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How Muslim Propagators Swindle the Western Civilization: Islam and Science Expropriation (A)

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A well-known phrase of Adolf Hitler says: “By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly repeated, it is possible to make people to believe the heaven is hell and hell is heaven. The greater the lie, the more readily it will be believed.” Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda added to this: “A lie told once remains a lie, but a lie told a thousand times becomes the truth… If you tell the same lie enough times, people will believe it; and the bigger the lie, the better.” But it was Winston Churchill to declare: “A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.”

Islamic propaganda, past and present prove these crystal clear. The Arab-Islamic propagation is absolutely shameless and impudent in expropriating other’s values, achievements and even history from them. This ‘totalism’ means that everything existed, developed, organized, and shaped on the universe,according to the Islamic propagation, was originated, created and invented by Islam. Muslims were/are the most technological and the most sophisticated in the universe on the one hand, and the most compassionate, democratic, peace-loving religion, with utmost human morals’ ideals, on the other. Indeed, Karl Marx declared: “The first battlefield is the re-writing of history.” The Muslims have proven to be the uppermost students of Marx’s proverb.

In his Cairo speech on June 7, 2009, President Mubarak Hussein Obama made assertions that at best showed ignorance concerning Islam’s contribution to history and science. These were words of flattering and ignorance, perhaps out of submission and cowardice, without any corroborating facts. He claimed: “As a student of history, I also know civilization’s debt to Islam. It was Islam at places like al-Azhar University that carried the light of learning through so many centuries, paving the way for Europe’s Renaissance and Enlightenment. It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and tools of navigation; mastery of pens and printing.”

To this ignorant faked words, Frank Tipler, a world-class mathematician, physicist, and cosmologist, reacted: Obama is not much of a “student of history” if he believes these. Almost every advance he attributes to the Muslims was due to someone else. The non-Muslim Chinese invented the magnetic compass and printing. The non-Muslim Hindu Indians invented algebra and the decimal numbering system, the zero. The non-Muslim European Christians invented the university.

The history of astronomy and physics shows clearly: the Muslims contributed nothing. All modern physics descends from Galileo (1564-1642); all modern astronomy from Copernicus (1473-1543). Any study of Galileo’s works carefully reveals that he started with achievements of the Greek mathematical physicist Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC-212 BC). Any careful study of Copernicus’ works reveals that Copernicus’ Great Book on Revolutions is essentially a heliocentric re-working of the geocentric astronomy textbook by the Greek Ptolemy (168 AD). Copernicus mostly used even Ptolemy’s data for the positions of the planets. Note the dates for Archimedes-Galileo and Ptolemy- Copernicus. It is as if the Muslim world never existed.

Certainly, the Muslims were a conduit for the discoveries of others. The word “algebra” is indeed derived from an Arabic word. But what was the Islamic contribution to that field? The books of Archimedes and Ptolemy used by Galileo and Copernicus were indeed translations into Latin from the Arabic. But let us never forget that those who translated them were not Arabs but local Christians, Jews, Persians and Assyrians; and let us not forget that Archimedes and Ptolemy wrote their books in Greek, not Arabic. They were Greeks, not Muslims.

Though most of the names for the brightest stars are of Arabic origin, because the names of these stars given in Ptolemy’s textbook were never translated from the Arabic. But do you think that the Arabs were the first humans to observe the first and second brightest stars in Orion? The reason Muslims never developed fundamental physics is because the leading Muslim theologians declared the idea of fixed physical laws to be heretical. There cannot be unchanging physical laws because Allah may change the laws at will (Sûrat al-An’ām, 6:64). Everything in universe works only according to the will of Allah, who controls the skies and everything beneath them. Science cannot start from this viewpoint, let alone flourish. It is totally a blasphemy.The fact is that the only one ‘Muslim’ truly physicist, is the Pakistani Nobel Prize Laurite, Mohammed Abdus Salam. However, “Muslim” should be put in quotes, as he belonged to the Ahmadi sect of Islam, a sect that is heretical according to Islam, as it accepts the modern science. Had he remained in Pakistan, quite possibly would have been executed as being heretical.

William J. Federer has also related to Obama’s ignorance: Indeed, Islamic invasion of the Byzantine Empire was the main cause of the Renaissance revival, but on the reverse way. To escape the Islamic barbaric invasion, Byzantine Greek scholars fled west to Italy, bringing with them their architecture, art, sculpture and philosophy, fueling Europe’s fascination with Greek culture. Why? Muslim Seljuk Turks turned Byzantine Churches into mosques, melted church bells into cannons, leveled cities, dug up remains of Christian Saints and gave them to dogs. Civilization is indebted Islam for Santa Claus, for in 1087, to prevent desecration, Christians moved the bones of Saint Nicholas, the generous 4th century Bishop of Myra, to Bari, Italy.

In Asia, Tamerlane (1336-1405) killed an estimated 17 million, conquering from the Black Sea to India. He captured Moscow and the destroyed many Afghan cities on its inhabitants; massacred 70,000 in Ishfahan and destroyed Sarai Berke, one of Eastern Europe’s largest cities with a population of 600,000. Most important he destroyed all the cultural and scientific sites of India and Afghanistan.

In his memoir “Malfuzat-i-Timuri,” Tamerlane wrote: “There arose in my heart the desire to lead an expedition against the infidels and to become a ghazi… whether I should direct my expedition against the infidels of China or against the polytheists of India. I sought an omen from the Qur’an, and the verse I opened upon was: ‘O Prophet, make war upon the infidels and treat them with severity.’ (Qur’an, 66:9)…  My great officers told me that the inhabitants of Hindustan were infidels. In obedience to Allah I ordered an expedition against them… slaughtered 100,000 in Delhi, leaving pyramids of skulls.” Tamarlane bombarded the Christian city of Smyrna with decapitated heads of its defending knights, and buried alive 4,000 Georgian. Indeed, Tamarlanekilled from Qur’anic piety. He represents a synthesis, probably unprecedented in history, of Mongol barbarity and Muslim fanaticism.

The Scandinavian researcher, Fjordman, also reacts to Obama’s uttering regarding Islam and science: Is there even a single truthful word in his statement? Perhaps Muslims had some decent calligraphy, and a few of their scholars made very small contributions with few sciences, but apart from that everything is total nonsense. The fact is that Arabs and Muslims had the greatest opportunity and huge advantage to be in a favorable geographical position, since the Middle East was the seat of oldest known civilizations on the planet and the source of the most important inventions in human history. The challenge is not to explain why there was a brief burst of creativity in the earliest centuries of Islamic rule; the challenge is to explain why this didn’t last. Islam’s “Golden Age” was in reality the twilight of the conquered pre-Islamic cultures.

