During the Iranian Nuclear crisis, three presidents ruled Iran. Ayatollah Khamenei was Iran’s Supreme Leader during the aforementioned period, and one can argue that the Supreme Leader is the main political figure in Iran. The Supreme Leader can decide and change Iran’s foreign policy, but as we have concluded in this research, there were several differences and similarities between the presidencies of Khatami, Ahmadinejad and Rouhani regarding China and Russia’s roles in the Iranian nuclear issue. These differences indicate that the presidents of Iran are important players who can alter existing policies or try to implement their own vision for Iranian foreign policy.
Here is the following question arises:
What type of policy did Khatami’s, Ahmadinejad’s and Rouhani’s teams adopt regarding how to involve China and Russia in solving the Iranian nuclear issue?
During the presidency of Khatami (1997-2005), Iran was mainly negotiating with the EU3 on its nuclear issue. Khatami could not negotiate directly with the US because of the Supreme Leader’s veto. Although Khatami’s team tried to keep negotiations with the EU3 as its main avenue of diplomacy, they also pursued high-level consultations and negotiations with China and Russia so that if Iran failed to reach a final agreement with the EU3, Iran could at least get support from China and Russia, which are permanent members of the UNSC.
In his book on Iranian nuclear issue, Hassan Rouhani wrote, that that during Khatami’s presidency, Iranians were mostly negotiating with EU3 but also made trips to Moscow and Beijing and tried to find common language with China and Russia. He mentioned that the main strategy was to maintain Chinese and Russian sympathy towards Iran so that if the Iranians failed during their negotiations with EU3, they would not be left isolated
In sum, with the support of the EU3, Russia and China Khatami could stop the US initiative to take the Iranian nuclear case to the UNSC.
Under Ahmadinejad’s watch (2005-2013), Iran tried to increase the role of China, Russia and NAM states in the Iranian nuclear issue and weaken the role of the West.
Although, Ahmadinejad, in contrast with Khatami, received approval from the Supreme Leader of Iran to negotiate with the US as well.
As Iran continued its nuclear program with violations and without implementing required IAEA resolutions on the Iranian nuclear issue, China and Russia also agreed on a US proposal to bring Iran’s nuclear program to the UNSC. China and Russia were disappointed in Iran when the US provided information about the Fordow nuclear facility, about which Iran had not informed the IAEA, China and Russia.
Though China and Russia could have limited several heavy sanctions on Iran during the negotiations and deterred the US and Israel from military action against Iran, they ultimately voted for all UNSC resolutions on Iran as they are responsible powers and could not permit the further development of Iran’s nuclear program, which the IAEA could not confirm as peaceful in intent. It is important to mention that China and Russia never put unilateral sanctions on Iran like the US and the EU. Moreover, Moscow and Beijing condemned unilateral sanctions as illegal. During the presidency of Ahmadinejad, not only the West but also China and Russia lost their confidence in the Iranian government. On one hand, Ahmadinejad’s diplomats in Beijing and Moscow attempted to convince China and Russia that Iran’s nuclear programme was peaceful and that they were cooperating with the IAEA, but Iran was building secret nuclear facilities without informing its partners. As a result, under Ahmadinejad’s watch, Iran faced heavy pressure from both the West and the East. Sanctions destabilized and contracted the Iranian economy.
Hassan Rouhani criticized Ahmadinejad’s policy by mentioning that his team proclaimed that that they would solve the problem with the East. However, Rouhani advised them at first to find out the viewpoints of Moscow and Beijing. He added that after conducting long-term negotiations with China and Russia, he learned that these powers also believed that without the EU, it was not possible to solve the Iranian nuclear issue. When he was elected as Iran’s President, in a very short time period, he had broken the standstill and concluded the Joint comprehensive plan of actions(JCPOA) with the P5+1. It is worth mentioning that during Khatami’s presidency, Rouhani was Iran’s main negotiator with the EU3 on the Iranian nuclear issue. Under Khatami’s watch, Rouhani concluded the Paris agreement with the EU3, but Iran’s Supreme Leader did not accept this outcome. Now, Rouhani is the President of Iran and has more power as well as the support of Iranians as a democratically elected President, which provides him the opportunity to make the JCPOA possible.
I do believe, that in the era of the US withdrawal from the JCPOA, Iran still needs China and Russia as the main guarantors of a peaceful solution to the Iranian nuclear issue. Iran could also try to maintain the balance between the East and the West by increasing the role of China and Russia.
It is worth mentioning that Iranians attempted to derive benefits from Sino-Russian cooperation in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC). In this regard, Hassan Rouhani said, “We knew that if we could turn Russia to our side, China would also stand next to us.” In turn, Iranian scholar Nasser Saghafi-Ameri also sees cooperation with Shanghai Cooperation Organization as an opportunity for Iran to strengthen its ties with Russia and China
Nowadays Russia, China and Iran have some common interests in the Middle East. For instance, they have attempted to stabilize situation in Syria. They are against the US support for regime change in Damascus; Russia, China and Iran understand those types of developments would shift Syria into the Western camp or lead it into chaos, which would limit the abilities of Russia, China and Iran to manoeuvre in the Middle East. From Moscow’s and Beijing’s perspectives, “no problems in the Middle East will eliminate US interference in regional affairs”.
