Tesfaye, a grain and legume farmer in rural Ethiopia, takes a break from guiding his grazing cattle to analyze the skies in Chanco, north of the Ethiopian capital. The weather is essential to his livelihood, and it is not always reliable.
“This year, the weather was good, but last year, there was less rain to grow teff, barley, and lentils on my farm,” he said. “It will be very helpful if I know about dangerous storms ahead of time, so I can plan for planting and harvesting.”
Many farmers such as Tesfaye could benefit from reliable weather, water, and climate information—collectively known as hydromet services. These services are essential for livelihoods such as farming, aviation, and tourism, and for people and families–especially for small scale rural farming communities–to achieve climate-resilient development in Africa. The Africa Hydromet Program directly addresses the need for such services and supports governments, communities, and the private sector in their development efforts.
Why Invest in Hydromet?
Hydromet, a combination of hydrology and meteorology, offers real time weather, water and climate updates, early warning, and climate outlooks that can help communities predict and prepare for impending disasters and prepare for disaster risks. Hydromet services also provide the data needed for weather forecasting and offer additional climate and weather-related services. Everyday people, from to students to farmers, and even entire industries including aviation and energy, benefit from hydromet services.
Hydromet services form the foundation for improved weather and climate services for all areas that drive the economy. For example, in aviation, advanced weather forecasting offers vital information that pilots need. Hydromet services also equip meteorologists, hydrologists, and disaster risk management experts with the data needed to predict, plan and prepare for disasters, so that people everywhere can be safer, more prepared and resilient. For Africa, developing hydromet services is particularly vital, as capacity is low and concerted effort is required to tackle the global challenge of managing disasters and climate risks. Improved hydromet services can save African countries from avoidable damage and loss, ensuring that past and current investments in infrastructure, education, and development are not lost to disasters. Hydromet services can also break the vicious cycle of damage and recovery, so that development investments and livelihoods are sustainable.
Investing in Hydromet Services: The Answer to Achieving Resilient Development in Africa
The Africa Hydromet Program is responding to this development priority by supporting countries including the Democratic Republic of Congo (Strengthening Hydro-Meteorological and Climate Services project); Mali, (Mali Hydrological and Meteorological Services Modernization Project); and Niger (Disaster Risk Management and Urban Development Project) and Burkina Faso (Hydromet Modernization Project). The program partners—the World Bank, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), African Development Bank (AfDB), Agence Française de Développement (AFD), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and World Food Programme—are supporting many countries as well as regional/sub-regional climate centers in their systemic modernization.
This collaboration is part of a global mission to sustainably modernize hydromet, early warning, and emergency response services. So far, the Bank has programmed about US$900 million in active and upcoming hydromet projects. These investments will translate into life-saving services that protect people, preserve livelihoods, and promote prosperity in climate and disaster hot-spots.
Jerry Lengoasa, chief executive officer of the South African Weather Service, said citizens are directly benefitting from hydromet services.
“Hydromet services are essential to everyday life,” Lengoasa said. “These services provide us with data, predictions, and information so we can prepare for disasters and effectively design out our long and short-term climate resilience strategies, which is essential to achieving our development goals.”
A host of partner organizations and funding partners including the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), the Global Environment Facility (GEF), the Climate Investment Funds (CIF), the Government of Japan, and others support the Africa Hydromet Program. This support directly strengthens early warning and response systems, and supporting African countries to build resilience against climate change and disaster risks, and grow sustainably.
Current efforts are centered on mobilizing global action to manage climate change and variability through hydromet services. Globally, the One Planet Summit in Paris reflects the global commitment to combat climate change and investing in resilience. Hydromet service modernization, through the Africa Hydromet Program, offers an opportunity for real impact in Africa, and worldwide, so that African communities can thrive and countries can achieve their sustainable development goals, built on a platform of climate resilience.
How Climate Change Has Been Politicized?
We are living in a world where the political side of individuals is ruling over the highly sensitive issues like Climate Change even. It is evident that political ambitions of individuals and states have overruled the threatening issue of global climate change and the fact that it is highly politicized. Looking at the discourse that surround the topic of climate change or global warming entails terms like cap and trade, emission intensity, policies, measures etc. but what is still missing is the realization of the impact of human behavior that without any doubt is adding more to the threatening issue.
