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How Muslim Propagators Swindle the Western Civilization: Islam and Science Expropriation (A)

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A well-known phrase of Adolf Hitler says: “By means of shrewd lies, unremittingly repeated, it is possible to make people to believe the heaven is hell and hell is heaven. The greater the lie, the more readily it will be believed.” Hitler’s Minister of Propaganda added to this: “A lie told once remains a lie, but a lie told a thousand times becomes the truth… If you tell the same lie enough times, people will believe it; and the bigger the lie, the better.” But it was Winston Churchill to declare: “A lie gets halfway around the world before the truth has a chance to get its pants on.”

Islamic propaganda, past and present prove these crystal clear. The Arab-Islamic propagation is absolutely shameless and impudent in expropriating other’s values, achievements and even history from them. This ‘totalism’ means that everything existed, developed, organized, and shaped on the universe,according to the Islamic propagation, was originated, created and invented by Islam. Muslims were/are the most technological and the most sophisticated in the universe on the one hand, and the most compassionate, democratic, peace-loving religion, with utmost human morals’ ideals, on the other. Indeed, Karl Marx declared: “The first battlefield is the re-writing of history.” The Muslims have proven to be the uppermost students of Marx’s proverb.

In his Cairo speech on June 7, 2009, President Mubarak Hussein Obama made assertions that at best showed ignorance concerning Islam’s contribution to history and science. These were words of flattering and ignorance, perhaps out of submission and cowardice, without any corroborating facts. He claimed: “As a student of history, I also know civilization’s debt to Islam. It was Islam at places like al-Azhar University that carried the light of learning through so many centuries, paving the way for Europe’s Renaissance and Enlightenment. It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra; our magnetic compass and tools of navigation; mastery of pens and printing.”

To this ignorant faked words, Frank Tipler, a world-class mathematician, physicist, and cosmologist, reacted: Obama is not much of a “student of history” if he believes these. Almost every advance he attributes to the Muslims was due to someone else. The non-Muslim Chinese invented the magnetic compass and printing. The non-Muslim Hindu Indians invented algebra and the decimal numbering system, the zero. The non-Muslim European Christians invented the university.

The history of astronomy and physics shows clearly: the Muslims contributed nothing. All modern physics descends from Galileo (1564-1642); all modern astronomy from Copernicus (1473-1543). Any study of Galileo’s works carefully reveals that he started with achievements of the Greek mathematical physicist Archimedes of Syracuse (287 BC-212 BC). Any careful study of Copernicus’ works reveals that Copernicus’ Great Book on Revolutions is essentially a heliocentric re-working of the geocentric astronomy textbook by the Greek Ptolemy (168 AD). Copernicus mostly used even Ptolemy’s data for the positions of the planets. Note the dates for Archimedes-Galileo and Ptolemy- Copernicus. It is as if the Muslim world never existed.

Certainly, the Muslims were a conduit for the discoveries of others. The word “algebra” is indeed derived from an Arabic word. But what was the Islamic contribution to that field? The books of Archimedes and Ptolemy used by Galileo and Copernicus were indeed translations into Latin from the Arabic. But let us never forget that those who translated them were not Arabs but local Christians, Jews, Persians and Assyrians; and let us not forget that Archimedes and Ptolemy wrote their books in Greek, not Arabic. They were Greeks, not Muslims.

Though most of the names for the brightest stars are of Arabic origin, because the names of these stars given in Ptolemy’s textbook were never translated from the Arabic. But do you think that the Arabs were the first humans to observe the first and second brightest stars in Orion? The reason Muslims never developed fundamental physics is because the leading Muslim theologians declared the idea of fixed physical laws to be heretical. There cannot be unchanging physical laws because Allah may change the laws at will (Sûrat al-An’ām, 6:64). Everything in universe works only according to the will of Allah, who controls the skies and everything beneath them. Science cannot start from this viewpoint, let alone flourish. It is totally a blasphemy.The fact is that the only one ‘Muslim’ truly physicist, is the Pakistani Nobel Prize Laurite, Mohammed Abdus Salam. However, “Muslim” should be put in quotes, as he belonged to the Ahmadi sect of Islam, a sect that is heretical according to Islam, as it accepts the modern science. Had he remained in Pakistan, quite possibly would have been executed as being heretical.

William J. Federer has also related to Obama’s ignorance: Indeed, Islamic invasion of the Byzantine Empire was the main cause of the Renaissance revival, but on the reverse way. To escape the Islamic barbaric invasion, Byzantine Greek scholars fled west to Italy, bringing with them their architecture, art, sculpture and philosophy, fueling Europe’s fascination with Greek culture. Why? Muslim Seljuk Turks turned Byzantine Churches into mosques, melted church bells into cannons, leveled cities, dug up remains of Christian Saints and gave them to dogs. Civilization is indebted Islam for Santa Claus, for in 1087, to prevent desecration, Christians moved the bones of Saint Nicholas, the generous 4th century Bishop of Myra, to Bari, Italy.

In Asia, Tamerlane (1336-1405) killed an estimated 17 million, conquering from the Black Sea to India. He captured Moscow and the destroyed many Afghan cities on its inhabitants; massacred 70,000 in Ishfahan and destroyed Sarai Berke, one of Eastern Europe’s largest cities with a population of 600,000. Most important he destroyed all the cultural and scientific sites of India and Afghanistan.

In his memoir “Malfuzat-i-Timuri,” Tamerlane wrote: “There arose in my heart the desire to lead an expedition against the infidels and to become a ghazi… whether I should direct my expedition against the infidels of China or against the polytheists of India. I sought an omen from the Qur’an, and the verse I opened upon was: ‘O Prophet, make war upon the infidels and treat them with severity.’ (Qur’an, 66:9)…  My great officers told me that the inhabitants of Hindustan were infidels. In obedience to Allah I ordered an expedition against them… slaughtered 100,000 in Delhi, leaving pyramids of skulls.” Tamarlane bombarded the Christian city of Smyrna with decapitated heads of its defending knights, and buried alive 4,000 Georgian. Indeed, Tamarlanekilled from Qur’anic piety. He represents a synthesis, probably unprecedented in history, of Mongol barbarity and Muslim fanaticism.

The Scandinavian researcher, Fjordman, also reacts to Obama’s uttering regarding Islam and science: Is there even a single truthful word in his statement? Perhaps Muslims had some decent calligraphy, and a few of their scholars made very small contributions with few sciences, but apart from that everything is total nonsense. The fact is that Arabs and Muslims had the greatest opportunity and huge advantage to be in a favorable geographical position, since the Middle East was the seat of oldest known civilizations on the planet and the source of the most important inventions in human history. The challenge is not to explain why there was a brief burst of creativity in the earliest centuries of Islamic rule; the challenge is to explain why this didn’t last. Islam’s “Golden Age” was in reality the twilight of the conquered pre-Islamic cultures.

