While the continent is known for its deserts and jungles, a blue economic transition will be essential for the 48 coastal states that collectively make up the world’s longest coastline.

“We have protected 47% of our land, and are moving toward 50%. But our ocean territory is 3,000 times bigger than our land territory, and we are on track to protect 30% of that area,” said Ronald Jumeau, Permanent Representative of the Seychelles at the UN.

This was made possible by one of the world’s biggest debt-swap programs. The debt-for-nature deal was made possible through The Nature Conservancy, which bought the island nation’s $400 million sovereign debt at a discount. That money will be re-invested in nature conservation programmes.

“Through this program we have funded mangrove restoration and climate education programmes,” said Angelique Pouponneau, who runs a Seychelles-based trust fund focusing on climate adaptation and conservation.

Ushie from the African Development Bank pointed out that “one thing we are looking at is changing the way in which lending is being channeled to Africa, and how nature can be integrated in the measurement of national wealth and sovereign credit ratings for African countries.”

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EU Politics

Aviation Safety: EU Commission adopts new EU Air Safety List

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The European Commission today updated the EU Air Safety List, the list of airlines that do not meet international safety standards, and are therefore subject to an operating ban or operational restrictions within the European Union. The EU Air Safety List seeks to ensure the highest level of air safety for Europeans and all other passengers travelling in the European Union.

There is positive news for Gabon as all airlines certified in Gabon have been released from the list following improvements to the aviation safety situation in that country. However, the Armenian Civil Aviation Committee has been put under heightened scrutiny because of signs of a decrease in safety oversight.

Commissioner for Transport Adina Vălean said: “Today’s decision illustrates our continuous efforts to offer the highest level of safety. Not only to European travellers, but to travellers worldwide, because aviation safety knows no border or nationalities. I am pleased to announce that the European Commission was able today to clear all Gabonese air carriers from the EU Air Safety List. Gabon was on the List already since 2008, so it is very good that we can recognise the efforts the aviation safety authorities in Gabon have made.”

The EU Air Safety List not only helps to maintain high levels of safety in the EU, but also helps affected airlines and countries to improve their levels of safety, in order for them to eventually be taken off the list. In addition, the EU Air Safety List has become a major preventive tool, as it motivates countries with safety problems to act upon them before a ban under the EU Air Safety List would become necessary.

Following today’s update, a total of 115 airlines are banned from EU skies:

  • 109 airlines certified in 15 states, due to a lack of safety oversight by the aviation authorities from these states;
  • Six individual airlines, based on safety concerns with regard to these airlines themselves: Avior Airlines (Venezuela), Iran Aseman Airlines (Iran), Iraqi Airways (Iraq), Blue Wing Airlines (Suriname), Med-View Airlines (Nigeria) and Air Zimbabwe (Zimbabwe).

An additional three airlines are subject to operational restrictions and can only fly to the EU with specific aircraft types: Air Koryo (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea), Air Service Comores (the Comoros) and Iran Air (Iran).

Background information

Today’s update of the Air Safety List is based on the unanimous opinion of the aviation safety experts from the Member States who met from 20 to 21 November 2019 under the auspices of the EU Air Safety Committee (ASC). This Committee is chaired by the European Commission with the support of the European Union Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). The update equally got the support from the European Parliament’s Transport Committee. Assessment is made against international safety standards, and notably the standards promulgated by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

The Commission is constantly looking at ways to improve aviation safety, notably through collaborative efforts with aviation authorities worldwide to raise global safety standards. With this in mind, the Commission, through EASA, will implement two cooperation projects in the course of 2020 to assist Angola and Mozambique to further improve their safety oversight systems.

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