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Khatami, Ahmadinejad and Rouhani on Russia’s and China’s role in the Iranian nuclear issue

Mher D. Sahakyan

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During the Iranian Nuclear crisis, three presidents ruled Iran. Ayatollah Khamenei was Iran’s Supreme Leader during the aforementioned period, and one can argue that the Supreme Leader is the main political figure in Iran. The Supreme Leader can decide and change Iran’s foreign policy, but as we have concluded in this research, there were several differences and similarities between the presidencies of Khatami, Ahmadinejad and Rouhani regarding China and Russia’s roles in the Iranian nuclear issue. These differences indicate that the presidents of Iran are important players who can alter existing policies or try to implement their own vision for Iranian foreign policy.

Here is the following question arises:

What type of policy did Khatami’s, Ahmadinejad’s and Rouhani’s teams adopt regarding how to involve China and Russia in solving the Iranian nuclear issue?

During the presidency of Khatami (1997-2005), Iran was mainly negotiating with the EU3 on its nuclear issue. Khatami could not negotiate directly with the US because of the Supreme Leader’s veto. Although Khatami’s team tried to keep negotiations with the EU3 as its main avenue of diplomacy, they also pursued high-level consultations and negotiations with China and Russia so that if Iran failed to reach a final agreement with the EU3, Iran could at least get support from China and Russia, which are permanent members of the UNSC.

In his book on Iranian nuclear issue, Hassan Rouhani wrote, that that during Khatami’s presidency, Iranians were mostly negotiating with EU3 but also made trips to Moscow and Beijing and tried to find common language with China and Russia. He mentioned that the main strategy was to maintain Chinese and Russian sympathy towards Iran so that if the Iranians failed during their negotiations with EU3, they would not be left isolated

In sum, with the support of the EU3, Russia and China Khatami could stop the US initiative to take the Iranian nuclear case to the UNSC.

Under Ahmadinejad’s watch (2005-2013), Iran tried to increase the role of China, Russia and NAM states in the Iranian nuclear issue and weaken the role of the West.

Although, Ahmadinejad, in contrast with Khatami, received approval from the Supreme Leader of Iran to negotiate with the US as well.

As Iran continued its nuclear program with violations and without implementing required IAEA resolutions on the Iranian nuclear issue, China and Russia also agreed on a US proposal to bring Iran’s nuclear program to the UNSC. China and Russia were disappointed in Iran when the US provided information about the Fordow nuclear facility, about which Iran had not informed the IAEA, China and Russia.

Though China and Russia could have limited several heavy sanctions on Iran during the negotiations and deterred the US and Israel from military action against Iran, they ultimately voted for all UNSC resolutions on Iran as they are responsible powers and could not permit the further development of Iran’s nuclear program, which the IAEA could not confirm as peaceful in intent. It is important to mention that China and Russia never put unilateral sanctions on Iran like the US and the EU. Moreover, Moscow and Beijing condemned unilateral sanctions as illegal. During the presidency of Ahmadinejad, not only the West but also China and Russia lost their confidence in the Iranian government. On one hand, Ahmadinejad’s diplomats in Beijing and Moscow attempted to convince China and Russia that Iran’s nuclear programme was peaceful and that they were cooperating with the IAEA, but Iran was building secret nuclear facilities without informing its partners. As a result, under Ahmadinejad’s watch, Iran faced heavy pressure from both the West and the East. Sanctions destabilized and contracted the Iranian economy.

Hassan Rouhani criticized Ahmadinejad’s policy by mentioning that his team proclaimed that that they would solve the problem with the East. However, Rouhani advised them at first to find out the viewpoints of Moscow and Beijing. He added that after conducting long-term negotiations with China and Russia, he learned that these powers also believed that without the EU, it was not possible to solve the Iranian nuclear issue. When he was elected as Iran’s President, in a very short time period, he had broken the standstill and concluded the Joint comprehensive plan of actions(JCPOA) with the P5+1. It is worth mentioning that during Khatami’s presidency, Rouhani was Iran’s main negotiator with the EU3 on the Iranian nuclear issue. Under Khatami’s watch, Rouhani concluded the Paris agreement with the EU3, but Iran’s Supreme Leader did not accept this outcome. Now, Rouhani is the President of Iran and has more power as well as the support of Iranians as a democratically elected President, which provides him the opportunity to make the JCPOA possible.