It is surely no coincidence that the first civilization in the Indian subcontinent arose in the Indus Valley in northwest, close to Sumerian Mesopotamia, just as it is no coincidence that European civilizations took root in lands that were geographically close to Egypt and Greece. Under Islamic rule the opposite has happened: the Middle East went from being a global center of civilization to being the global center of anti-civilization, of wretchedness and misery of life. This was caused by Islam, which remains the main source of the backwardness and primitivism of this region. Fjordman has another reaction to Obama despised Cairo speech: Is there even a single truthful statement in this entire paragraph? It’s almost total nonsense. The magnetic compass was invented by the Chinese, and possibly by Europeans independently. Printing of books, too, was invented by Chinese, and had been imported to Europe from China. It was stubbornly and persistently rejected by Muslims for a thousand years or more due to Islamic religious edicts. It was well-known that Muslims were familiar with East Asian printing but aggressively rejected it.

The scholar Thomas Allsen has described how the authorities in Iran under Mongolian rule in 1294 attempted to introduce Chinese-style printed banknotes but failed due to popular resistance: “Certainly the Muslim world exhibited an active and sustained opposition to movable type technologies emanating from Europe in the fifteenth century and later. This opposition, based on social, religious and political considerations, lasted well into the eighteenth century. Only then were presses of European origin introduced into the Ottoman Empire and only in the next century did printing become widespread in the Arab world and Iran.”

It is likely that due to trade, Middle Easterners were familiar with printing centuries before this incident, yet because of Islamic religious resistance they did not adopt this great invention until a thousand years or more after it had been invented. Minorities such as Jews or Greek and Armenian Christians were the first to use printing presses in the Ottoman realms. The first book printed in the Persian language was probably a Judaeo-Persian Pentateuch.

As for music, Greek theory on the subject evolved from Pythagoras before 500 BC. The Church was the dominant institution in post-Roman Europe to draw on Greek philosophy and musical theory. Some elements of Christian observances may derive from Jewish tradition, chiefly the chanting of Scripture and the signing of psalms, poems of praise from the Book of Psalms. Christians integrated music into their liturgy. This gave rise to a musical tradition which led to Bach, Mozart and Beethoven. Nothing similar happened in the Islamic world, despite the fact that Muslims had access to much of the same material.

Commenting on Obama’s claim that “throughout history, Islam has demonstrated through words and deeds the possibilities of religious tolerance and racial equality,” the reaction must be clear-cut: every word here should be put on the opposite side. It is totally reversal, and reversals again the cunning ignorant lying personality of Obama. In reality, it is rather difficult to find such examples from any region in the world where Islam occupied. Islamic doctrines specifically state that Muslims are not supposed to consider infidels to be their equals or to be tolerated. They are supposed to wage war against them until they convert or submit. The Ignorance of Obama status of Dhimmitude, the humiliating apartheid system imposed upon non-Muslims under Islamic rule; huge slavery and ethnic cleansing are really being absurd. The conversion of the entire population to Islam and the extinction of every form of dissent is the ideal of the Muslim State. Infidels cannot be citizens but members of a depressed class, living under a contract of security (Dhimma) with the Islamic State, while their continued existence is conditional and depends upon the good will of the Muslim rulers.

Another link on the internet site, directly refers to “Obama’s numerous lies regarding supposed Islamic inventions/contributions.”The claim: “It was innovation in Muslim communities that developed the order of algebra.” No, it wasn’t. The origins of algebra trace back to the ancient Babylonians. Algebra was temporarily developed by the ancient Greeks and later the English. The claim: Muslims invented “Our magnetic compass, tools of navigation,” No. Research suggests it was discovered in China centuries before the advent of Islam.The claim: Islam gave us “Our mastery of pens and printing…” No. Gutenberg did.The claim: “Islamic has given us some majestic arches and soaring spires…” Now it just getting absurd. Arches were developed in Rome and invented in Mesopotamia.

The claim: Muslims gave us “Our understanding of how disease spreads and how it can be healed…”? Rubbish! The Dutchman, Leeuwenhoek, and the Englishman, Lister, developed the microscope, which permitted men like Cohn (a German) and Redi (an Italian) to study bacteria and other microorganisms. Needham, Spallanzani and Pasteur discovered the “Pasteurization” process for killing bacteria and ensuring sterility. In the 1770’s, the English doctor Edward Jenner discovered the process of vaccination. His cowpox vaccine has since eliminated smallpox from the world, although is still exist in some Muslim countries. Pasteur continued his work, developing a vaccine for anthrax, and Koch, a German, found the bacteriums that cause “black death”, TB and cholera. Indeed, Muslim contribution to medicine is essentially nothing, unless, you consider beheading human beings while yelling “Allahu Akbar” a medical procedure.

Still, the apologists in West continue their idiocy and/or ignorance. Two weeks after September 11, Carly Fiorina, the Hewlett Packard president, presented in her speech in Minneapolis, the following: “Under Islamic military protection there was a degree of peace and prosperity that had never been known. This civilization was driven more than anything by invention. Its architects designed buildings that defied gravity. Its mathematicians created the algebra and algorithms that would enable the building of computers, and creation of encryption. Its doctors examined the human body, and found new cures for disease. Its astronomers looked into the heavens, named the stars, and paved the way for space travel and exploration. When other nations were afraid of ideas, this civilization kept them alive, and passed them to others. The technology industry would not exist without contributions of Arab mathematicians. Sufi poet-philosophers challenged our notions of self and truth. Leaders like Suleiman the Magnificent contributed to our notions of tolerance and civic leadership. It was an enlightened leadership that led to 800 years of invention and prosperity.”

This ridiculous piece is annoying, irritating and upsetting. The idea that Islamic culture was a beacon of learning and enlightenment is a big lie, a total myth without any substantiation and corroboration from Islamic history and contemporary, let alone its Scriptures. How can we understand these? Is it ignorance or stupidity? Or is it intimidation or running away from the Islamic fanatic madness? Or is it petro-dollar money? The answer comes from Peter Bet Basoo, the co-founder and director of the Assyrian International News Agency, who responded to Fiorina claims:

As an Assyrian, a non-Arab, Christian native of Iraq, whose ancestors reach back to 5000 years, I wish to alert to the dangers of unwittingly being drawn into Arab/Islamist ideology, which seeks to assimilate and submit all other cultures and religions. Arabs and Muslims appeared on the world scene only after year 630. When the armies of Muhammad began their conquest of the Middle East, they encountered 600 years of Assyrian Christian civilization, with a rich heritage and a highly developed culture, and exactly this civilization became the foundation of the Arab civilization.