It is surely no coincidence that the first civilization in the Indian subcontinent arose in the Indus Valley in northwest, close to Sumerian Mesopotamia, just as it is no coincidence that European civilizations took root in lands that were geographically close to Egypt and Greece. Under Islamic rule the opposite has happened: the Middle East went from being a global center of civilization to being the global center of anti-civilization, of wretchedness and misery of life. This was caused by Islam, which remains the main source of the backwardness and primitivism of this region. Fjordman has another reaction to Obama despised Cairo speech: Is there even a single truthful statement in this entire paragraph? It’s almost total nonsense. The magnetic compass was invented by the Chinese, and possibly by Europeans independently. Printing of books, too, was invented by Chinese, and had been imported to Europe from China. It was stubbornly and persistently rejected by Muslims for a thousand years or more due to Islamic religious edicts. It was well-known that Muslims were familiar with East Asian printing but aggressively rejected it.

The scholar Thomas Allsen has described how the authorities in Iran under Mongolian rule in 1294 attempted to introduce Chinese-style printed banknotes but failed due to popular resistance: “Certainly the Muslim world exhibited an active and sustained opposition to movable type technologies emanating from Europe in the fifteenth century and later. This opposition, based on social, religious and political considerations, lasted well into the eighteenth century. Only then were presses of European origin introduced into the Ottoman Empire and only in the next century did printing become widespread in the Arab world and Iran.”

It is likely that due to trade, Middle Easterners were familiar with printing centuries before this incident, yet because of Islamic religious resistance they did not adopt this great invention until a thousand years or more after it had been invented. Minorities such as Jews or Greek and Armenian Christians were the first to use printing presses in the Ottoman realms. The first book printed in the Persian language was probably a Judaeo-Persian Pentateuch.

As for music, Greek theory on the subject evolved from Pythagoras before 500 BC. The Church was the dominant institution in post-Roman Europe to draw on Greek philosophy and musical theory. Some elements of Christian observances may derive from Jewish tradition, chiefly the chanting of Scripture and the signing of psalms, poems of praise from the Book of Psalms. Christians integrated music into their liturgy. This gave rise to a musical tradition which led to Bach, Mozart and Beethoven. Nothing similar happened in the Islamic world, despite the fact that Muslims had access to much of the same material.

Commenting on Obama’s claim that “throughout history, Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality,” the reaction must be clear-cut: every word here should be put on the opposite side. It is totally reversal, and reversals again the cunning ignorant lying personality of Obama. In reality, it is rather difficult to find such examples from any region in the world where Islam occupied. Islamic doctrines specifically state that Muslims are not supposed to consider infidels to be their equals or to be tolerated. They are supposed to wage war against them until they convert or submit. The Ignorance of Obama status of Dhimmitude, the humiliating apartheid system imposed upon non-Muslims under Islamic rule; huge slavery and ethnic cleansing are really being absurd. The conversion of the entire population to Islam and the extinction of every form of dissent is the ideal of the Muslim State. Infidels cannot be citizens but members of a depressed class, living under a contract of security (Dhimma) with the Islamic State, while their continued existence is conditional and depends upon the good will of the Muslim rulers.

Another link on the internet site, directly refers to “Obama’s numerous lies regarding supposed Islamic inventions/contributions.”The claim: “It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra.” No, it wasn’t. The origins of algebra trace back to the ancient Babylonians. Algebra was temporarily developed by the ancient Greeks and later the English. The claim: Muslims invented “Our magnetic compass, tools of navigation,” No. Research suggests it was discovered in China centuries before the advent of Islam.The claim: Islam gave us “Our mastery of pens and printing…” No. Gutenberg did.The claim: “Islamic has given us some majestic arches and soaring spires…” Now it just getting absurd. Arches were developed in Rome and invented in Mesopotamia.

The claim: Muslims gave us “Our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed…”? Rubbish! The Dutchman, Leeuwenhoek, and the Englishman, Lister, developed the microscope, which permitted men like Cohn (a German) and Redi (an Italian) to study bacteria and other microorganisms. Needham, Spallanzani and Pasteur discovered the “Pasteurization” process for killing bacteria and ensuring sterility. In the 1770’s, the English doctor Edward Jenner discovered the process of vaccination. His cowpox vaccine has since eliminated smallpox from the world, although is still exist in some Muslim countries. Pasteur continued his work, developing a vaccine for anthrax, and Koch, a German, found the bacteriums that cause “black death”, TB and cholera. Indeed, Muslim contribution to medicine is essentially nothing, unless, you consider beheading human beings while yelling “Allahu Akbar” a medical procedure.

Still, the apologists in West continue their idiocy and/or ignorance. Two weeks after September 11, Carly Fiorina, the Hewlett Packard president, presented in her speech in Minneapolis, the following: “Under Islamic military protection there was a degree of peace and prosperity that had never been known. This civilization was driven more than anything by invention. Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the building of computers, and creation of encryption. Its doctors examined the human body, and found new cures for disease. Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the way for space travel and exploration. When other nations were afraid of ideas, this civilization kept them alive, and passed them to others. The technology industry would not exist without contributions of Arab mathematicians. Sufi poet-philosophers challenged our notions of self and truth. Leaders like Suleiman the Magnificent contributed to our notions of tolerance and civic leadership. It was an enlightened leadership that led to 800 years of invention and prosperity.”

This ridiculous piece is annoying, irritating and upsetting. The idea that Islamic culture was a beacon of learning and enlightenment is a big lie, a total myth without any substantiation and corroboration from Islamic history and contemporary, let alone its Scriptures. How can we understand these? Is it ignorance or stupidity? Or is it intimidation or running away from the Islamic fanatic madness? Or is it petro-dollar money? The answer comes from Peter Bet Basoo, the co-founder and director of the Assyrian International News Agency, who responded to Fiorina claims:

As an Assyrian, a non-Arab, Christian native of Iraq, whose ancestors reach back to 5000 years, I wish to alert to the dangers of unwittingly being drawn into Arab/Islamist ideology, which seeks to assimilate and submit all other cultures and religions. Arabs and Muslims appeared on the world scene only after year 630. When the armies of Muhammad began their conquest of the Middle East, they encountered 600 years of Assyrian Christian civilization, with a rich heritage and a highly developed culture, and exactly this civilization became the foundation of the Arab civilization.

As for architecture, if one refers to domes and arches, the fundamental architectural breakthrough of using a parabolic shape for structures was made by Assyrians more than 1300 years earlier, as evidenced by their archaeological record. As for mathematics, the fundamental basis of modern mathematics had been laid down thousands of years before by Assyrians and Babylonians, who already knew of the concept of zero, of the Pythagorean Theorem, and many other developments expropriated by Arabs. Another approach states that the zero and what we know as “Arabic numerals” originated in pre-Islamic India (Otto Neugebauer, History of Babylonian Mathematics).