I do believe, that in the era of the US withdrawal from the JCPOA, Iran still needs China and Russia as the main guarantors of a peaceful solution to the Iranian nuclear issue. Iran could also try to maintain the balance between the East and the West by increasing the role of China and Russia.

It is worth mentioning that Iranians attempted to derive benefits from Sino-Russian cooperation in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). In this regard, Hassan Rouhani said, “We knew that if we could turn Russia to our side, China would also stand next to us.” In turn, Iranian scholar Nasser Saghafi-Ameri also sees cooperation with Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an opportunity for Iran to strengthen its ties with Russia and China

Nowadays Russia, China and Iran have some common interests in the Middle East. For instance, they have attempted to stabilize situation in Syria. They are against the US support for regime change in Damascus; Russia, China and Iran understand those types of developments would shift Syria into the Western camp or lead it into chaos, which would limit the abilities of Russia, China and Iran to manoeuvre in the Middle East. From Moscow’s and Beijing’s perspectives, “no problems in the Middle East will eliminate US interference in regional affairs”.

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Middle East

God’s Grace: Reichstag Fire and July 15 Military Coup

Zakir Gul, Ph.D.

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“By the grace of God!” Some rulers use the cry to explain why certain events happen and why they play out as they do. They will argue that God, in allowing the events to happen, has bestowed his grace upon the ruler. Two rulers and two events—the Reichstag fire in Germany on February 27, 1933,and the military coup attempt in Turkey on July 15, 2016—illustrate the devastating consequences this twisted logic can have on the lives of ordinary people.When Adolph Hitler arrived at the scene, he told German Chancellor Franz von Pape, “This is a God-given signal” to crush Communists (and later opponents). Immediately after the failed military coup, Recep Tayyip Erdogan announced that the event was “a gift from God” and justification for Erdogan to start cleansing the military (and later purging opponents).

The similarities between the two events are striking in terms of beneficiaries, consequences and suspicions about the rulers’ true intentions going forward. Soon after the fire, Hitler started to consolidate his powers in the name of protecting the state’s security and democracy. To do so, Hitlersuspended civil liberties and shut the door on the rights and freedom of the country’s citizens. The fire in the heart of the countrywas used to justify the notion that the country was in a great danger. With decrees, Hitler purged his opponents, even though there was only one person considered to be responsiblefor the fire. Erdogan followed a similar path when he has declared a state of emergency after the coup attempt and consolidated his powers with radical changes in the country’s political and legal systems. With decrees, Erdogan purged hundreds of thousands of people under the guise of protecting the country’s security and democracy—even though soldiers who allegedly were involved in the coup attempt that night already had been into custody.In the political arena, Hitler increased the number of votes he received in the election that took place a week after the fire. Similarly, public support for Erdogan increased after the coup attempt. History does, indeed, repeat itself. These are two of many examples that could have been cited.

It may not be possible to know for sure who staged and orchestrated the Reichstag fire orthe military coup attempt; however, it is clear that the rulers’ purported motives are suspicious and their explanations filled with inconsistencies, given the many controversies arising from both events.The Reichstag firehas been discussed by scholars and historians who concluded that Hitler and his team—either directly or indirectly—helped to instigate the fire. Indeed, the arsonist responsible for the fire was pardoned years later. The military coup in Turkey wasa terrorizing and wicked deed against humanity and democracy, and the persons responsible must be identified and punished based on the rule of law and democratic values. It is, however, a Herculean task. Too many loopholes and controversies about the coup attempt need to be clarified. Erdogan should provide evidence-based, honest and objective explanations to remove the suspicions surrounding the coup attempt. Many answers are needed. For example,why did Erdogan refuse to answer questions from the major opposition party (the Republican People’s Party, or CHP) about the coup? Why has the investigation case report and the report of the parliament’s investigation committee deemed inappropriate and unsatisfactory even by some members of the committee? More important, why has an international committee not been allowed to investigate the case? Questions such as these highlight the many mysteries and suspicions that still surround the event two years after it occurred.

An independent international investigation committee should be established by the United Nations to examine the coup attempt and eliminate possible suspicions about Erdogan and his governing team. The committee also should determine whether thousands of people were responsible for organizing the coup attempt, as the government alleges, and clarify the following: whether some U.S. citizens, such as Andrew Brunson, who is still in jail, were among the primary plotters of the coup; whether some other U.S. citizens for whom bounties were offered were behind the coup attempt; and whether the United States was behind the coup attempt, as Turkish politicians and government officials claim—even though the United States has denied any involvement in the event.