As for architecture, if one refers to domes and arches, the fundamental architectural breakthrough of using a parabolic shape for structures was made by Assyrians more than 1300 years earlier, as evidenced by their archaeological record. As for mathematics, the fundamental basis of modern mathematics had been laid down thousands of years before by Assyrians and Babylonians, who already knew of the concept of zero, of the Pythagorean Theorem, and many other developments expropriated by Arabs. Another approach states that the zero and what we know as “Arabic numerals” originated in pre-Islamic India (Otto Neugebauer, History of Babylonian Mathematics).

As for medicine, the overwhelming majority of the doctors (99%) were Assyrians and later Jews. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries Assyrians began a systematic translation of the Greek body of knowledge. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, and many others were translated into Assyrian, and from Assyrian into Arabic. It is these translations which the Moors brought with them into Spain, and which the Spaniards translated into Latin and spread throughout Europe. In the field of medicine, the Bakhteesho Assyrian family produced nine generations of physicians, and founded the great medical school at Gundeshapur (Iran). Also in the area of medicine, the Assyrian, Hunayn ibn-Ishaq(809-873) textbook on ophthalmology, written in 950, remained the authoritative source on the subject. The first Arabic-language medical treatise was written by a Christian priest and translated into Arabic by a Jewish doctor in 683. The first hospital was founded in Baghdad, not by a Muslims, but a Nestorian Christian.

As for philosophy, the Assyrian philosopher Job of Edessa developed a physical theory of the universe, in the Assyrian language, that rivaled Aristotle’s theory, and that sought to replace matter with forces (a theory of quantum mechanics and vacuum). Aristotle’s work was preserved in Arabic not by Muslims at all, but by Christians such as the fifth century priest Probus of Antioch, who introduced Aristotle to the Arabic-speaking world. Huneyn ibn-Ishaq also translated many works by Aristotle, Plato and Hippocrates into Syriac. His son translated them into Arabic. The Syrian Christian Yahya Ibn ‘Adi (893-974) also translated works of philosophy into Arabic. His student, another Christian, Abu ‘Ali ‘Isa Ibn Zur’a (943-1008), translated Aristotle and other Greek philosophers from Syriac into Arabic.

One of the greatest Assyrian achievements of the fourth century was the founding of the first university in the world, the School of Nisibis, with three departments: theology, philosophy and medicine, which became the center of intellectual development in the Middle East, and the model upon which the first Italian university was based (Arthur Voobus, the Statutes of the School of Nisibis.

As for astronomy, the astronomers and astrologers were all Chaldeans, Babylonians, not Muslims who were forcibly Arabized and Islamized, and by year 750 they had disappeared completely. The astrolabe was developed long before the rise of Islam.As for literature, Arab-Islamic writing and literature was and still is very little in quantity and very poor in quality. The Qur’an is the only significant piece of literature, whereas the literary output of the Assyrians and Jews was vast, and comprised the most. The third largest corpus of Christian writing, after Latin and Greek, is by the Assyrian language (also known as Syriac). As for the press, it was introduced in the Ottoman Empire only in the 18th century, 300 hundred years after it appeared in Europe.

As for civilizational achievements, the book How Greek Science Passed to the Arabs, by De Lacy O’Leary, lists the significant translators and interpreters of Greek science. Of the 22 scholars listed, 20 were Assyrians, one was Persian and only one an Arab. Assyrians played a significant role in the shaping of the Islamic world via Greek corpus of knowledge. Moreover, Islam itself was significantly molded by Assyrians and Jews.

Another pattern of propagations claim that Islam fostered a rich heritage of scientific discovery, paving the way for modern advances in technology, medicine and all other natural sciences. The truth is totally the opposite. Apart from violence and bloodshed, Islamic contribution to the history of the world is negligent at best. The great achievements that are said to have come out of the Islamic world were made by non-Muslims mostly before but also during the Islamic occupation. The Arab excelled in raids, plundering, butchering and slaughtering, slave-trade, ethnic cleansing, and imperialism and colonialism that culminated in Arabization and Islamization of the occupied lands. In these realms their “inventions” were great and conspicuous.

A Muslim propagator in the West, Mohamad Abdalla, has written a long article, in which he laments that “Muslim contributions to science were deliberately ignored or suppressed, and the view that Muslim scientists produced nothing original remained the orthodox belief.” He begins his article “Modern Science’s Debt to Islamic Civilization,” by declaring that the claim as if “The Arabs only transmitted Greek science and made no contribution to overall history of Western science. Fortunately, many historians of science no longer hold this view. The Arabs acquired the scientific heritage of earlier civilizations, including classical Greece and Rome, and translated, preserved, and transformed much of it. Their scientific experience profoundly impacted the late medieval world of Western Europe, where Muslim scientific achievements were important to the evolving Renaissance and the grand narrative of the history of science…” No less.

Abdalla claims that Westerners know that the Muslims invented algebra, Arabic numerals, and possibly the zero, but show no interest in Islamic science and ignores most of the research conducted during the past 50 years. Europe has no such textbook at all, and the less said about modern Arabic books on Islamic science. The contributions of Muslim scientists are even less well understood in the Islamic world itself, and nothing on Islamic science is available in Arabic. “Today there is sufficient information about the quality and staggering quantity of Islamic science. Muslim scientists were active in many fields, from astronomy to zoology, and made original contributions… These results resulted in a massive scientific movement and the creation of a library on the scale of the world of its time. For the first time scientific traditions from different backgrounds and languages became elements of one science, with new methods and even new disciplines, such as trigonometry, algorithms, and algebra.”

The answer to these highly pretentious but clearly uncorroborated claims is one big “no.” and more of that: those who translated and preserved Greek and Persian and Indian sciences were not Arabs, but indigenous natives of the occupied lands. The Arab tribes, coming from Arabian Peninsula, did not know the Middle Eastern languages, no Persian, no Sankrist, no Greek, and no Latin. They were busy with occupying lands and plundering them. Yet Abdalla continues the fabrication route: “more evidence showing the magnificent work in Islamic science has come to light. Modern history of science studies show that the productive, original scientific research of Muslim scientists persisted into sixteenth century.” However, when defining what does it means “Islamic science,” Abdala reveals his strategy: now it is no longer Arab Science and contributions. He says: “Islamic science perhaps should mean science conducted mainly in Arabic and within the context of Islamic civilization…” This is true. No Arabs, but “many individuals from different ethnic and religious backgrounds Christians, Persians, Sabians, and Jews.”