Process to draft Syria constitution begins this week
The process of drafting a new constitution for Syria will begin this week, the UN Special Envoy for the country, Geir Pedersen, said on Sunday at a press conference in Geneva.
Mr. Pedersen was speaking following a meeting with the government and opposition co-chairs of the Syrian Constitutional Committee, who have agreed to start the process for constitutional reform.
The members of its so-called “small body”, tasked with preparing and drafting the Constitution, are in the Swiss city for their sixth round of talks in two years, which begin on Monday.
Their last meeting, held in January, ended without progress, and the UN envoy has been negotiating between the parties on a way forward.
“The two Co-Chairs now agree that we will not only prepare for constitutional reform, but we will prepare and start drafting for constitutional reform,” Mr. Pedersen told journalists.
“So, the new thing this week is that we will actually be starting a drafting process for constitutional reform in Syria.”
The UN continues to support efforts towards a Syrian-owned and led political solution to end more than a decade of war that has killed upwards of 350,000 people and left 13 million in need of humanitarian aid.
An important contribution
The Syrian Constitutional Committee was formed in 2019, comprising 150 men and women, with the Government, the opposition and civil society each nominating 50 people.
This larger group established the 45-member small body, which consists of 15 representatives from each of the three sectors.
For the first time ever, committee co-chairs Ahmad Kuzbari, the Syrian government representative, and Hadi al-Bahra, from the opposition side, met together with Mr. Pedersen on Sunday morning.
He described it as “a substantial and frank discussion on how we are to proceed with the constitutional reform and indeed in detail how we are planning for the week ahead of us.”
Mr. Pedersen told journalists that while the Syrian Constitutional Committee is an important contribution to the political process, “the committee in itself will not be able to solve the Syrian crisis, so we need to come together, with serious work, on the Constitutional Committee, but also address the other aspects of the Syrian crisis.”
North Africa: Is Algeria Weaponizing Airspace and Natural Gas?
In a series of shocking and unintelligible decisions, the Algerian Government closed its airspace to Moroccan military and civilian aircraft on September 22, 2021, banned French military planes from using its airspace on October 3rd, and decided not to renew the contract relative to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline, which goes through Morocco and has been up and running since 1996–a contract that comes to end on October 31.
In the case of Morocco, Algeria advanced ‘provocations and hostile’ actions as a reason to shut airspace and end the pipeline contract, a claim that has yet to be substantiated with evidence. Whereas in the case of France, Algeria got angry regarding visa restrictions and comments by French President Emmanuel Macron on the Algerian military grip on power and whether the North African country was a nation prior to French colonization in 1830.
Algeria has had continued tensions with Morocco for decades, over border issues and over the Western Sahara, a territory claimed by Morocco as part of its historical territorial unity, but contested by Algeria which supports an alleged liberation movement that desperately fights for independence since the 1970s.
With France, the relation is even more complex and plagued with memories of colonial exactions and liberation and post-colonial traumas, passions and injuries. France and Algeria have therefore developed, over the post-independence decades, a love-hate attitude that quite often mars otherwise strong economic and social relations.
Algeria has often reacted to the two countries’ alleged ‘misbehavior’ by closing borders –as is the case with Morocco since 1994—or calling its ambassadors for consultations, or even cutting diplomatic relations, as just happened in August when it cut ties with its western neighbor.
But it is the first-time Algeria resorts to the weaponization of energy and airspace. “Weaponization” is a term used in geostrategy to mean the use of goods and commodities, that are mainly destined for civilian use and are beneficial for international trade and the welfare of nations, for geostrategic, political and even military gains. As such “weaponization” is contrary to the spirit of free trade, open borders, and solidarity among nations, values that are at the core of common international action and positive globalization.
Some observers advance continued domestic political and social unrest in Algeria, whereby thousands of Algerians have been taking to the streets for years to demand regime-change and profound political and economic reforms. Instead of positively responding to the demands of Algerians, the government is probably looking for desperate ways to divert attention and cerate foreign enemies as sources of domestic woes. Morocco and France qualify perfectly for the role of national scapegoats.
It may be true also that in the case of Morocco, Algeria is getting nervous at its seeing its Western neighbor become a main trade and investment partner in Africa, a role it can levy to develop diplomatic clout regarding the Western Sahara issue. Algeria has been looking for ways to curb Morocco’s growing influence in Africa for years. A pro-Algerian German expert, by the name of Isabelle Werenfels, a senior fellow in the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, even recommended to the EU to put a halt to Morocco’s pace and economic clout so that Algeria could catch up. Weaponization may be a desperate attempt to hurt the Moroccan economy and curb its dynamism, especially in Africa.
