During the Iranian Nuclear crisis, three presidents ruled Iran. Ayatollah Khamenei was Iran’s Supreme Leader during the aforementioned period, and one can argue that the Supreme Leader is the main political figure in Iran. The Supreme Leader can decide and change Iran’s foreign policy, but as we have concluded in this research, there were several differences and similarities between the presidencies of Khatami, Ahmadinejad and Rouhani regarding China and Russia’s roles in the Iranian nuclear issue. These differences indicate that the presidents of Iran are important players who can alter existing policies or try to implement their own vision for Iranian foreign policy.
Here is the following question arises:
What type of policy did Khatami’s, Ahmadinejad’s and Rouhani’s teams adopt regarding how to involve China and Russia in solving the Iranian nuclear issue?
During the presidency of Khatami (1997-2005), Iran was mainly negotiating with the EU3 on its nuclear issue. Khatami could not negotiate directly with the US because of the Supreme Leader’s veto. Although Khatami’s team tried to keep negotiations with the EU3 as its main avenue of diplomacy, they also pursued high-level consultations and negotiations with China and Russia so that if Iran failed to reach a final agreement with the EU3, Iran could at least get support from China and Russia, which are permanent members of the UNSC.
In his book on Iranian nuclear issue, Hassan Rouhani wrote, that that during Khatami’s presidency, Iranians were mostly negotiating with EU3 but also made trips to Moscow and Beijing and tried to find common language with China and Russia. He mentioned that the main strategy was to maintain Chinese and Russian sympathy towards Iran so that if the Iranians failed during their negotiations with EU3, they would not be left isolated
In sum, with the support of the EU3, Russia and China Khatami could stop the US initiative to take the Iranian nuclear case to the UNSC.
Under Ahmadinejad’s watch (2005-2013), Iran tried to increase the role of China, Russia and NAM states in the Iranian nuclear issue and weaken the role of the West.
Although, Ahmadinejad, in contrast with Khatami, received approval from the Supreme Leader of Iran to negotiate with the US as well.
As Iran continued its nuclear program with violations and without implementing required IAEA resolutions on the Iranian nuclear issue, China and Russia also agreed on a US proposal to bring Iran’s nuclear program to the UNSC. China and Russia were disappointed in Iran when the US provided information about the Fordow nuclear facility, about which Iran had not informed the IAEA, China and Russia.
Though China and Russia could have limited several heavy sanctions on Iran during the negotiations and deterred the US and Israel from military action against Iran, they ultimately voted for all UNSC resolutions on Iran as they are responsible powers and could not permit the further development of Iran’s nuclear program, which the IAEA could not confirm as peaceful in intent. It is important to mention that China and Russia never put unilateral sanctions on Iran like the US and the EU. Moreover, Moscow and Beijing condemned unilateral sanctions as illegal. During the presidency of Ahmadinejad, not only the West but also China and Russia lost their confidence in the Iranian government. On one hand, Ahmadinejad’s diplomats in Beijing and Moscow attempted to convince China and Russia that Iran’s nuclear programme was peaceful and that they were cooperating with the IAEA, but Iran was building secret nuclear facilities without informing its partners. As a result, under Ahmadinejad’s watch, Iran faced heavy pressure from both the West and the East. Sanctions destabilized and contracted the Iranian economy.
Hassan Rouhani criticized Ahmadinejad’s policy by mentioning that his team proclaimed that that they would solve the problem with the East. However, Rouhani advised them at first to find out the viewpoints of Moscow and Beijing. He added that after conducting long-term negotiations with China and Russia, he learned that these powers also believed that without the EU, it was not possible to solve the Iranian nuclear issue. When he was elected as Iran’s President, in a very short time period, he had broken the standstill and concluded the Joint comprehensive plan of actions(JCPOA) with the P5+1. It is worth mentioning that during Khatami’s presidency, Rouhani was Iran’s main negotiator with the EU3 on the Iranian nuclear issue. Under Khatami’s watch, Rouhani concluded the Paris agreement with the EU3, but Iran’s Supreme Leader did not accept this outcome. Now, Rouhani is the President of Iran and has more power as well as the support of Iranians as a democratically elected President, which provides him the opportunity to make the JCPOA possible.