As for medicine, the overwhelming majority of the doctors (99%) were Assyrians and later Jews. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries Assyrians began a systematic translation of the Greek body of knowledge. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and many others were translated into Assyrian, and from Assyrian into Arabic. It is these translations which the Moors brought with them into Spain, and which the Spaniards translated into Latin and spread throughout Europe. In the field of medicine, the Bakhteesho Assyrian family produced nine generations of physicians, and founded the great medical school at Gundeshapur (Iran). Also in the area of medicine, the Assyrian, Hunayn ibn-Ishaq(809-873) textbook on ophthalmology, written in 950, remained the authoritative source on the subject. The first Arabic-language medical treatise was written by a Christian priest and translated into Arabic by a Jewish doctor in 683. The first hospital was founded in Baghdad, not by a Muslims, but a Nestorian Christian.

As for philosophy, the Assyrian philosopher Job of Edessa developed a physical theory of the universe, in the Assyrian language, that rivaled Aristotle’s theory, and that sought to replace matter with forces (a theory of quantum mechanics and vacuum). Aristotle’s work was preserved in Arabic not by Muslims at all, but by Christians such as the fifth century priest Probus of Antioch, who introduced Aristotle to the Arabic-speaking world. Huneyn ibn-Ishaq also translated many works by Aristotle, Plato and Hippocrates into Syriac. His son translated them into Arabic. The Syrian Christian Yahya Ibn ‘Adi (893-974) also translated works of philosophy into Arabic. His student, another Christian, Abu ‘Ali ‘Isa Ibn Zur’a (943-1008), translated Aristotle and other Greek philosophers from Syriac into Arabic.

One of the greatest Assyrian achievements of the fourth century was the founding of the first university in the world, the School of Nisibis, with three departments: theology, philosophy and medicine, which became the center of intellectual development in the Middle East, and the model upon which the first Italian university was based (Arthur Voobus, the Statutes of the School of Nisibis.

As for astronomy, the astronomers and astrologers were all Chaldeans, Babylonians, not Muslims who were forcibly Arabized and Islamized, and by year 750 they had disappeared completely. The astrolabe was developed long before the rise of Islam.As for literature, Arab-Islamic writing and literature was and still is very little in quantity and very poor in quality. The Qur’an is the only significant piece of literature, whereas the literary output of the Assyrians and Jews was vast, and comprised the most. The third largest corpus of Christian writing, after Latin and Greek, is by the Assyrian language (also known as Syriac). As for the press, it was introduced in the Ottoman Empire only in the 18th century, 300 hundred years after it appeared in Europe.

As for civilizational achievements, the book How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs, by De Lacy O’Leary, lists the significant translators and interpreters of Greek science. Of the 22 scholars listed, 20 were Assyrians, one was Persian and only one an Arab. Assyrians played a significant role in the shaping of the Islamic world via Greek corpus of knowledge. Moreover, Islam itself was significantly molded by Assyrians and Jews.

Another pattern of propagations claim that Islam fostered a rich heritage of scientific discovery, paving the way for modern advances in technology, medicine and all other natural sciences. The truth is totally the opposite. Apart from violence and bloodshed, Islamic contribution to the history of the world is negligent at best. The great achievements that are said to have come out of the Islamic world were made by non-Muslims mostly before but also during the Islamic occupation. The Arab excelled in raids, plundering, butchering and slaughtering, slave-trade, ethnic cleansing, and imperialism and colonialism that culminated in Arabization and Islamization of the occupied lands. In these realms their “inventions” were great and conspicuous.

A Muslim propagator in the West, Mohamad Abdalla, has written a long article, in which he laments that “Muslim contributions to science were deliberately ignored or suppressed, and the view that Muslim scientists produced nothing original remained the orthodox belief.” He begins his article “Modern Science’s Debt to Islamic Civilization,” by declaring that the claim as if “The Arabs only transmitted Greek science and made no contribution to overall history of Western science. Fortunately, many historians of science no longer hold this view. The Arabs acquired the scientific heritage of earlier civilizations, including classical Greece and Rome, and translated, preserved, and transformed much of it. Their scientific experience profoundly impacted the late medieval world of Western Europe, where Muslim scientific achievements were important to the evolving Renaissance and the grand narrative of the history of science…” No less.

Abdalla claims that Westerners know that the Muslims invented algebra, Arabic numerals, and possibly the zero, but show no interest in Islamic science and ignores most of the research conducted during the past 50 years. Europe has no such textbook at all, and the less said about modern Arabic books on Islamic science. The contributions of Muslim scientists are even less well understood in the Islamic world itself, and nothing on Islamic science is available in Arabic. “Today there is sufficient information about the quality and staggering quantity of Islamic science. Muslim scientists were active in many fields, from astronomy to zoology, and made original contributions… These results resulted in a massive scientific movement and the creation of a library on the scale of the world of its time. For the first time scientific traditions from different backgrounds and languages became elements of one science, with new methods and even new disciplines, such as trigonometry, algorithms, and algebra.”

The answer to these highly pretentious but clearly uncorroborated claims is one big “no.” and more of that: those who translated and preserved Greek and Persian and Indian sciences were not Arabs, but indigenous natives of the occupied lands. The Arab tribes, coming from Arabian Peninsula, did not know the Middle Eastern languages, no Persian, no Sankrist, no Greek, and no Latin. They were busy with occupying lands and plundering them. Yet Abdalla continues the fabrication route: “more evidence showing the magnificent work in Islamic science has come to light. Modern history of science studies show that the productive, original scientific research of Muslim scientists persisted into sixteenth century.” However, when defining what does it means “Islamic science,” Abdala reveals his strategy: now it is no longer Arab Science and contributions. He says: “Islamic science perhaps should mean science conducted mainly in Arabic and within the context of Islamic civilization…” This is true. No Arabs, but “many individuals from different ethnic and religious backgrounds Christians, Persians, Sabians, and Jews.”

Indeed, this is true and expresses the entire subject matter of Islam and sciences. However, Abdalla continues to twist and distort by declaring: “Arabic was the main scientific, but not necessarily the native, language of these scientists. While the terms Islamic science and Arabic science are modern historical terms for the science conducted within the context of Islamic civilization, this science is Islamic in the sense that it suited the new and growing needs of Islamic civilization; was available entirely in Arabic, which had replaced Syriac…” indeed, this is exactly the opposite: ancient sciences were translated into Arabic, by non-Arabs, and Islamic science and Arabic science were not conducted within the context of Islamic civilization, but continued by the indigenous scientists who were forced to write in Arabic.

The distortion continues. Abdalla declares that “Islamic science, in this context, does not imply religious sciences (e.g., jurisprudence) but rather the natural sciences (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, and physics).” However “Islamic Science” is indeed exactly only religious science. All along Islamic history including contemporary, 90 percent of all Islamic publications in all Arab-Islamic countries together is religious. Curiosity has not and still does not exist in Islam due to the Qur’anic teachings, and translations from foreign languages is negligent. Publications on Islamic religions is huge, and the sales of other publications is highly poor.