Indeed, this is true and expresses the entire subject matter of Islam and sciences. However, Abdalla continues to twist and distort by declaring: “Arabic was the main scientific, but not necessarily the native, language of these scientists. While the terms Islamic science and Arabic science are modern historical terms for the science conducted within the context of Islamic civilization, this science is Islamic in the sense that it suited the new and growing needs of Islamic civilization; was available entirely in Arabic, which had replaced Syriac…” indeed, this is exactly the opposite: ancient sciences were translated into Arabic, by non-Arabs, and Islamic science and Arabic science were not conducted within the context of Islamic civilization, but continued by the indigenous scientists who were forced to write in Arabic.

The distortion continues. Abdalla declares that “Islamic science, in this context, does not imply religious sciences (e.g., jurisprudence) but rather the natural sciences (e.g., mathematics, astronomy, and physics).” However “Islamic Science” is indeed exactly only religious science. All along Islamic history including contemporary, 90 percent of all Islamic publications in all Arab-Islamic countries together is religious. Curiosity has not and still does not exist in Islam due to the Qur’anic teachings, and translations from foreign languages is negligent. Publications on Islamic religions is huge, and the sales of other publications is highly poor.

There is a direct link between the contemporary wretchedness and misery of the Islamic world, and its total shameless impudence to exhibit its faked invented greatness and contributions to world civilization. Contemporary reality is clear: the spirit of science in the Arab-Muslim world is as dry as the desert. Muslim states have nine scientists, engineers, and technicians per thousand people, compared with a world average of forty-one. There are approximately 1,800 universities, but in only 312 of those scholars have published journal articles. There are roughly 1.6 billion Muslims in the world, but only two scientists have won Nobel Prize. Spain alone, hardly an intellectual superpower, contributes more of world’s scientific literature than all Muslim countries together. Spain translates more foreign books in a single year than the entire Arab world has in the past thousand years. In one year, the United States published almost 11 thousand scientific papers that were frequently cited, while the entire Arab world published only four. Between 1980 and 2000, Korea granted 16,328 patents, while all Arab countries granted a combined total of only 370, many of them registered by foreigners.

Abdalla arrogantly and impudently continues by claiming that the originality of Islamic science and its significant innovation is clear in several fields, including mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. Originality in mathematics. Recent research proves that many of the ideas that once were thought to belong to European mathematicians of the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries were in fact originated by Islamic mathematicians. They have made original contributions that directly influenced arithmetic, geometry, algebra, algorithms and other fields. By the time of Khawarizmi, many other important works in Arabic were well ahead of the West. In many respects, the mathematics studied today is far closer in style to that of the Muslims than of the Greeks. No less. That is why he claims in Arab-Islamic countries the study of mathematics is so advanced and Muslim scientist are in the forefront of scientific research.

Abdalla and his fellows, like George Saliba and Ziauddin Sardar, admits: “scientific experiments have been devised to discover what is mentioned in the Qur’an but not known to science… this view is now the most popular version of Islamic science… not all knowledge, including scientific knowledge, can be found in the Qur’an.” This is exactly the problem, as this claim makes Abdalla and his fellow apostates according to Islam, and apostasy was exactly the cause why Islamic science flourished in only a short period of time, and perished forever. As long as Islam exist, rational sciences based on critical thinking, skepticism and question-asking are denied.

Another propagator Hamza Dhib Mustafa, member of the Supreme Fatwa Council, has declared: “Europe and the West in general, would never have reached these principles had they not been influenced by the advanced Islamic culture and had they not borrowed much from it… Islamic societies are cultured, humane and righteous societies, since oppression had not found its way to them and the killing did not spread nor extend among them. Human beings are equal from the point of view of Islam… Everyone is equal under the law in terms of their rights and obligations…This and more, Islam promises various rights to the human. It promises him freedom of religion and citizenship, freedom of thought, the right to property, political freedom and his right to employment. The thing that has no doubt… is that Islam preceded Europe and the West, in general, with all that pertains to matters of human rights by no less than 13 centuries…The Muslims and their societies are more advanced and more sublime than the West and its societies. They are earlier in human civilization, and are more perfect in value system and humanity. The fact that there are those who believe that these are Western values – it is a delusion and false, since the Muslims are masters, leaders and teachers of the world, even if the West rejects this. It is no wonder that this is rejected by the West, the most eager rival of Islam, its followers and its culture.”

There is more. Muslim propagators launched a block-buster exhibition at the world famous London Science Museum, January 2010, entitled: “1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage in Our World.” Accordingly, the shameless propagation continues: “it traces the forgotten story of a thousand years of science from the Muslim world, from the 7th century onwards that still shape everyday life. This free entry exhibition looks at the social, scientific and technical achievements that are credited to the Muslim world… Featuring a diverse range of over 60 interactive, sensory and static exhibits, the exhibition demonstrates how many modern inventions can trace their roots back to Muslim civilization.” The interactive show covers many aspects of human life.

Such claims have even been forced upon the general public in a nationwide tour which opened with an exhibition at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester and the University of Manchester. Moreover, this exhibit, “1001 Inventions: Discover the Golden Age of Muslim Civilization” was also displayed at the Washington, D.C. museum from August 2012 till February 2013, featuring a video starring by actor Ben Kingsley, as well as various interactive displays. To add to this calamity, one can also find a short film entitled “1001 Inventions and the Library of Secrets” which claims that much of the science we take for granted was drawn from Islamic discoveries.

To this huge pile of lies, Alan Robertson has reacted: the only Islamic inventions are the lies and the preposterous claims from Muslims. The exhibition of “Muslim inventions” is an absurd example of deception, misrepresentation and falsification of history in order to appease the ever growing Third World colonization of our country. The exhibition claims to reveal all the contributions which Islam has made to civilization.

Central to the exhibition is a model of a wooden water wheel. There is also a picture of a stone arch originating some 2000 years BC. Sources show that the earliest known arches did originate in Mesopotamia. On the interactive display one can see that coffee was apparently ‘invented’ by an Arab in the ninth century. Invented? Are they serious? Carpets first appeared in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Middle East about 2000 BC. How can carpets or coffee be an invention?

Another exhibit is entitled “naming the stars,” as if the Arabs translated the original names for the stars from a well-known book by the Greek astrologer Ptolemy. While the West has sent probes into deep space, are we supposed to marvel at the fact that Muslims merely renamed the stars? In 852 AD, a Muslim holy man jumped from a tower wearing a billowy, large cloak and lived to tell the tale. Also, in the ninth century, Abbas Ibn Firnas attempted to fly using a wing frame attached to his arms, whereupon his back was seriously injured. Muslims apparently invented the concept of the spherical earth in the ninth century. However, the earliest known records of the concept of a spherical Earth came from Pythagoras, Aristotle, and Eratosthenes made an estimate for the circumference of the Earth.

Indeed, contemporary public opinion is bombed with publications concerning many inventions claimed and attributed to Islamic creation, which in fact either existed in pre-Islamic eras, or were invented by other cultures, or both of these.