I do believe, that in the era of the US withdrawal from the JCPOA, Iran still needs China and Russia as the main guarantors of a peaceful solution to the Iranian nuclear issue. Iran could also try to maintain the balance between the East and the West by increasing the role of China and Russia.
It is worth mentioning that Iranians attempted to derive benefits from Sino-Russian cooperation in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). In this regard, Hassan Rouhani said, “We knew that if we could turn Russia to our side, China would also stand next to us.” In turn, Iranian scholar Nasser Saghafi-Ameri also sees cooperation with Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an opportunity for Iran to strengthen its ties with Russia and China
Nowadays Russia, China and Iran have some common interests in the Middle East. For instance, they have attempted to stabilize situation in Syria. They are against the US support for regime change in Damascus; Russia, China and Iran understand those types of developments would shift Syria into the Western camp or lead it into chaos, which would limit the abilities of Russia, China and Iran to manoeuvre in the Middle East. From Moscow’s and Beijing’s perspectives, “no problems in the Middle East will eliminate US interference in regional affairs”.
Justice delayed is justice denied. I lost my family to Iran Regime’s barbarity
On May 4, over 1,100 families of the victims of the 1988 massacre in Iran wrote a letter to the international community. We called on the United Nations and European and American governments to take immediate action in preventing the regime from further destruction of their loved ones’ graves.
I was one of the signatories. I have lost six of my relatives to the regime’s cruelty. I was seven years old when my parents were arrested for their democratic ideals and activism.
My father, Dr. Morteza Shafaei, was a well-respected and popular physician in Isfahan. He was admired by people because he was extremely compassionate and giving to others. He was brutally executed by the regime in 1981 simply because he sought a democratic future for his family and his compatriots. The mullahs also killed my mother, two brothers, Majid (only 16) and Javad, and one of my sisters, Maryam, along with her husband.
By the age of 8, I had lost my entire family, save for one sister, as a result of the regime’s executions and crimes against humanity.
The 1988 massacre stands as one of the most horrendous crimes against humanity after World War II. In the summer of that year, based on a religious decree issued by Khomeini, then-Supreme Leader of the theocratic regime in Iran, tens of thousands of political prisoners were liquidated. Most of the victims belonged to the principal democratic opposition movement Mujahedin-e Khalq (MEK).
It is believed that the regime massacred at least 30,000 political dissidents that year in the span of a few months. This much was confirmed by the designated heir to the regime’s Supreme Leader Ayatollah Hossein-Ali Montazeri both in his published memoires and leaked audiotape in 2016, in which he condemned the ongoing crime against humanity in August 1988 during a meeting with high-ranking regime officials.
Those officials continue to serve the regime today in high-ranking positions. Ebrahim Raisi, for example, who was a member of the “death committees” in charge of rounding up and killing the political prisoners, is currently occupying the highly sensitive post of the Judiciary Chief. He is expected to announce his candidacy to run for President during the June election. After the June 2009 uprising, he said, “Moharebeh (waging war on God) is sometimes an organization, like the hypocrites (MEK). Anyone who helps the MEK in any way and under any circumstances, because it is an organized movement, the title of Moharebeh applies.” According the Islamic Punishment Act, the punishment for Moharebeh is death.
For years, the clerical regime has been systematically and gradually destroying the graves of the victims of the 1988 massacre in Tehran and other cities. As the world learns more about the killings and the international outrage grows, Tehran’s mullahs are scrambling to clear all traces of their crimes against humanity.
Most of us have forgotten where exactly our loved ones are buried, many of them in mass graves. The campaign for justice for victims of 1988 has gained greater prominence and broader scope. International human rights organizations and experts have described the massacre as a crime against humanity and called for holding the perpetrators of this heinous crime to account.