Scrutinizing the roots of issue from the past, it shot up when industrialization and the race among states to gain more technology, industries, economy and military might have caught everyone’s attention. After that there was a slight wave of realization majorly in the second half of twentieth century, as a result of which mass media started to emphasize on climate change narrative and there were discourses spread through print media to create awareness. As the awareness seemed to have increased the concerns of public regarding the issue also rose ultimately leading to the birth of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1988. A legacy followed after IPCC and climate change for the first time was coined as an environmental or green issue. There were NGOs like Sierra Club, Natural Resources Defense Council and The Environmental Defense Fund that took the voices for Climate Change as their prime priority.
Parallel to this there was a prominent backlash to these efforts too. In late 1980s there was emergence of coalition among many industrial companies of oil and cars that were the highest voices for business at the international level whose prime focus was to make business and turning a blind eye towards the threatening Climate Change. Moreover, the Convention that was considered to be a highly effective one, aimed at reducing global emissions of Carbon and greenhouse gases was framed. But even Kyoto Protocol turned out to be a battle among states whose ambitions were their national interests. In the pursuit of their offensive power and politics the quota allotted to all the member states of the convention was overruled. The richer states started to buy carbon quotas from the poorer states and both were in pursuit of what they needed the most; richer countries emitting carbon and poorer ones getting money. Hence the aim of the convention was severely affected. Adding more to the issue in 2001, the then US President George W. Bush called the Kyoto agreement as fatally flawed and the concern of climate change was no more considered to be a Green issue.
From that day till now, the issue has witnessed lesser ups and major downs in its magnitude and modern times have witnessed degradation of environment due to limitless cycle of consumption and production. As a matter of fact, 2015 to 2018 were recorded as the four hottest years ever. Two major evidences that depict how the issue of severe attention has been politicized for material gains are US withdrawal from Paris Climate Agreement and Kyoto Protocol that went in vain merely because of states only wanting to pursue their material interests and ambitions.
It now turns out to be easily understandable how and why the enigma between soft issue like Climate and hard core politics have led to severe degradation of nature and still the world is not realizing that the future of humanity has been put at risk. Unfortunately, the pursuit of leaders still depict that the humanity would continue to be at risk as long as they are not willing to shift their focus towards the need of the day that is climate change.
Immediate realization is necessitated that the short time political gains of the world is threatening the future of generations to come and the world cannot afford to lose another decade of dismay because decisions and actions done in this decade is going to impact the century to come. If only the world realizes the need of immediate measures, actions and strict compliance and the need of spreading the awareness of the demanding issue through mass media and discourses, then the world would be able to cope the issue and endeavor to save the future of generations to come.
World Ocean Day And Economic Potential Of Oceans
The World Ocean Day is celebrated internationally on 8 June every year since 2008, with an aim to advance awareness of the vital importance of oceans, the role they play in sustaining a healthy planet, and to foster public interest in their protection, and the sustainable management of their resources. This year’s theme is “The Ocean: Life and Livelihoods”.
The oceans cover over 70% of the planet. It is our life source, supporting humanity’s sustenance and that of every other organism on earth. These produce at least 50% of the planet’s oxygen. It is home to most of earth’s biodiversity, and is the main source of protein for more than a billion people around the world. The oceans are key to our economy with an estimated 40 million people being employed by ocean-based industries. The mode of transportation through the sea is the cheapest as compared to rail, road, and air. There are around 56,000 merchant ships trading internationally. Some 11 billion tons of goods are transported through seas.
The oceans offer many organisms including dried sponges, corals & jellyfish, shells of crabs, oysters, conch and other mollusks, pearls and cuttlefish ‘bones’, sea cucumbers, sea horses and many other marine animals to prepare medicines such as antibiotics, powders, ointments and decoctions. Oceans are also a big source of energy in the form of oil and gas. An average 28% of world energy source is from off shore. The coral reefs which are found closer to the coast provide an important ecosystem for life underwater. Thousands of species can be found living on one reef. The reefs protect coastal areas by reducing the power of waves hitting the coast, and provide a crucial source of income for millions of people.
Another importance aspect is Deep Seabed Mining (DSM) to collect metal-rich resources from the deep seafloor, like seafloor massive sulphides, cobalt-rich ferromanganese crusts, and polymetallic nodules. Oceans are also a big source of entertainment and sports. As of December 2018, there are 314 cruise ships operating worldwide. This has become a major part of the tourism industry, with an estimated market of $29.4 billion per year, and over 19 million passengers carried worldwide annually. Numerous type of water sport is provided by the seas such as surfing, sailing, swimming, water skiing, scuba diving, canoeing, fishing, and snorkeling etc. It is pertinent to mention that in the Holy Quran, the sea (Albehar) is mentioned 41 times in the verses giving its importance to mankind. One is quoted here, “It is He who has subjected the sea on to you, that ye may eat fish thereof that is fresh and tender, and extract there-from ornaments to wear, and thou seest the ships therein that plough the waves that ye may seek to enrich yourself of the bounty of Allah and that ye may be grateful (16:14)”.