The impact of Algeria’s weaponization of energy and airspace on the Moroccan economy is minimal and on French military presence in Mali is close to insignificant; however, it shows how far a country that has failed to administer the right reforms and to transfer power to democratically elected civilians can go.
In a region, that is beleaguered by threats and challenges of terrorism, organized crime, youth bulge, illegal migration and climate change, you would expect countries like Algeria, with its geographic extension and oil wealth, to be a beacon of peace and cooperation. Weaponization in international relations is inacceptable as it reminds us of an age when bullying and blackmail between nations, was the norm. The people of the two countries, which share the same history, language and ethnic fabric, will need natural gas and unrestricted travel to prosper and grow and overcome adversity; using energy and airspace as weapons is at odds with the dreams of millions of young people in Algeria and Morocco that aspire for a brighter future in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Please don’t shatter those dreams!
Breaking The Line of the Israel-Palestine Conflict
The conflict between Israel-Palestine is a prolonged conflict and has become a major problem, especially in the Middle East region.
A series of ceasefires and peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that occurred repeatedly did not really “normalize” the relationship between the two parties.
In order to end the conflict, a number of parties consider that the two-state solution is the best approach to create two independent and coexistent states. Although a number of other parties disagreed with the proposal, and instead proposed a one-state solution, combining Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip into one big state.
Throughout the period of stalemate reaching an ideal solution, the construction and expansion of settlements carried out illegally by Israel in the Palestinian territories, especially the West Bank and East Jerusalem, also continued without stopping and actually made the prospect of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian crisis increasingly eroded, and this could jeopardize any solutions.
The attempted forced eviction in the Sheikh Jarrah district, which became one of the sources of the conflict in May 2021, for example, is an example of how Israel has designed a system to be able to change the demographics of its territory by continuing to annex or “occupy” extensively in the East Jerusalem area. This is also done in other areas, including the West Bank.
In fact, Israel’s “occupation” of the eastern part of Jerusalem which began at the end of the 1967 war, is an act that has never received international recognition.
This is also confirmed in a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council Numbers 242, 252, 267, 298, 476, 478, 672, 681, 692, 726, 799, 2334 and also United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Number 2253, 55/130, 60/104, 70/89, 71/96, A/72/L.11 and A/ES-10/L.22 and supported by the Advisory Opinion issued by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2004 on Legal Consequences of The Construction of A Wall in The Occupied Palestine Territory which states that East Jerusalem is part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli “occupation”.
1 or 2 country solution
Back to the issue of the two-state solution or the one-state solution that the author mentioned earlier. The author considers that the one-state solution does not seem to be the right choice.
Facts on the ground show how Israel has implemented a policy of “apartheid” that is so harsh against Palestinians. so that the one-state solution will further legitimize the policy and make Israel more dominant. In addition, there is another consideration that cannot be ignored that Israel and Palestine are 2 parties with very different and conflicting political and cultural identities that are difficult to reconcile.
Meanwhile, the idea of a two-state solution is an idea that is also difficult to implement. Because the idea still seems too abstract, especially on one thing that is very fundamental and becomes the core of the Israel-Palestine conflict, namely the “division” of territory between Israel and Palestine.
This is also what makes it difficult for Israel-Palestine to be able to break the line of conflict between them and repeatedly put them back into the status quo which is not a solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict.
The status quo, is in fact a way for Israel to continue to “annex” more Palestinian territories by establishing widespread and systematic illegal settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Today, more than 600,000 Israeli settlers now live in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
In fact, a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council have explicitly and explicitly called for Israel to end the expansion of Israeli settlement construction in the occupied territory and require recognition of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the region.
Thus, all efforts and actions of Israel both legislatively and administratively that can cause changes in the status and demographic composition in East Jerusalem and the West Bank must continue to be condemned. Because this is a violation of the provisions of international law.
To find a solution to the conflict, it is necessary to look back at the core of the conflict that the author has mentioned earlier, and the best way to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is to encourage Israel to immediately end the “occupation” that it began in 1967, and return the settlements to the pre-Islamic borders 1967 In accordance with UN Security Council resolution No. 242.
But the question is, who can stop the illegal Israeli settlements in the East Jerusalem and West Bank areas that violate the Palestinian territories?
In this condition, international political will is needed from countries in the world, to continue to urge Israel to comply with the provisions of international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and also the UN Security Council Resolutions.
At the same time, the international community must be able to encourage the United Nations, especially the United Nations Security Council, as the organ that has the main responsibility for maintaining and creating world peace and security based on Article 24 of the United Nations Charter to take constructive and effective steps in order to enforce all United Nations Resolutions, and dare to sanction violations committed by Israel, and also ensure that Palestinian rights are important to protect.
So, do not let this weak enforcement of international law become an external factor that also “perpetuates” the cycle of the Israel-Palestine conflict. It will demonstrate that John Austin was correct when he stated that international law is only positive morality and not real law.
And in the end, the most fundamental thing is that the blockade, illegal development, violence, and violations of international law must end. Because the ceasefire in the Israel-Palestine conflict is only a temporary solution to the conflict.
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