There is a direct link between the contemporary wretchedness and misery of the Islamic world, and its total shameless impudence to exhibit its faked invented greatness and contributions to world civilization. Contemporary reality is clear: the spirit of science in the Arab-Muslim world is as dry as the desert. Muslim states have nine scientists, engineers, and technicians per thousand people, compared with a world average of forty-one. There are approximately 1,800 universities, but in only 312 of those scholars have published journal articles. There are roughly 1.6 billion Muslims in the world, but only two scientists have won Nobel Prize. Spain alone, hardly an intellectual superpower, contributes more of world’s scientific literature than all Muslim countries together. Spain translates more foreign books in a single year than the entire Arab world has in the past thousand years. In one year, the United States published almost 11 thousand scientific papers that were frequently cited, while the entire Arab world published only four. Between 1980 and 2000, Korea granted 16,328 patents, while all Arab countries granted a combined total of only 370, many of them registered by foreigners.

Abdalla arrogantly and impudently continues by claiming that the originality of Islamic science and its significant innovation is clear in several fields, including mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Originality in mathematics. Recent research proves that many of the ideas that once were thought to belong to European mathematicians of the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries were in fact originated by Islamic mathematicians. They have made original contributions that directly influenced arithmetic, geometry, algebra, algorithms and other fields. By the time of Khawarizmi, many other important works in Arabic were well ahead of the West. In many respects, the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of the Muslims than of the Greeks. No less. That is why he claims in Arab-Islamic countries the study of mathematics is so advanced and Muslim scientist are in the forefront of scientific research.

Abdalla and his fellows, like George Saliba and Ziauddin Sardar, admits: “scientific experiments have been devised to discover what is mentioned in the Qur’an but not known to science… this view is now the most popular version of Islamic science… not all knowledge, including scientific knowledge, can be found in the Qur’an.” This is exactly the problem, as this claim makes Abdalla and his fellow apostates according to Islam, and apostasy was exactly the cause why Islamic science flourished in only a short period of time, and perished forever. As long as Islam exist, rational sciences based on critical thinking, skepticism and question-asking are denied.

Another propagator Hamza Dhib Mustafa, member of the Supreme Fatwa Council, has declared: “Europe and the West in general, would never have reached these principles had they not been influenced by the advanced Islamic culture and had they not borrowed much from it… Islamic societies are cultured, humane and righteous societies, since oppression had not found its way to them and the killing did not spread nor extend among them. Human beings are equal from the point of view of Islam… Everyone is equal under the law in terms of their rights and obligations…This and more, Islam promises various rights to the human. It promises him freedom of religion and citizenship, freedom of thought, the right to property, political freedom and his right to employment. The thing that has no doubt… is that Islam preceded Europe and the West, in general, with all that pertains to matters of human rights by no less than 13 centuries…The Muslims and their societies are more advanced and more sublime than the West and its societies. They are earlier in human civilization, and are more perfect in value system and humanity. The fact that there are those who believe that these are Western values – it is a delusion and false, since the Muslims are masters, leaders and teachers of the world, even if the West rejects this. It is no wonder that this is rejected by the West, the most eager rival of Islam, its followers and its culture.”

There is more. Muslim propagators launched a block-buster exhibition at the world famous London Science Museum, January 2010, entitled: “1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World.” Accordingly, the shameless propagation continues: “it traces the forgotten story of a thousand years of science from the Muslim world, from the 7th century onwards that still shape everyday life. This free entry exhibition looks at the social, scientific and technical achievements that are credited to the Muslim world… Featuring a diverse range of over 60 interactive, sensory and static exhibits, the exhibition demonstrates how many modern inventions can trace their roots back to Muslim civilization.” The interactive show covers many aspects of human life.

Such claims have even been forced upon the general public in a nationwide tour which opened with an exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester and the University of Manchester. Moreover, this exhibit, “1001 Inventions: Discover the Golden Age of Muslim Civilization” was also displayed at the Washington, D.C. museum from August 2012 till February 2013, featuring a video starring by actor Ben Kingsley, as well as various interactive displays. To add to this calamity, one can also find a short film entitled “1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets” which claims that much of the science we take for granted was drawn from Islamic discoveries.

To this huge pile of lies, Alan Robertson has reacted: the only Islamic inventions are the lies and the preposterous claims from Muslims. The exhibition of “Muslim inventions” is an absurd example of deception, misrepresentation and falsification of history in order to appease the ever growing Third World colonization of our country. The exhibition claims to reveal all the contributions which Islam has made to civilization.

Central to the exhibition is a model of a wooden water wheel. There is also a picture of a stone arch originating some 2000 years BC. Sources show that the earliest known arches did originate in Mesopotamia. On the interactive display one can see that coffee was apparently ‘invented’ by an Arab in the ninth century. Invented? Are they serious? Carpets first appeared in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Middle East about 2000 BC. How can carpets or coffee be an invention?

Another exhibit is entitled “naming the stars,” as if the Arabs translated the original names for the stars from a well-known book by the Greek astrologer Ptolemy. While the West has sent probes into deep space, are we supposed to marvel at the fact that Muslims merely renamed the stars? In 852 AD, a Muslim holy man jumped from a tower wearing a billowy, large cloak and lived to tell the tale. Also, in the ninth century, Abbas Ibn Firnas attempted to fly using a wing frame attached to his arms, whereupon his back was seriously injured. Muslims apparently invented the concept of the spherical earth in the ninth century. However, the earliest known records of the concept of a spherical Earth came from Pythagoras, Aristotle, and Eratosthenes made an estimate for the circumference of the Earth.

Indeed, contemporary public opinion is bombed with publications concerning many inventions claimed and attributed to Islamic creation, which in fact either existed in pre-Islamic eras, or were invented by other cultures, or both of these.

*part of a larger book titled, Why Islam is a Danger to the World: A Scholarly Rebuttal of Muslim Propaganda, be published by Mellen Press.

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Ukraine’s Autocephaly: First Results and Possible Influence on Orthodox World

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Nearly three months ago, on January 6, Patriarch Bartholomew signed the Tomos of Autoceplahy for the Ukrainian Orthodoxy. Though the whole process of granting autocephaly took less than a year – Ukraine’s President Petro Poroshenko appealed to the Ecumenical Patriarchate in April 2018 – the “healing of the schism” seems to be requiring much more time as the reconciliation between former schismatics and the Orthodox Church, which used to be the only canonical one in Ukraine, can’t happen in one moment.

The Phanar is said to have implemented everything Kyiv had asked it to: the leaders of the two previously schismatic churches – the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate (UOC-KP) and Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) were suddenly reinstated. The two organizations merged in the Orthodox Church of Ukraine (OCU), which was designed to unite the Ukrainian faithful and attract the followers of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchate (UOC-MP). After the Tomos of autocephaly was granted to the OCU in early January, its hierarchs and the state urged the followers of other denominations (primarily of the UOC-MP) to join the newly established church.