The oceans need special attention from the mankind to keep these clean especially from various forms of pollutants. The developing and underdeveloped countries usually discharge industrial waste and sewerage into the seas and harbors without proper treatment which pollute the beaches and the harbors. Ships cruising through the oceans sometimes discharge their sludge to clean bilges and sewerage tanks. This unwanted waste virtually reaches to the beaches. It is also injurious to marine life. Although IMO laws exist not to pollute the oceans but some dhows and other small vessels do not follow in letter and spirit. Mangroves are special plants which grow in the salt water in the swampy areas. These are breeding ground for the marine life and provide valuable ecosystem services by protecting the coastline. These plants need special attention for preservation as well as regular forestation.
Pakistan is blessed with about 1002 km long coast. The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) extends up to 200 Nautical Miles (370 KM) and extended continental shelf 350 NM (648 km), total area 290,000 square km. Pakistan has not been able to utilize its vast area except for carrying out fishing and means of transportation. Pakistan needs to utilize this huge area by employing latest technological developments in the maritime field to derive maximum economic benefits. Mangroves along the coast are usually used by the poor residents because of no alternate source of energy. The supply of LPG at subsidized cost may be considered. The enforcement of laws regarding industrial waste and sewerage going to sea without proper treatment may be ensured by the concerned authorities. Pakistan needs to focus on a ‘Sustainable Ocean-led Development Paradigm’ to ‘improve the policy and governance of the marine ecosystem.’ Citizens should be made aware of the importance and potential of this sector for the economy and for job creation. Regular TV talk shows may be conducted for the awareness of the masses. Maritime-related subjects should be included in the curriculum of the universities.
Water Crisis: Pakistan running dry
Water is considered to be one of the most important elements on Earth, with two thirds of it covered with water, it is the basic component of human life. Global environment is changing due to the high involvement of humans into nature; they unknowingly contribute to major exploitation of natural resources and then have to face the consequences. Pakistan is already facing a severe water shortage issue, and it is expected that if no emergency measures are taken then the country will dry in the coming years. Pakistan is lacking an efficient water management mechanism, drastic changes are required in policy making regarding the issue in order to secure water for future generations.
Pakistan is a country whose major part of the economy is dependent on agriculture and for the agriculture sector to flourish the country requires continuous supply of water and it is very necessary to ensure availability of water for all domestic, industrial, and economic sectors. By 2035 it is predicted to become a water scarce country, though some experts analyse that this may happen in 2020’s, if not earlier. The on-going water condition is very serious and indicates that Pakistan is on the verge of ending up dry because there is no proper mechanism to ensure water security. Pakistan is ranked amongst one of the most water stressed countries. The availability of water is less and the demand is a lot more. This situation is also known as the ‘Tragedy of Commons’.
There are various major and minor causes of the emerging water crisis in Pakistan. Starting with the Water clash with India which is a constant fear for Pakistan as on various occasions India has threatened and practically stopped the flow of water towards Pakistan and often violated the Indus Water Treaty. Moreover the mismanagement and wastage of resources had added much to this crisis; lastly the political elite still shows no seriousness regarding this issue which is further deteriorating the situation. The Water Scarcity in Pakistan is the result or consequence of inefficient water management by the country. It is time that the country gets serious on the issue and generates proper mechanisms to ensure water security. From the very individual level steps should be taken to conserve water. Political parties should make this issue part of their manifestos and government should initiate National Action Plan to conserve water and reduce wastage of water, through lining of canals, construction of dams and creating awareness all across the country about the adverse situation and what measures are to be adopted in order to overcome this severe crisis. If this adverse situation prolonged it is expected that within Pakistan amongst provinces and internationally amongst countries a war will start, “War on Water”.
Water is not only important for sustenance of life but equally essential for socio-economic development. The rapid growing need of water in the country can only be met through continuous supply of water and for that Pakistan needs to formulate proper mechanisms to conserve water through all possible measures. Therefore, construction dams/reservoirs and an effective water management strategy are the need of time.
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