*part of a larger book titled, Why Islam is a Danger to the World: A Scholarly Rebuttal of Muslim Propaganda, be published by Mellen Press.

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Religion

How modernity and globalization influenced the message and expansion of Islam

Amna Shaukat

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Islam – societal and cultural changes

 In order to understand how cultural and societal changes influence any religion, we must first know the definition of religion. Religion is a relation with God which human beings regard as sacred, divine,  spiritual, holy and worthy of  respect. It consists of the ways to deal with different concerns of human life. Religious influences are rooted  in all aspects of human life. Religions evolve  and change with time. Religions consist of  ideas, values, practices and stories that are embedded in culture and are not separable. It is not possible to understand a religion without its cultural dimensions How Islam has adapted cultural and societal changes as it has spread throughout the globe is an interesting and complex phenomenon.

Islam traveled in many ways through different regions. The history of Islam is full  of events  that led to Islam’s spread across the globe. Sometimes it was transferred through military conquests, it was also carried through trade caravans that travelled over vast distances or through the missionaries. When  Islamic ideas came into contact with  new societies, they evolved in unique ways and took on diverse forms. That’s why these societies have multiple different interpretations of Islam. The spread of Islam across different regions involved some prominent factors such as inter-marriages, trade, influencers etc . Spreading of Islam is a complex phenomenon and to say that it travelled merely through sword is not justified. Muslim culture developed from the ninth century to the  twelfth century, and crystallized into what we currently know as Islam. The military expansion of the early centuries facilitated the spread of Islam in name only and it was later that Islam spread in true meaning, as a  number of citizens started converting to Islam. Expansion  of Islamic culture was carried out by missionaries and  political convoys, it also expanded through trade. Group of travelers (caravans) used camels to transport goods and themselves across different regions, they played the most important role in the spread of Islam. These caravans helped in expanding Islamic civilization and culture by connecting different provinces (with the Islamic empires) which were far apart. Merchants carried out trades across different regions. These trades were equally influential in expanding culture and created a sense of multiculturalism or internationalism. These new cultural relationships led to the transfer of technology, science and other forms of culture. This was the start of globalization. But at that time it was just known by multiple names like multiculturalism or internationalism. Cultural globalization is a multidimensional process which leads to different impacts and consequences and makes possible the coexistence of  different values with Islamic symbols , values and discourses. Islamic culture does not consist of  merely a group of  a combination of rituals rather it is a complete way of life prescribed by the Quran.

“The human history is the graveyard of great cultures that the disastrous end of them has been due to this matter that they couldn’t present a planned, rational and volitional reaction against the challenges.”  -Erich Fromm

 When Islam encountered globalization:

During  the time of prophet Muhammad (SAW) there wasn’t much expansion of Islam to other parts of the world. Only a small group of people went to Abissynia during the early days of Islam for the purpose of  seeking shelter. The actual age of Islamic globalization has begun when in Medina the Prophet (SAW) founded an Islamic State in 622. From that time, Islam started to spread around the globe. The teachings of the Qur’an and the prophet (SAW) inspired the  Muslims not only to learn but also to illumine their souls by knowledge. Despite  mastering modern information and technical skills, Muslims had an open mind in understanding all that’s good and helpful . They were willing to grasp knowledge and ideas from the Persians, Indians and Greeks in order to enrich their civilization. They had a welcoming attitude towards the changing world.

In assessing the Muslim time of globalization, one could come to realize that the growth of Islam and its civilization to overseas territories took place because of its dynamic nature as disclosed by God.  The Book of Islam conveyed messages associated with faith and additionally recommended Muslims to gather know-how of science and equip themselves with modern knowledge. When Muslims took Islam to overseas lands there has been no compulsion for  human beings  to comply with Islam. Many western scholars made the claims  that Islam became unfold on the factor of the sword which are groundless. Islam was promoted with stunning preaching and desirable examples proven through the Prophet (SAW) and early Muslims at some stage in their age of globalization.(‘N e w s l e t t e r 1 0 Muslim Responses to Globalization’, 2002)

Globalization has begun without being acknowledged by a huge  area of the Islamic Ummah. Since the tsunamis of globalization began to contact the shores of the Islamic nations,  but it shouldn’t affect the faith of Muslims  and Islamic lifestyle. As it has been comprehended from  the former conversation that globalization is irreversible and The Muslims, inevitably, have no choice but to prepare and protect  themselves.  Realizing that Malaysia needs to do something Former Prime Minister  Mahathir stated in one of the His addresses on the issue of globalization to the Islamic Ummah:

“Muslim countries and Muslim government  have a duty to ensure that globalization will not result in the marginalization of their countries as happened with the Industrial Revolution and Industrial Age. We cannot afford it this time. If once again we miss this opportunity to keep pace with the radical and rapid advances now being made with technology and the sciences, and the changes they cause to the world’s perceptions of things, the new ideas and concepts in human and international relations; if we miss all these and fail to handle them, then we will not only be marginalized, but be dominated and hegemonised permanently”

Mahatir’s statement is a reminder to the Muslims not to Ignore the events and progress that take place, and stay away In the fields of Information Technology, Multimedia, e-Study, e-commerce, etc   If Muslims choose to remain isolated in this era of globalization then Muslims will be one who will be left alone and loser in comparison with the rest of the world. A sensible thing for the Muslims to do is to be active in mastering and utilizing the new technology for a good purpose that could deliver progress, development and economic benefits to themselves and to the rest of mankind. Now if one looks at the modern period, as far as politics and government go, Muslims have absorbed a great deal from the West, especially in relation to democracy, human rights, democratic forms of governance. There’s been as great deal of absorption on the part of Muslims from the West.  Any  Muslim society today including those which have remained closed and cloistered  cannot  ignore the force of democracy and the wave of modernity and globalization.

Globalization, modernity and Islam

Through its name, the idea of globalization is very much clear. The word global provides the central idea, it mainly comprises economy, society, culture and politics. People from different countries with different cultural backgrounds  are connected through globalization, they make a homogenous culture and thus become globalised. Globalization has made the world interconnected, such that local events may come to have global consequences. Now we proceed to how globalization and modernity which is a very intensified phenomenon, influenced the message of Islam. (m.miasami, no date) As it has been mentioned in a research article the relationship between Islam and globalization has been subjected to considerable speculation and sarcastic discussion. The belief that Islam opposes globalization has been the essence of the debate. Islam calls for adequate responses to the constant challenges posed by the fluctuating time and space factors and for the prospect of their comprehension and implementation to be revitalized and revamped from within in order to combat the possible shortcomings of the Muslim mind and the cultural and civilizational degeneration of Islamic societies This article emphasizes that the current debate of Islam and globalization is more focused on westernization than globalization. It has been argued that the tension is due to the westernization process rather than globalization. Since the mere terminology surrounding the debate has created considerable misunderstanding, the terms of reference need to be defined properly. Globalization is a very intense phenomenon which  involves worldwide exchange of goods, people and ideas. Globalization has captured growing intensity of worldwide  interconnectedness. Globalization has been a part of human life since its inception. This refers to the inherent human nature and the propensity of man to be a social animal. It is,  in fact the propensity with which god has created human beings to exchange his resources with others in order to get better chances at life. Though globalization is related to the idea of comparative advantage, free trade and open economy , its origins can be traced back to long before such ideas came to life. To establish a more detailed view of the so called ‘Islam-Globalization’ controversy, it is important to differentiate between the globalization cycle in its original context and other comparatively more recent mechanisms, such as westernization that are veiled as globalization and yet are so distinct.