To date, more than 500 UOC-MP parishes have transferred to the OCU. Ukrainian media claim that the majority of them were voluntary but according to the recent report of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), in some cases they were initiated by state or local authorities or even representatives of extreme right-wing groups, who were not members of those religious communities. If the Orthodox Church of Ukraine wants the UOC-MP followers actively join it, its hierarchs must intervene and show that violence is not a solution.

Autocephaly was to become one of Poroshenko’s main advantages during the elections. He finally brought to the Ukrainians an independent church separate from Moscow and recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate. However, recent polls show that he is lagging behind. The newly elected OCU Primate Epiphanius often highlights the role of Petro Poroshenko in the process of gaining autocephaly but it hardly yields any results as it makes the OCU look like a political project.

So far, the Tomos so hastily granted by Constantinople hasn’t brought the long-expected peace to the Ukrainian Orthodoxy. Believers are still divided, violence has grown and the authority of the new church leaders in Ukraine is weak.

Autocephaly affected not only Ukraine but also the Orthodox world. The Tomos, which was fiercely opposed by the Moscow Patriarchate for obvious reasons, led to an increased level of misunderstanding between the Orthodox Local Churches. Some Churches (of Antioch, Serbia and Poland) joined Moscow in criticizing Constantinople while the others still haven’t recognized the Orthodox Church of Ukraine. There have been calls to convene a Pan-Orthodox Synaxis on the Ukrainian issue (for example by John X of Antioch) but Patriarch Bartholomew refused to hold such a council.

The Ukrainian autocephaly did influence the relations between the Local Churches, and this influence wasn’t positive.

Really disturbing is that the Ecumenical Patriarchate can no longer unite or reconcile the other Local Churches. One can remember the conflict between the Churches of Jerusalem and Antioch in 2013 when the first established an archdiocese in Qatar, the land which canonically belongs to the Patriarchate of Antioch. The Phanar that claims to bear the title ‘first among equals’ did nothing to resolve the issue, and that was one of the reasons why the most ancient Orthodox Church was absent at the Pan-Orthodox Council convened by Patriarch Bartholomew on Crete in 2016.

However, Constantinople willingly interferes in the affairs of the Local Churches if it’s beneficial for it. Along with the Ukrainian issue, the Ecumenical Patriarchate is focused on France, in particular on the Archdiocese of Russian Orthodox Churches in Eastern Europe (AROCWE). On November 27, 2018, the Holy Synod of the EP suddenly and unilaterally dissolved the Archdiocese declaring that all its parishes and properties must be transferred to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The Extraordinary General Assembly held on February 23, 2019, refused to dissolve the Archdiocese. Later, it will be decided whether to come under the jurisdiction of another Church – the Moscow Patriarchate, Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia or Romanian Orthodox Church.

It is still unclear why all of a sudden Constantinople decided to revoke the Tomos of 1999 granted to the AROCWE. It is rumored that this was masterminded by Metropolitan Emmanuel (Adamakis) of France who decided to acquire the Archdiocese’s parishes. Of course, such an act doesn’t boost Constantinople’s popularity among the AROCWE parishioners.

Another act unilaterally revoked by the Phanar was the 1686 ruling that placed Ukraine under the Patriarchate of Moscow. This was a decision that led to the escalation of the conflict between Moscow and Constantinople. These two incidents are serious reasons for concern. What if it decides to declare the ‘New Lands’ in Greece its own territory, for example? An Orthodox war between the Church of Greece and the Phanar?

The Ecumenical Patriarchate has shown how easily it can influence the fates of Orthodox Churches by revoking or interpreting documents it had once issued. On the other hand, it’s not that capable of resolving conflicts even in its own dioceses (see the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America whose Primate Archbishop Demetrios faces strong criticism amid numerous calls of Bartholomew to leave). The gap between Local Churches is widening. And today the Ecumenical Patriarchate is not seen as the leader, the ‘first among equals’ at least, that can unite the Orthodoxy and deal with the threat of another great schism.

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Religion

Plight of Christians in India

Amjed Jaaved

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Two Hindu teenagers in Pakistan embraced Islam. It was alleged that they were abducted and forced to change their religion. Pakistan is looking into the incident to ferret out the truth. India’s external-affairs minister trumpeted the incident into limelight.  All major newspapers published her rants. Her knee-jerk was obviously intended to please Hindutva adherents, to mint political advantage and to spur anti-Pakistan sentiments. India, itself, has a long history of forced conversions, and persecution of minorities, particularly the Christians. Let us have a bird’s-eye of the problem in India.

Roots of Christianity in India

Christianity is India’s third-most followed religion after Hinduism and Islam. According to religious tables in India’s 2011 census of population, excepting counting, errors and omissions, about 28 million Christians live in India. They constitute 2.3 percent of India’s population.   Thomas the Apostle introduced Christianity to India. He reached the Malabar Coast (Kerala) in 52 AD. And, he carried on preaching in every nook and corner of India until martyred.

Today, Christians live all across particularly in South India and the southern shore, the Konkan Coast, and Northeast India. Through sheer hard work, Indian Christians developed niches in all walks of Indian national life. They include former and current chief ministers, governors and chief election commissioners. To ruling Bharatya Janata party’s chagrin, Christians are the second most educated religious group in India after Jains. Christian women outnumber men among the various religious communities in India.

Arrival of Catholicism

Till 16th century, Roman Catholicism was unknown to India.   It was introduced by the Portuguese, Italian and Irish Jesuits who preached the gospel of Jesus Christ among the Indians. Alongside preaching, the preachers established Christian schools, hospitals, primary health-care centres through their missions. Later, British, American, German, Scottish missionaries came to preach Evangelical. The evangelist introduced English in missionary schools and translated the Holy Bible into various Indian languages (including Urdu, Hindi, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, and others).

Christians now form a major religious group in three states of India:  Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland with plural majority in Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.  Significant Christian population lives in Coastal Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Kanara (South India).

Threat

Disgusted with religio-economic extremism, more and more people, including dalits (down-trodden) are converting to Christianity, a class-less community. Dalits are not allowed to enter even high-caste Hindu temples. Some dalits were even killed at doorsteps of temples for daring tread foot-steps to temples. According to religious tables in India’s Census Report, 24 million Christians constitute 2.3 percent of India’s total population of 1,028 million. The Christian population includes 14 million Christian dalits. Dalits are Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist members of “untouchable” castes who convert to Christianity. The untouchable Christians are the most neglected community in India.

Despite India’s Supreme Court’s decision, Sabrimala Temple remained out of bound for even high-caste adult women. The fanatic Hindus fear lest Christianity, with its egalitarian and social- service message, should engulf Hinduism.