Another independent international investigation committee should be established by the U.N.(or some other internationally accepted institution)to investigate the aftermath of the coup. Violations of internationally accepted human rights (as reported by credible human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch) that have been committed by government security and intelligence officials since the coup attempt should be investigated. The committee also should also determine whether persons victimized in any way (such as imprisonment, job loss, inhumane treatment, and deprival of constitutional rights and freedoms)were based on evidence or resulted from the arbitrary application punishment. A final task of the committee should be to investigate allegations of abductions, extrajudicial executions and torture by government security and intelligence agencies. As John Dalhuisen,Amnesty International’s Europe director, has said, “It is absolutely imperative that the Turkish authorities halt these abhorrent practices and allow international monitors to visit all these detainees in the places they are being held.”

An independent and objective domestic committee that consists of members from every political party in the country—regardless of the parties’ percentage of the vote among constituents—should be established to investigate the same issues the two international committees need to review. Care must be taken to ensure that the members of this domestic committee—unlike those serving on the committee that was formed after the coup attempt—can maintain their objectivity and are aware of their responsibilities. The committee should be transparent and its actions and discussions observed and by international representatives of the U.N., the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the European Union, and individual countries and/or journalists.

Finally, the European Court of Human Rights, an internationally accepted high court of which Turkey is a member,should determine for itself—rather than rely solely on the response from government officials—whether the country’s domestic legal and judicial system can be accessed openly and freely by all citizens and the attorneys representing them in legal matters.

It is only through these independent international and domestic investigations that the truth about the failed coup attempt can come to light.

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Ghassan Kanafani, the Palestinian Pioneer Author of Resistance Literature

Sondoss Al Asaad

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The eighth of July marks the 46th martyrdom anniversary of Ghassan Kanafani, who was assassinated by the Zionist Intelligence;  Mossad, along with his 17-year-old niece Lamees. Days before their martyrdom, Lamees had asked Kanafani to diminish his activitism and to concentrate on his writings. He answered her,” I write well because I believe in a cause, in principles. The day I leave these principles, my stories will become purposeless. If I were to leave behind my principles, you yourself would not respect me.”

Kanafani was born in 1936, in Palestine, to a father who was a national activist in the resistance against the British colonialism. After the 1948 Zionist occupation, his family sought refuge to Syria, when he was 12-year-old. In the refuge camps, Kanafani wrote most of his novels which highlights the sufferings that the Palestinians endure in the diaspora. He won multiple awards for his works both during his life and posthumously. For instance, in “Umm Saad,” Kanafani’s protagonist is a symbol of the Palestinian women in the refugee camps.

Kanafani was inspired by Jamal Abd al-Nasser’s ideas of national independence and defiance of imperialism. Due to the decline of Nasserism after the 1961 failure to consolidate Egypt and Syria under a unified United Arab Republic, the ascendancy of imperialism and Zionism and the rise of communism; Kanafani, along with his comrade George Habash, resolved to adopt Marxism. They belived that the political crisis in the Arab world could only be solved by turning the anti-imperialist struggle into a social revolution.

In Lebanon, Kanafani adopted the Communist philosophy and become a leading member of the Marxist-Leninist Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP). He says, “The Palestinian cause is not a cause for Palestinians only, but a cause for every revolutionary, wherever he is, as a cause of the exploited and oppressed masses in our era.”

Besides, he was a prolific creative and brilliant novelist and the first to anticipate the “resistance literature” genre. His literary products and fictitious works have inspired a whole generation of resisting youth, both during and after his lifetime as they are greatly rooted in the Palestinian culture and cause. Kanafani dedicated his works to reflect on the Palestinians’ lives and the challenges they face under the Zionist occupation. He states, “My political position springs from my being a novelist. In so far as I am concerned, politics and the novel are an indivisible case and I can categorically state that I became politically committed because I am a novelist, not the opposite.”

The assassination of Ghassan Kanafani was the result of his commitment to the Palestinian cause and the resistance methodology. Today, his legacy echo within every free revolutionary who devoted his life to confront the imperialist conspiracies. Indeed, Kanafani was murdered merely because he had constituted an intellectual threat to the Zionist entity. He refused the negotiations with the enemy, pointing that it would be “a conversation between the sword and the neck […] I have never seen talks between a colonialist case and a national liberation movement.”