Paranoid of the repercussions of international scrutiny into this horrific atrocity, the Iranian regime has embarked on erasing the traces of the evidence on the massacre by destroying the mass graves where they are buried. The regime has tried to destroy the mass graves of massacred political prisoners in Tehran’s Khavaran Cemetery in the latest attempt. Previously, it destroyed or damaged the mass graves of the 1988 victims in Ahvaz, Tabriz, Mashhad, and elsewhere.
These actions constitute the collective torture of thousands of survivors and families of martyrs. It is another manifest case of crime against humanity.
The UN and international human rights organizations must prevent the regime from destroying the mass graves, eliminating the evidence of their crime, and inflicting psychological torture upon thousands of families of the victims throughout Iran.
Moreover, the Iranian public and all human rights defenders expect the United Nations, particularly the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michele Bachelet, to launch an international commission of inquiry to investigate the massacre of political prisoners and summon the perpetrators of this heinous crime before the International Court of Justice.
Can Biden Bring Peace to the Middle East?
As the fierce fighting between Israel and the Palestinians rages on, the Biden administration’s Middle East policy has been criticized for its relatively aloof, “stand back” approach that has resulted in the absence of any pressure on Israel to re-think its harsh mistreatment of the Palestinians, vividly demonstrated in the recent police attack at al-Aqsa mosque and the attempted eviction of Palestinians from their homes in East Jerusalem, viewed by the Palestinians as part of Israel’s “ethnic cleansing.”
Consequently, a UN Security Council draft resolution on the crisis has been reportedly held up by US, which has prioritized the familiar narrative of “Israel’s right to self-defense” ad nauseam, without the benefit any nuances that would reveal any fresh thinking on the problem on the part of the Biden administration. As in the past, the new crisis in Israel-Palestinian relations has sharpened the loyalties and alliances, in effect binding the US government closer to its Middle East ally under the rainstorm of Palestinian rocket attacks, highlighting Israel’s security vulnerabilities in today’s missile age. Determined to crush the Palestinian resistance, the mighty Israeli army has been pulverizing Gaza while, simultaneously, declaring state of emergency in the Arab sections of Israel, as if there is a military solution to an inherently political problem. What Israel may gain from its current military campaign is, by all indications, bound to be elusive of a perpetual peace and will likely sow the seed of the next chapter in the ‘intractable’ conflict in the future.
Both sides are in violation of the international humanitarian laws that forbid the indiscriminate targeting of civilian population and, no matter how justified the Palestinian grievances, they too need to abide by international law and consider the alternative Gandhian path of non-violent resistance, notwithstanding the colossal power of Israeli army.
As the editors of Israel’s liberal paper, Haaretz, have rightly pointed out, the problem is the Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who is highly unpopular, unable to form a government, afflicted with a corruption case, and who has been appeasing the extremist elements in Israeli politics who have no qualm about the illegal expropriation of Palestinian lands. Israeli politics for its own sake needs to move to the center, otherwise the Israeli society as a whole will suffer, as more and more educated Israelis will leave the country, Israel’s recent gains through the Abrahams accord with the conservative Arab states will be essentially wiped out, as these states will need to cater to the rising tide of anti-Israel sentiments at home or face serious legitimation problems, and Israel’s regional rivals led by Iran will continue to harvest from the present crisis.
Unfortunately, there does not seem to be any political will in Washington to spur a political shift in Israel that would secure better results in terms of the elusive Middle East peace and both President Biden and the Democratic Party establishment are concerned that their Republican opponents will seize on any tangible US pressure applied on Israel. In other words, domestic US priorities will continue for the foreseeable future to hamper a much-needed corrective Washington influence on an ally that receives 4 billion dollar military aid annually and, yet, is unwilling to allow the White House to have any input on its handling of the Palestinians at home and the West Bank and Gaza.