 Beginning of Christians’ persecution

India’s present prime minister Narendra Modi, when chief minister of Gujarat state, and LK Advani could be called pioneers of anti-Christian movement. They distributed Bharatya Janata Party (BJP) manifesto, which, inter alia, spoke of enacting an anti-conversion law in states including Gujarat. The laws against conversion are meant to persecute Christian and Muslim minorities.

The BJP’s manifesto was outcome of decades of hatred, stoked up by Hindutva (Hindu nationalist) elements acting with legal impunity and state governments’ connivance. The anti-Muslim hatred created a gory situation first in Gujarat and then in Orissa. The BJP accentuated its propaganda to create an incendiary situation against the aforementioned minorities in different states during elections.

The BJP acted hands in gloves with Sangh Parivar a collection of Hindu nationalist organisations co-operating towards making India a Hindu State to weave religion and politics strategically together in the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) enabling the Sangh to exploit religion for political gain.

Majoritarian justification

The ostensible justification for such laws is that, in a democracy, the majority has the right to benefit from the principle of ‘majority rule. So, Hindustan (India) is primarily for the Hindus only.

Legal rigmarole

The anti-conversion campaign aimed at restricting the right to propagate religion, which is guaranteed by Article 25 of the Indian Constitution. The aim of the two parties was to convert India into a Hindu state. India claims to be a secular country. But, unfortunately, the country’s legislative history, relating to the issue of conversion underscores the reality that the government always harbored grudge against conversion. Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan. Arunachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu passed Freedom of Religion Acts. A common feature of these anti-conversion law is that they made so-called ‘forced conversion’ a cognisable offence under sections 295 A and 298 of the Indian Penal Code.

Cognisability of the offence licensed police to harass missionaries and converts under influence of Hindu fanatics or Government functionaries. Some Indian courts intervened to stop persecution of nouveau converts or Christian preachers. For instance, Chief Justice A.N. Ray in Reverend Stainislaus v. State of Madhya Pradesh (AIR 1977 SC 908), and Yulitha v. State of Orissa and others, ruled that propagation is different from conversion. Ray observed adoption of a new religion is freedom of conscience, while conversion would impinge on ‘freedom of choice’ granted to all citizens alike. But the state governments remained nonchalant to the courts’ observations. The courts’ decisions being declaratory (certiorari), not mandatory (mandamus), remained un-implemented. Interestingly, India’s Ministry of Home Affairs (February 1981) advised the State Governments and Union Territories to enact laws to regulate change of religion on the lines of the existing Acts in Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Arunachal Pradesh (The Statesman, Delhi, November 16, 1982).

There are iron-clad guarantees in the Constitution for religious freedom. Yet, not only the born Christians but also Hindus who become Christians complain of persecution. It is not only Orissa, but also several other Indian states that have passed anti-conversion bills forbidding Hindus to convert to other religions. Such legislation violates the UN Charter of Human Rights which gives a person right to change his or her religion.

Harassment and social boycott

To discourage dalits from converting to Christianity, not only the Centre but also the Indian states have deprived ‘dalit Christians’ of minority-status privileges. Any Hindu who converts to Christianity is socially boycotted and tortured in different ways. Six women at Kilipala village in Jagatsinghpur district (Orissa) had their heads tonsured by influential Hindus. Their offence was abandoning Hindu faith at their own free will. Christian missionaries are harassed, deported and even killed. Indian government ordered ‘deportation of three American preachers from Church of Christ in North Carolina on the first available flight to the US.’. To add insult to their injury, the preachers were even attacked by Hindu fanatics. They had a narrow escape. Courts rarely punish people who manhandle Christian preachers. Dara Singh murdered Australian missionary Graham Staines and his two minor sons.

A few years back, Hindus attacked Christians as tit-for-tat for a book which allegedly insulted Hindu deities. Investigations revealed that the book was not written by any Christian. But, it happened to be displayed on one of the Emmanuel Mission’s book-shops for sale. The Mission is a Christian organisation that runs a chain of schools in various Indian states.

Hindus ignore the fact that Christian missionaries started coming to India, particularly the North-East, in the late 19th century. They promoted education and socio-economic developmental work in the region. In Rajasthan, the Emmanuel Mission, alone, runs over 50 schools.The bill makes religious conversion a non-bailable offence. While giving vent to their wrath against Christians,

Secret survey of Christians

Indian states sometimes conduct secret surveys of Christian population. With Narendra Modi, then as chief minister, the Gujarat government harboured xenophobic attitude not only towards Muslims but also Christians.

A survey of the Christians’ living in northern and central Gujarat, in February 1999 was withdrawn after protests.  Modi restarted the survey March 2003 and May 2003 in Christian – inhabited areas (Ahmedabad, Sanaskantha, Jabarkantha,  Kutch,  Rajkot, Patan, Vadodara, Anand and Banaskantha).

The purpose of the survey was to ‘pinpoint Christians and sort them out, if they become a headache like Muslims’. Indian Express dated June 13, 2003 (dateline Ahmedabad, June 13, 2003) reported Gujarat police has again started a survey of Christian localities.  The Christian community in Indian state of Gujarat came to know of the survey when policemen in plain clothes visited a few institutions in Kheda district of central Gujarat and made enquiries about their source of funds, origin and items of expenditure.

The Christian community was rueful at the recommencement of the survey.  To them, it negated the state’s then chief minister Narendra Modi’s assurance to visiting team of the National Commission for Minorities,  “No survey or census of Christians or other minorities would be carried out in the state”.

The policemen allegedly had a list of 42 Christian institutes, including Don Bosco School and Pushpanjali Society, in Kheda district.  The Don Bosco is a secondary school run for poor students from nearby villages, with 150 boys staying in the boarding. Puspanjali is a medical centre with boarding capacity for 60 girls studying in the school.

The Christian trustees refused to give information for fear of harm at the hands of the fanatic Hindus. The analysts point out that the survey of institutions or homes to note down addresses of people on a communal basis are usually a prelude to focused violence against minority communities. Similar surveys were conducted some year ago when Sangh Parivar stalwarts targeted Christian tribes in the Dangs area. Such surveys are akin to door-to-door survey of Jewish localities in pre-World-War-II Germany. 

In a resolution, the RSS has called upon the Hindus, particularly Swayamsevaks, to be vigilant about `anti-national and terrorist’ Christian groups, posing a threat to the country’s internal security. It urged the Government to take strong measures against said groups. They condemned Pope John Paul II’s statement criticising Indian states’ legislations banning conversions of the Hindus by missionaries.  The executive declared that such conversions were a direct challenge to the sovereignty of the country. It is significant to mention that the Pope had just said that ‘‘free exercise of the natural right to religious freedom was prohibited in India”. RSS’s resolution ignored that the right to change one’s religion was enshrined in the UNO’s Charter of Human Rights, also.