The chief thematic field of Kanafani’s writing was inseparably connected to the anti-imperialism struggle. He stressed that the Palestinian cause could not be resolved in isolation of the Arab ‘s social and political crisis. Further, he insisted on developing the resistance movement from being a nationalist Palestinian liberation movement into being a pan-Arab revolutionary socialist movement of which the liberation of Palestine would be a vital component.

Definitely, Kanafani played an influential role in raising consciousness on the issue of imperialism. He maintains, “Imperialism has laid its body over the world, the head in Eastern Asia, the heart in the Middle East, its arteries reaching Africa and Latin America. Wherever you strike it, you damage it, and you serve the world revolution. “Shortly after Kanafani’s obituary in Lebanon, “The Daily Star” stated, “He was a commando who never fired a gun, whose weapon was a ball-point pen, and his arena the newspaper pages.”

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Bahrain’s Top Spiritual Leader in U.K. for Medical Reasons

Sondoss Al Asaad

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Eventually, Bahrain’s prominent, 80-years-old, Top Shiite cleric, Ayatollah Sheikh Isa Qassim has been flown to the U.K., after the severe deterioration of his health conditions.

The Bahraini authorities have frequently procrastinated the proper hospitalisation of the ailing Ayatollah Qassim until last week when the Foreign Minister Khalid Al Khalifa twitted that Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, Bahrain’s ruler, had approved off Ayatollah Qassim’s “facilitation of travel” to find medical assistance.

Ayatollah Qassim was earlier transferred to Bahrain’s International Airport by ambulance. The authorities have currently issued a one-year temporary passport for Ayatollah Qassim as he is technically stateless since Bahrain’s Cassation Court stripped him of citizenship.

The arbitrary prosecution of Ayatollah Qassim has been related to his religious duty of collecting charities, known as “Khoums.” This religious ritual has been violated by the government, the charities have been confiscated and the Ayatollah has been audaciously accused of “money laundering.”

Ayatollah Qassim’s medical team issued a statement confirming his transfer abroad in order to avoid further complications in his health. The team said, “Ayatollah Sheikh Isa Qassim left Bahrain for England Monday morning, July 9, 2018.This measure has been taken on the basis of medical reports and consensus of his doctors who emphasized the need for his immediate transfer to a specialised hospital to prevent a further deterioration.”

Moreover, Ayatollah Qassim’s health has been deteriorating after the authorities imposed on him a house arrest. Medical sources have informed that Ayatollah Qassim is suffering from cancer, which is in an early stage.

Since June 2016, Ayatollah Qassim has been arbitrarily stripped of his nationality. Bahrain’s Court of Cassation convicted Ayatollah Qassim of “illegal collection of funds and money laundering, serving foreign interests” and sentenced him to one year in jail suspended for three years. It also ordered him to pay $265,266 in fines.

The unfair, politically motivated,  blatant trial had led Ayatollah Qassim’s followers to peacefully protest, on daily basis, in his residence area, up to 23 May 2017.

On that day, the government violently stormed the sit-in zone, in Duraz village, murdered 5 youth and arrested around 300. Since then Ayatollah Qassim has been under house arrest and denied adequate medical care, which let his situation to drastically worsen and to another health complications.

Clearly, the denaturalisation of Ayatollah Qassim and various dissents is regarded as a systematic reprisal against the political and religious freedom in the country.

Since the onset of the 2011 peaceful uprising, Duraz village along with scores of Bahraini villages have been subjected to an ongoing clampdown and restrictions.

Bahrain, home of the U.S. Navy’s 5th Fleet, has gone to great lengths to clamp down on dissents. On 15 March 2011, troops from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates were deployed.

Religious freedom has been violated  until the central Friday prayer; the largest Shiite religious congregation, held in Duraz, has been banned. Armoured vehicles were deployed to cordon off Duraz’s mosque and various police checkpoints were set to thoroughly lock down the village.

Regularly, the government have been criticised for violating the freedoms to religious rituals, assembly, association, expression, etc. Since 2011, when protests; demanding democracy, reforms and justice, have erupted; tensions have simmered.

Dozens of high-profile activists have been detained or exiled, opposition associations have been dissolved and citizenships have been revoked.

Unfortunately, the Shiite community have long endured a pivotal and methodological persecution in  an attempt to forged the demographic representation.

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