Globalization aims to narrow the gaps that separate the various communities. This is achieved by sharing advantages of cultural , social, science and political governance in all facets of life. That is, they share knowledge, they recognize the principles and codes of ethics of one another, and they establish a common ground. Westernization, by contrast, does not consider such an understanding or building of such a common ground as worthwhile enterprises. Globalization is a mechanism in which the entire planet is like a global town. Globalization is a dynamic process which has different effects on various religions around the world. It breaks the cultural barriers and spread different  ideologies   and values around the globe. Westernization, on the other side, appears to be a one-way path, implying that in the name of globalization, one country seeks to conquer and influence other areas. In addition, while globalization takes place through the free will of various communities, Westernization is characteristically imposed on other regions.  Having explained the distinction between globalization and westernization, the discussion regarding Islam-globalization can be more adequately measured. Islam is not, in its original context, anti-globalization (or modernity, deemed a by-product of globalization), but Muslims also have a concern with Westernization. While there is criticism of Westernization of culture, modernization is accepted as a timely phenomenon.(Achmad and Hamzani, 2016)

Modernity in its political and social forms refers to increasingly specializing  isolation from religion in societal institutions such as political systems, law, economic management and education. Unlike social life in the pre-modern period, these roles are conducted in modernity, free from the overarching influence of religion. In this viewpoint, religious fundamentalism-in the sense of a return to a purist past-is a issue in all its complexity and cultural hybridity created by the interaction between modernity and the Muslim ummah.

 Modernity is a process in which society becomes modern. It implies social mobility , industrialization, trade. Modernization has been accelerated and accentuated with globalization in the past two decades. Islam, like all other religions, has felt and reacted to the effects of and responded  to the impingement of modernity in Muslim society, the multiple forces of modern intellectual, scientific and socio-political life. There’s hardly a facet of Muslim society ‘s life that has been left untouched. Contrary to common belief, the bulk of the ideas of justice, equality prescribed by Islam  are in accordance with those inherent in the modernization process.  Islam has always promoted ideas such as peaceful coexistence, the acceptance of other religions, democratic governance and women’s rights. Indeed, Islam and modernization need not be at odds with one another. Muslims need not have any excessive aversion to Islamic tradition since Islam has never been a cause of any chapters of darkness or ignorance in Muslim history. Islamic culture was without dark ages. Such a thing would be an anomaly for mankind as Islam is in a religion of supreme light, reality, and guidance. Islam, on the contrary, was the root cause of all goodness which emerged in Islamic civilization and benefitted not only Muslims but also non-Muslims. (Kohler and Krueger, 1952)

 Islam is both traditional and modern, as the universal and final revelation to mankind. While it speaks of the infinity, permanence and inviolability of its divinely prescribed truth, and thus of continued compliance with and following its authorities, as well as of the valuation and conformity with the legacies and traditions spawned by such dynamic historical processes, Islam also calls for appropriate responses to the constant challenges posed by the fluctuating time and space.

According to an article, (Bicer, 2013)Islamic responses to the globalization phase are very complex. Islamic understanding, social circumstances and interaction with modernity are the reasons for this. Discrete experiences form independent Islamist thoughts, expectations, critiques, strategies, and their modern or non-modern commitments. Where political , economic or cultural deprivation slowly impedes the fulfillment of desires without  pressure or inequality, Muslims may follow a committed, private and a political Islamism consistent with western rationalization, also entangled with it. Muslims should take a personal, general, cooperative, and systematic approach and strive toward a compromised modern Islamic public sphere. Globalization should be acknowledged for providing a suitable arena for exchange of ideas and thoughts.

Globalization in the light of Quran

Globalization is socially, historically and politically powerful, and is prevalent in the world. Whatever the dominant political and cultural influence geographically, the ideology takes priority over others. In our times the U.S. is the world’s dominant power. American culture is the power house worldwide. The Qur’an says the balance of power passes to other hands, “We bring these days to men by turns, and that Allah may know those who believe and take witnesses from among you. And Allah loveth not those that do wrong” (Qur’an 3/140). This verse means, “Allah has turned those glories around, Some days are in favour of people and some are against them”. In this Qur’anic verse,  the word dawla (mubadala) means going back and forth. That exchange of primacy among cultures has some causes hidden. We must accept globalization as a reality in principle. It is a power cycle and can change thereby from person to person, community to community, State to State, continent to continent. Globalization is in essence neutral rather than demonic nor divine. It shifts the role of client, and room utilized. There are, therefore, many articles about globalization, for and against religion.

 Religious and cultural values have been affected by the influence of globalization’s dominance.  Globalization is seen as a cause of religious diversity and its threat to traditional values. It is also seen as a polarization factor defining  religious identity and its internal practice. Evaluating the substance of religious scriptures and religious history challenges us with this underlined reality that Islam is a global faith and has sought to become globalized through its historical context. Islam has also addressed the question of globalization and the development of a global culture and democracy. To prove that topic, we can state the following Quranic verses.

Many verses of Quran have spoken about the globalization of Islam and lack of its limitation to definite place or time directly or indirectly. Also, they have narrated and characterized the global view of Islam.:

  • «قل يا ايها الناس اني رسول الله اليكم جميعاً»

          Say: O people! surely I am the Messenger of God to you all.

  • «يا ايها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم و الذين من قبلكم لعلكم تتقون»

         O men! serve your Lord who created you and those before you so that you         

          may guard against evil.

  • «ان الله اصطفي آدم و نوحاً و ال ابراهيم و ال عمران علي العالمين»

         “Surely God chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the        

          descandents of  Imran above the nation.

  • «هو الذي ارسل رسوله بالهدي و دين الحق ليظهره علي الدين كله.

       “He it is who sent His messenger with guidance and the religion of truth, that

        he  might cause it to prevail over all religions, though the polytheists may be

        averse.                                                                  

  • «وعد الله الذين آمنوا منكم وعملو صالحات ليستخلفنكم في الارض كما استخلف الذين من قبلهم و ليمكنن لهم دينهم الذي ارتضي لهم و ليبد لنهم من بعد خوفهم امنا.