The RSS  urged the Centre to lodge a protest with the Pope for exhorting the Christian missionaries to carry on their campaign of conversions defying the law of the land. The persecution continued for five more years. On 12 October 2008, he Pope Benedict XVI was compelled to draw Indian government’s attention the continuing anti-Christian violence in India.

On 28 October, the Vatican called upon the memory of Mahatma Gandhi for an end to the religious violence in Orissa. In a written appeal addressed to Hindus, the Vatican office said Christian and Hindu leaders needed to foster a belief in non-violence among followers (“Vatican invokes Gandhi in plea to end Orissa violence“. In.reuters.com. 28 October 2008).

Christians dubbed `insurgents’

In his interview with India Today (April 4, 2005, Christian Missionaries are with Naxals, page 80-81), K. S. Sudersan (Rashtrya Swayem Sevak Sangh) says, ‘Naxals have a safe base in Andhra Pradesh because Christian missionaries are with them. They attack mandir (temples) and other Hindu institutions but never attack a Church.  Because the Chief Minister is a Christian, he has given them abhaydaan (freedom from fear)and crowds of two lakh or more they can gather’.

Sizeable number of Christians (Catholics) also lives in Pondicherry and Goa. A much smaller number live scattered amongst the majority Hindu population in the rest of India.

Trajectory of anti-Christian violence

Incidents of violence against Christians have occurred in nearly all parts of India, it has largely been confined to north, central, and western India, in the states of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and the capital area of New Delhi.

Most incidents remain un-reported for fear of reprisal. Reported incidents date as far back as back as 1964. Human-rights body incorporate reported incidents.

The genocide of Christians in India’s north-eastern state Orissa was outcome of Hindus’ muffled hatred against Christians. Over 500 Christians, including some nuns, were burnt alive. Countless churches, houses and shops were gutted. Even Christian orphanages were not spared. India is, constitutionally, a secular country.

In 1999 a Human Rights Watch (HRW) report stated that Vishva Hindu Parishad (VHP), Bajrang Dal, and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (the sister organisations of the Bharatiya Janata Party) are the most accused Hindu organizations for violence against Christians in India.  The National Commission for Minorities has stated that the State governments ruled by the Bharatiya Janata Party and its allies provided support to the perpetrators. In most reported cases the named perpetrators are members of the Sangh Parivar organizations. The Sangh Parivar are small subgroups that formed under the umbrella of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), an umbrella organization whose roots date back to 1925. The RSS, who promote a form of Hindu nationalism called Hinduvata, oppose the spread of “foreign religions” like Islam and Christianity. According to Human Rights Watch, Sangh Parivar and local media were also involved in promoting anti-Christian propaganda in Gujarat. Mainstream ProtestantCatholic and Orthodox Christians are targeted far less frequently than Evangelical and Pentecostal Christians. There was an increase in incidents of violence against Christians after the new BJP government under Narendra Modi came to power after the general election in April–May 2014. Maximum number incidents were reported from Uttar Pradesh. According to a report by Open Doors, the  persecution of Christians in India increased sharply in the year 2016.  

Attacks on churches

In June 2000, four churches around India were bombed (Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu).  A church in Maharashtra was ransacked.  In September 2008, two churches were partly damaged in Kerala. In 2015, a church building under construction was vandalised in Haryana. St. George church in Mumbai was also attacked by masked persons. In the same month, the cathedral of Jabalpur was attacked and more than a dozen people were injured. The same cathedral had also been attacked in 2008 and the entire altar burnt down. In April 2015, St. Mary’s Church in Agra was vandalised and statues of Mother Mary and the Infant Jesus were damaged. A Church in Kachna area of Raipur was attacked by a mob during a Sunday service and five people were injured when they tried to stop the assailants.

Several churches were attacked in the capital Delhi in recent years. They include St. Sebastian’s Church (burned), St. Stephen’s college chapel May 5, 2018 (vandalised and the cross desecrated with pro-Hindutva slogans).

In Madhya Pradesh a church was destroyed and bibles were burnt in Mandla district in September 2014. In March 2015, a Bible convention was attacked in Jabalpur, with allegations that religious conversions were taking place. So on.

Christian Council protests

The All-India Christian Council’s president, Joseph D’Souza, alleged, “The State Government was been a passive spectator and often connives, by its deliberate inaction, in the violence against Christians’. According to the Council, ‘Apart from ignoring the distress calls of the community, the Central Government nurtures a hate campaign against it. There should be a halt to the calumny unleashed by the Sangh Parivar leaders”. The Council regretted that the Indian constitution was secular only in name.  In practices, the minorities’ life and prestige was at the mercy of the armed RSS gangs’ _ Four nuns and three Brothers belonging to the Missionaries of Charity were attacked by a 40-member gang chanting pro-RSS slogans at a Scheduled Caste colony in Nallalam near Kozhikode in north Kerala.

Inference

With likely BJP’s win 2019 elections, hard times await Christians and other minorities. Till a let up in Kashmiri protests, the Christians can sleep well.

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Religion

Hindu jihad (holy war): India Pakistan context

Amjed Jaaved

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There is a deluge of malevolent propaganda concerning Islamic Jihad.  But, the Hindu kinds of holy yuddha (crusades) are rarely focused.

Islamic jihad

The non-Muslim writers not only mistranslate the word jihad for qitaal (blood-shed), but also distort the true meaning of Quranic texts by quoting them out of context with ahadith (sayings about Holy Prophet Mohammad  life) or peculiar situations to which they relate. The Qur’an gives a clear instruction that there is no compulsion in religion (2: 256). It states that people will remain different (11: 118), they will always have different religions and ways and this is an unalterable fact (5:48). God tells the Prophet that most people will not believe ‘even if you are eager that they should’ (12: 103).  Quran enjoins wars are to be avoided (Quran 8:61, 47:35; Bukhari 56:112, 156:94:8 Sahih of Muslim).

For one thing, Islamic jihad (Al-Quran 25: 52) does not mean ‘Holy War’. That term does not exist in Arabic and its translation into Arabic sounds quite alien. Jihad is always described in the Qur’an as fi sabil l’illah. It can mean argumentation, financial help or actual fighting. The term, which is specifically used for fighting, is Qitaal (a compulsion when you are attacked and flushed out of your homes).

Hindu holy and unholy wars

There is too much of negative publicity about Islamic jihad (struggle).  But, there is little limelight on koota yuddha in India’s history. 

The Ramayanas and the Mahabharata wars elucidate various types of yuddha (wars).  In ancient India there were three schools of war.  Bhishma’s school of warfare belonged to dharma yuddha (ethical or just war). Two other schools, Brihaspati’s and Krishna’s school of warfare belonged to koota yuddha (all-out war) or maya yuddha (war by tricks or stratagems).

Bhishma stressed chivalry and ruled out surprise and deception.  But, Brihaspati recommended that the king should attack an enemy only if the enemy’s strength is one-third of his own (`Udyog Parva’). He suggested that the king should never trust the enemy or spare him, no matter how old or virtuous he may be.