But, assuming for a moment that the Biden administration would somehow muster the will to stand up to Netanyahu and pressure him to cease its massive attacks on Gaza, then such a bold move would need to be coordinated with a deep Arab outreach that would, simultaneously, persuade the Palestinian groups led by Hamas and Islamic Jihad to go along with a US-initiated cease-fire, followed by related efforts at UN and regional level to bring about the groundwork for a more enduring peace, such as by holding a new international peace conference, similar to the Oslo process.
At the moment, of course, this is wishful thinking and the protagonists of both sides in this terrible conflict are more focused on scoring against each other than to partake in a meaningful peace process. In other words, an important prerequisite for peace, that is the inclination for peaceful resolution of the conflict instead of resorting to arms, is clearly missing and can and should be brought about by, first and foremost, a capable US leadership, sadly hitherto missing.
Israel-Palestine Conflict Enters into Dangerous Zone
Since the start of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan in mid-April 2021, tension has escalated, with frequent clashes between police and Palestinians. The threatened eviction of some Palestinian families in East Jerusalem has also caused rising anger. But when Israeli security forces entered and attacked the unarmed Muslim worshipers, damaged the property, and humiliated the families, the situation turned into conflict.
Since the irrational and illogical creation of the Jewish State in the middle of the Muslim World, the tension started and emerged into few full-fledged armed conflicts and wars like; 1948–49, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982, and 2006 wars/ conflicts. Tensions are often high between Israel and Palestinians living in East Jerusalem, Gaza, and the West Bank. Gaza is ruled by a Palestinian group called Hamas, which has fought Israel many times. Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank complain that they’re suffering because of Zionists’ expansionist actions. Israel’s severe violations of human rights and extreme atrocities against Palestinians left Palestinians with no option other than protest and agitate. But Israel suppresses them and uses all dirty tricks to keep them silent.
It is worth mentioning that the United Nations Security Council has passed several resolutions to settle the Israel-Palestine issue peacefully. But Israel has not implemented either of them and kept using force to push them out and settle Jews in their land.
The State of Israel has been enjoying undue supported by the US, irrespective of who is president, but all of them support Israel unconditionally. Israel is the most favored nation of the US and the largest beneficiary of American aid, assistance, and support.
Ex-President Donald Trump helped Israel establish diplomatic relations with the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco. Donald Trump favored Netanyahu, dramatically moved the US embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. His daughter and son-in-law were the facilitators for his support to Israel.
Till last news, at least 56 Palestinians have died under an array of aerial bombardments of the Gaza Strip. Five Israelis were killed too. Rockets, bullets, and rocks are flying around Israel and the Palestinian territories with catastrophic intensity in the latest wave of violence that periodically marks the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. Palestinian protesters run for cover from tear gas fired by Israeli security forces amid clashes at Jerusalem’s Al-Aqsa mosque compound on May 10, 2021, ahead of a planned march to commemorate Israel’s takeover of Jerusalem in 1967 Six-Day War. Security forces have set on fire the centuries-old holy Mosque. Serious communal violence has broken out within Israel between Arab citizens and Jews. Fires were lit, a synagogue burned, a Muslim cemetery trashed, police cars set aflame, and an Arab-Israeli man killed. The mayor of Lod termed it a “civil war.”
The ferocity of the fast-escalating conflict might be extremely dangerous as Israel uses hi-tech, advanced, lethal weapons. A week ago, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu seemed close to losing power after the climax of four inconclusive elections. The outbreak of hostilities has allowed him the opportunity to make his latest appearance as a tough guy and ended coalition talks by rival politicians. He might politicize the conflict in his favor.
There is a severe danger of spreading this conflict to a large-scale war, which might engulf the regional countries. There already exists tension among Israel and few regional powers. The recent Israeli attacks on Russian bases in Syrian may also widen the conflict.
Any war in the middle-East will have dire consequences globally. It is appealed to the UN and all peace-loving nations and individuals to speed up all-out efforts to stop the conflict at this initial stage and avert further bloodshed. It is demanded that the Israel-Palestine issue must be settled according to the resolutions passed by UNSC. Wish immediate peace, sustainable peace, and permanent peace in the Middle East and globally.
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