  “God has promised to those of you who believe and do good that He will  most certainly make them rulers in the earth as He made rulers those before them, and that He will most certainly establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them, and that He will most certainly, after their fear, give them security in exchange; they shall serve Me, not associating aught with me; and whoever is ungrateful after this, these it is who are the transgressors.”

  • «يا ايها الذين آمنوا ادخلوا في السلم كافه و لاتتبعوا خطوات الشيطان»

  “O you who believe! enter into submission one and all and do not follow the footsteps of shaitan; surely he is your open enemy “

 It has been pointed in above verses that Holy Prophet of Islam (Peace be Upon Him) has announced His Quranic message, the divine revelation, with the characteristic of eternity for all human beings. Also, the aforesaid verses imply the world’s inclusion of Islam legal system and this matter that the mission of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon Him) is global and for all human beings.

Conclusion

Islam is not in conflict with the issue of globalization and modernity, but the features of globalization, from the Islamic point of view, are distinct from the present idiomatic element. Reviewing the quality of religious texts and religious history presents us with this obvious reality that religion of Islam is a global religion and in its historical experience has always sought to become worldwide. Islam has always addressed the question of globalization, liberal culture system and global governance. We believe that Islam has broad-based and national thought and theoretical principles that, if extracted and clarified in the modern language, can be as a shining lamp before the present human way. Of course, other holy books, such as the New and Old Testaments, claim to present this principle, but the comparison of Islam’s foundation of thought with other holy religions proves that Islam and the Quran are unquestionably superior. So we can conclude that whatever is described as the globalization phase today is not in line with Islam ‘s view given the presence of similarity and parallels such as the elimination of geographical borders, but it is apparent that Islam does not oppose globalization and render Islam global, but the characteristics of globalization vary from today’s idiomatic features.

 From this point of view, globalization should be seen as a possibility for the growth and advancement of human good principles, as it has transformed communicative technologies and enabled citizens across the world with swift and unified connectivity. According to this approach, globalization is an appropriate opportunity to develop the exalted Islamic instructions and is a ground for the fulfillment of the global government of Islam, as promised in the verses of the Glorious Qur’an.

As a result, it can be said that while Western and especially America dominated communicative technologies, the growth and development of these technologies , particularly internet and satellite, created an atmosphere that this situation can be used well. It is also easy for the active addressees of the media to accept the exalted messages of Islamic religion which are in harmony with human instincts that the dust of negligence has been touched on their pure human nature, and this matter requires the conscience and acuity of Islamic world thinkers that they can better use this condition and prove this principle that Islam is in agreement with globalization.

Reference

Achmad, D. and Hamzani, U. (2016) ‘Globalization in the Perspective of Islam and Economic Experts’, Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 219, pp. 41–46. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.04.030.

Bicer, R. (2013) ‘Globalization in the Context of Islamic Theology’, The Journal of Rotterdam Islamic and Social Sciences, 3(1), pp. 1–12. doi: 10.2478/jriss-2013-0001.

Kohler, W. and Krueger, F. (1952) ‘T H E Impact of the German Immigration on T H E’, 2(May), pp. 207–229.

m.miasami (no date) ‘Islam and Globalization’, fountain magazine.

‘N e w s l e t t e r 1 0 Muslim Responses to Globalization’ (2002) Religion, (July).

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The future of Orthodox shrine in Gifhorn

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St.Nicholas’ Church in Gilhorn, Fotograf: User: ArtMechanic, 2006. Wikimedia

St.Nicholas’ Orthodox Church in Gifhorn (Germany) – a copy of the ‘gem’ of the Russian wooden architecture of the 18th century – has for a long time heard none of the divine liturgy chants or the ringing of the bells after the service. The  reason for this is the decision by a private sponsor, who at the end of the 20th century granted the financial resources and the territory to rebuild this magnificent church, to sell it to the Russian Orthodox community for a hefty sum. What caused the problem is the breathtaking beauty of the architectural marvel.

It was the beauty of the wooden Transfiguration Church, created by Russian architects in 1756, that encouraged German entrepreneur and ethnography lover Horst Wrobel to replicate it in Germany. The copy in question was built in 1995 in Lower Saxony, near the town of Gifhorn in Wrobel’s private estate where he set up a museum of old mills on the riverbank. The beautiful church fits in perfectly well with the picturesque landscape. Its original, the above-mentioned Transfiguration Church, which used to be located in one of the villages of the Vladimir Region (about 200 km from Moscow), burned down seemingly beyond repair in a fire caused by a strike of lightning in the 19th century. In the 20th century it was rebuilt on the  basis of the original designs, but this time, on the territory of the wooden architecture museum in Suzdal.

It was in Suzdal that Horst Wrobel saw the breathtaking beauty and exquisite elegance of the Orthodox shrine. With the help of old drafts he had a copy of the church built in his estate and dedicated it to St.Nicholas the Miracle Worker. In autumn 1995 His Holiness Patriarch Alexey II, while on a visit to Germany, paid a visit to Horst’s museum of mills and the church on the territory of the museum. In a solemn ceremony the Wrobel family presented His Holiness Patriarch Alexey II with St.Nicholas’ Church. According to Father Superior Archpriest Gennady (Budko), the gift certificate was not of legal but of symbolic nature:

The symbolic document of 24.11.1995 points out that «50 years after the end of the Second World War this church serves as a bridge across our nations, from person to person, and from heart to heart. Let this House of God become a symbol of reconciliation for all German and Russian Christians for ever». Having consecrated the church Patriarch Alexey II addressed those present: «The church’s beauty is reminiscent of a cathedral. I would be happy to take the church to Russia, but it stays here as a fifth church of the Russian Orthodox Diocese in Berlin and Germany. A visit to Gifhorn crowns my visit to Germany».

According to Father Gennady, in 25 years that the church has been in Lower Saxony the owner of the building has signaled no intention to legalize the gift to the Russian Orthodox Church. In 25 years the church has seen six superiors, has formed a community of 120 people, and requires appropriate maintenance and renovation. Given the conditions imposed by the owner the parishioners have to hold services on the rented premises of a Catholic church or on the premises of other Christian organizations. Why? – Entry to the museum is not free, for parishioners it costs 30 euros a year. The superior together with parishioners have to leave the church right after service for absence of life-support facilities – water supply, kitchen, recreational area (benches – tables). But this is not the main thing that worries the church community led by Father Gennady. «Our parish consists of missionaries and wanderers, – Father Gennady says. – If the new owners come, the road to the church will become inaccessible, for the museum is skirted by a trench with water and a bridge which is lifted most of the day. This is the only way to the church. The incumbent owner is set on selling the church». This is the price the fifth church of the Russian Orthodox Diocese pays for its beauty, once inspired by God. A poet says,

«…what is beauty and why is it worshipped by people?
– Is it a vessel with a vacuum,
or is it a fire twinkling in the vessel»?