Similarly, keynote of Krishna’s military philosophy was `end justifies the means’. He laid great stress on deception. `Truth may often have to be sacrificed in pursuit of victory’ (Karma Parva). He advocated use of force to defeat the enemy if he was superior in strength or capability (Shalya Parva). Opportunity once wasted never returns (`Shanti Parva’).

Even the enlightened Hindu and the military writers believe that India’s prosperity during various periods of history, for example during the Maurya and the Gupta periods, rose or fell pari passu with rise or fall of military leadership (Major General Rajendra Nath, Military Leadership in India: Vedic Period to Indo-Pak Wars.1990.Lancers Books). 

Since partition, the Hindu leaders have put a tab on their innate desire to expose their urge for koota yuddha with Pakistan because of political expediency.  India’s confidence-building measures did not contribute to solution of the Kashmir, or Sir Creek issues. They were dilly-dallying tactics to hold a plebiscite in disputed Kashmir. The Congress espoused the cause of secularism to avoid unfettering the polyglot, multi-religious multi-racial genie. 

To understand koota yuddha in a modern context, one should first understand popular meanings of the word `Hindu’, Hindustan (hindusthan, bharatvarsha), `Hinduism’ and Hindutva.  According to bulk of literature on the subject, `Hinduism’ is not a closely-knit or bounded faith or collection of doctrines.  It is a religion (mazhab, not i), or a way of life without a founder.  According to Encyclopaedia Britannica 1994-2001: “Hinduism is both a civilisation and a congregation of religions: it has neither a beginning nor a founder, nor a central authority, hierarchy nor organization.  Every attempt at a specific definition of Hinduism has proved unsatisfactory in one way or another…”. The ‘Hindu’ were persons inhabiting the Indus valley area and beyond.  The territory inhabited by them was Hindustan.  But, the communalistic Hindu calls the territory Hindusthan (the Hindu’s place).   The suffix ‘-stan’ being of non-Hindu origin is obnoxious to good sense of the communalists.  The communalists find Bharatvarsha more palatable.  This word originated from an ancient Hindu king Bharatvarsha.  The communalists’ outfits like Sangh Parivar use this name preferentially as it emphasises Vedic roots of the country and its original people.  Hindutva is controversially defined in Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in his book Hindutva, and adopted by Hedgewar as the basis of his ideology (An Indian parliamentary committee resurrected him as a hero by allowing his portrait to be hung in Indian parliament).  The RSS’s aims are a mix of cultural, religious and political objectives – To serve Hindu dharma (religion), sanskriti (culture) and rashtra (nation).  Sarvarkar distinguishes ‘Hinduism’ from ‘Hindutva’. He clarified that the `Hinduism’ was concerned with `relevance of life after death, the concept of God and the Universe’.  ‘Hindutva’, on the other hand, was ‘Hindus being a nation, bound by a common culture, a common history, a common language, a common country and a common religion’.  Koota yuddha is an article of faith with the Rashtriya Swayemsewak Sangha.  All its recruits, 10 years’ old and above, are obliged to take the following pratigya (oath): In the name of God and my ancestors. I hereby become a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh for the all-round progress of Bharatvarsh (ancient name of India) by strengthening the holy Hindu dharma (religion). Hindu sanskiti (culture and Hindu society). I shall do the Sangha work with all my heart to the best of my ability and that I shall be bound by this oath for the whole of my life.  Bharat Mata Ki Jai ! (Glory to Mother India!).

Following assassination of Gandhi by a former activist of the Sangh, the RSS was banned. To wriggle out of the ban and to appease Sardar Patel, the RSS, in 1948, dropped the term `rashtra’ from its manifesto. Be it noted that, before independence, the pledge included the term ‘Hindu rashtra’.  The expunction of the word `rashtra’ from the oath-text does not mean that the Sangh had renounced political dimensions of its thought or practice. 

The RSS’s genocidal role is a caricature of Preamble to The Constitution of India which states: “WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a [SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCATIC REPUBLIC] …”.  Besides, Article 15 of the Constitution prohibits discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.  Terrorism Research Centre, an American think-tank based in East Virginia, enlisted RSS among the world’s leading terrorist organisations.  It is significant to note that the Indian media is heavily tilted towards the RSS.  In fact the RSS has of late become the unofficial spokesman of the Indian government. 

Not only the RSS, but also Vishwa Hindu Parishad, and Indian political parties tacitly believe in koota yuddha.  Reason:  The minorities together are not more than one third of the Hindu population (read Brihaspati’s udyog parva principle justifying 2,800 years back merciless attack when one is numerically three times superior). Illustrations of koota yuddha are Gujarat carnage under prime minister Narendra Modi, then chief minister, burning of Christians’ alive, attack on Golden Temple, anti-sikh riots of 1984, killing of beef-eating minorities by cow guards (gao rakhshak), persecution of Kashmiri students in Indian states, and so on.  A crystal-clear manifestation of this mentality was ruling-BJP-supported then Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi’s 11-phase gaurav or papadshahi yatra (pride parade) in July 2002. Earlier, in June 2002, Bal Thackray had said, ‘Muslims can never be trusted.  They are like snakes’.

Wake-up call for Pakistan

History tells that only countries with a stable equilibrium between its centrifugal and centripetal forces stay afloat in comity of nations. At the time of Partition, it was predicted that both India and Pakistan would break up into ‘congeries of states’. The basis of this prediction was inability of the new republics to deal with myriad centrifugal forces gnawing into the body politic. In post-independence period, India was fortunate to have visionary leaders who tactfully muzzled centrifugal forces like insurgencies in East Punjab and eastern states, besides the Dravidian and Naxal Bari movements. Indian Union bowed to insurgents’ demands for creation of new states. And, insurgency leaders became chief ministers! India forgot yester years when they burnt to ashes copies of Indian constitution, uprooted rail tracks, immobilizing everyday life. Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Nagaland and the East Punjab appeared to secede from the Union. India stayed united because of its resilience, we disintegrated.

Pakistan learnt nothing from East-Pakistan debacle (Asghar Khan, We’ve learnt nothing from history). India is now engaged against Pakistan in what Kautliya calls maya yuddha (war of tricks) or koota yuddha (all-out warfare). She is out to isolate Pakistan, get it dubbed as a terrorist state, and corner it by presence in Chahbahar and some Central Asian airbases (Aeini or Farkhor airbases in Tajikistan). Ibn-e-Khaldun says that it is asabia (nationalism) that enables a country to withstand challenges. Toynbee’s Challenge and Response Theory also reminds that if challenges are too heavy, a nation becomes apathetic to environment. Apathy leads to mental degradation, decay and extinction.

Pakistani leaders, including prime-ministers-weres and prime-ministers-to-be should take off their blinkers and try to understand how India, through koota yuddha, hands in glove with likeminded countries, is trying to wreck their economy and country.

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