St.Nicholas’ Church with its spectacular beauty and impressive history is waiting for prayers and chants to the glory of God, glimmering icon-lamps. Put on stake is money and faith. Either the church will be bought (at best by the Russian Orthodox Church), or the prayer will work a miracle and the church will be gratuitously handed over to the Russian Orthodox Diocese in Germany. The parishioners believe in a miracle and continue to pray about the future of the church.

From our partner International Affairs

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Islam, Science and Time: Is science compatible with religion?

Muhammad Farooq

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Logically, time is present at every particle as a moment and eventually the very same moment is present at the whole, limitless space like a singular unit of totality. It means that there remains no gap, difference, or distance between time’s state of rest and its omnipresence. Typically, the time shown by clocks across countries at a given singular moment can be different and thus divisible (due to geological distances). However, the given singular moment of the time remains the same everywhere. This implies that time is indivisible, immortal and eternal. There is no past, present and future of the time. In fact, these are particular events and their happenings that cause past, present, and future phases of the space. Thus, it is space not the time that passes through the phases of past, present, and future.

The ages of nonentity (nothingness) turned into the past reign of the space when the first event of the big bang took place and subsequently started the new structure of the universe upon the surface of space. Thus, the existing design of the universe at the face of space is running as the present reign of the structure. If there exist both past and present reigns of space, there must also be its future. This future reign cannot be denied as it is the eternal fate to come either through a big crunch or through the heavenly bugle of doomsday.

The imaginative sort of time-space structure should compel the writer and his readers alike to conclude that the time-space combination and its structural phases of universe came into being under some mindful scheme of an Almighty Authority, Who created and controls the whole vista. While He let some universe open and visual so that it can be learnt and discovered, He hid the rest which cannot be discovered or disclosed. “But for whom”? What was that generic class or character that the Almighty had in His mind to bring forth after the initial preparations would complete. Of course and undoubtedly, this generic class and character was of human beings for whom the Almighty Authority of Allah was preparing the ground of His schematic system that could either be learnt visually or believed conscientiously.

That is why human beings see the time-space relativity as two different realities. Time is hidden and a non-visual reality, while the space and structure of the universes are naked, visual realities that humans can learn through their wit or wisdom. However, human wit or wisdom is limited. For example, the supreme avenue of heaven—i.e., the vista of censored realities such as  Allah Almighty Himself, death-revealing, angels, Eden and hell—is beyond human’s knowledge. Thus, where the wit and wisdom ends, the belief or faith starts. Human wit or wisdom lie in the scientific view and faith and belief lie in religious view.

Scientific View

Stephen Hawking says, “So long as the universe had a beginning, we could suppose it had a creator. But if the universe is really completely self-contained, having no boundary or edge, it would have neither beginning nor end; it would simply be. What place, then, for a creator?” When a religious leader Saint Augustine was asked “What did God do before he created the universe”? He replied that “time was a property of the universe that God created, and that time did not exist before the beginning of the universe”. Immanuel Kant opined in his thesis that “if the universe did not have a beginning, then there would be an infinite period of time before any event, which he considered absurd. The argument for his antithesis was that if the universe had a beginning, there would be an infinite period of time before it, so why should the universe begin at any particular time?” Here, Hawking denies the concept of time before the beginning of the universe which he considered an unspoken assumption of Kant’s thesis and anti-thesis. According to Hubble’s observations, “there was a time, called the big bang, when the universe was infinitesimally small and infinitely dense…. One may argue that time had a beginning at the big bang, in the sense that earlier times would not be defined”. Hubble explained that “wherever you look, distant galaxies are moving rapidly away from us. In other words when the objects were all at exactly the same place and when, therefore, the density of the universe was infinite”. All of these scientific views (Stephan Hawkings. “A brief history of time) endorse that the mutual relativity of the time-space was spread out endlessly before and even after the beginning of the universe and its systemized structure. Thanks to scientists for providing a time-space basis to start with the Quranic view.

Quranic Ethical Identification

Human phrase of time-space has two words and the Quranic phrase of “Al Hayyul Qayum” (Quran chap 2, verse 255) also has two words. The first word is for Allah’s life defined as “Ever-Living”. Allah’s life means Allah’s time to live along. Hence, Allah’s life transmitted or translated into the time. Allah’s life is immortal, eternal, unending, indivisible and turned primarily into the time being. Allah’s life has been transferred as the singular unity of time over the whole and unending space, once for all and forever. In other words, Allah’s life or Allah’s self-being is the time-being—i.e., absolute digital constant of reference. The second word for Him is: “The Sustainer of all other Existences”. For sustenance of something, housing or existing space is required. Thus, and when Allah is the sustainer of all other existences, He created the boundless vastness of the space to provide housing or staying place. “The City of Allah” during the time-space entity was a “Arsh-e-Mualla” (owner of the throne). There the angels were carrying His throne with his Arsh-e-Mualla and some others around it praying for those to come in future with their true beliefs. (Quran chap 40, verse 7,15) The universe, then came into being so as that: “He, it is who gives life and causes death; and when He decrees a matter, He, but says to it “Be” and “it becomes”. (Quran chap 40, verse 68)

There was no Sun when the Earth was formed in “four days” and seven skies in “two days”. If there had been no sun when the Earth was formed, the scale of time was certainly not the measurement of time with respect to the sun. Those six days may not be the same six days that are measured with respect to Earth’s spinning around its axis today, nor the time calculated for a year’s span of time with respect to Earth’s revolution around the sun. The relative time is unknown for numbering these six days in total (Chap 41, verses 9-12). Time is eternal. After that the “lowest sky was adorned by lamps (and stars)”. Again, the future of the space is informed as: “Then watch (or wait) for the day when the sky will bring a visible smoke! Covering the people; this is a painful torment” (chap 44 verse 10,11). When someone could see no event of change occurring before him, he felt as if the time was passing through the same moment. Cave-fellows of the “Kahf” slept for “309 years” but found these years just like a day (or even less) after getting up from their sleep (Chap 18 verse 19,25). Similarly, a person in the good books of God became alive after 100 years of his death, he found it “a day or less than that” (chap 2, verse 259)

Thus, it is concluded that Time-Space and its systemized structure of universe or universes is not self-contained. Almighty Allah is its creator and the controlling authority, Who has left some realities as naked while others as hidden so that the former may be visualized by humans to the extent of their use of wit and wisdom and the latter with their faith and belief. Time represents the same moment for all. It is not a naked reality as observed in our time clocks or estimated by the Sun.

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