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Urban Development

Cooler buildings and lower bills in summer thanks to green walls and roofs

MD Staff

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A 15% cut in the energy bill with a 40% reduction of the direct solar radiation in dwellings and a lower indoor temperature by up to 3 degrees thanks to plants grown on roofs, balconies and external walls. These are part of the outcomes of the Italian pilot project ENEA is conducting at its research center near Rome.

“We developed a green wall based on an extensive roof-garden system and a self-supporting structure positioned at 50cm from the wall of the School of Energies building, where we conduct training courses”, Carlo Alberto Campiotti at the Department Unit for Energy Efficiency, said. “Successively – Campiotti went on – we’ve begun to study the interactions among green coverings, energy flows, the microclimate and indoor comfort, diversifying the species”.

The “plant system” installed on walls, roofs and balconies, has proved capable of creating an actual insulating pad enveloping houses and condos; in this way vegetation can mitigate temperature peaks during summer, capturing most of solar energy, which doesn’t directly hit the building surface, dissipating through evapotranspiration of plants a large amount of thermal energy (up to 1 liter of water daily per square meter) which would otherwise be absorbed by the building and released as heat inside the house.

“In summer this vegetation system allows to reduce up to 15% of energy for cooling- Campiotti pointed out- while in winter savings for heating reach 10% thanks to the chimney effect between the wall and the vegetable blanket; in practice, a natural ventilation system removing moisture from walls and reducing the thermal dispersion of the building”. Each plant has its own type of leaf given by color, thickness, shape, arrangement on the stems and biological cycle, which determines the amount of solar radiation it captures instead of hitting the walls of the building.

The parameter defining the energy and bio-agronomic traits of plants is called green factor (kv) and it varies from a minum of 0 to a maximum of 1. In practice, if kv is 1, it means the green mantle doesn’t exert any shielding towards solar radiation and, in summer conditions, the temperature of the external wall is superior to both that of the air and that inside the building; but if the value is zero, it means that vegetation exerts a total shield and the temperature of the wall is equal to that of the air.

“The Pandorea Jasminoides variegata – Germina Giagnacovo at the Energy Efficiency and Productive Activities Department explained – is a climbing evergreen with an excellent ability of neutralizing solar radiation, as Lonicera hall prolific and Partenocissus quinquefolia do, although slightly less effectively”.

“In addition to an improved thermal and acoustic insulation and living comfort for individual dwellings, these solutions also have advantages for the entire urban context: green roofs and walls, in fact, contribute considerably to the reduction of the “heat island”, which can cause a peak of the electrical load during summer, between 3 and 8% for each additional degree of temperature.

Furthermore, less use of air conditioning means less greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2, methane, fluorinated gas and water vapor. Installing green roofs, balconies and walls also means mitigating the effects of the so called “rain bombs” – roofs and balconies account in fact for 20% of the total surface of cities and covering them with plants would allow to absorb up to 50% of rainwater, regulating its flow into the city’s water system- in addition to improving air quality, since 25 m2 of plant surface generate oxygen for one person, while 1m2 eliminates 0.2 kg of particulate matter in the air.

“For many sectors in distress in our economy, including the building sector, new prospects for recovering are opening up- Campiotti continued- also thanks to the introduction of the green bonus with the last Budget Law, a new fiscal incentive which allows to recover 36% of the costs, up to 5thousand euro incurred for re-greening single dwellings and parts of condos, an intervention which could increase the value of the building itself”.

Green coverings

“Extensive, mildly intensive and intensive are the three types of green coverings we’re experimenting with at ENEA- Susanna Mariani at the Department Unit for Energy Efficiency, explained. We are particularly interested in the experimental use of autochthonous varieties, such as climbers and evergreens, but also rare wild species such as Echium vulgare, also known as viperina grass, much loved by bees, which can guarantee maximum protection of biodiversity, adaptability to climatic variability and resistance to summer droughts “.

In detail, the extensive coverings are characterized by varieties of plants that are easy to grow (of the genus ‘sedum’, a set of various species of succulents, and perennials) that need little maintenance and rescue irrigation (mosquito-proof), since they can store a large amount of water. This type of roofing is particularly suitable for walls and slopes, since the installation reaches a weight of about 100 kg / m2. Intensive coverings, on the other hand, foresees the inclusion of trees, require high maintenance and increased irrigation, involving the installation of a weight on the building ranging from 400 to 1000 kg / m2, while the mild intensive is positioned halfway between the other two varieties of coverings, by type of plants and maintenance, weighing between 200 and 400 kg / m2

The courses

In september, at the School of Energies of the ENEA Casaccia Research center, the Energy Efficiency Department will organize a course on the cultivation of plants best suited for green coverings. The course is free of charge and is addressed to agronomists, land surveyors, architects, biologists and natural sciences graduates.

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Urban Development

UN forum spotlights cities, where struggle for sustainability ‘will be won or lost’

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Although cities are often characterized by stark socioeconomic inequalities and poor environmental conditions, they also offer growth and development potential – making them central to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and a main focus of the third day of the United Nations High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Wednesday.

Through the inherently integrated nature of urban development, the 11th Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) impacts a wide range of 2030 Agenda issues from sustainable consumption and production to affordable and clean energy along with health, sustainable transportation, clean water and sanitation. Basically, life on land.

According to the UN, cities are where the struggle for global sustainability “will either be won or lost.”

“Urbanization is one of the most important issues when it comes to sustainable development,” Maimunah Mohd Sharif, Executive Director of UN-Habitat, told journalists at UN Headquarters in New York.

“We must make sure we do it right if we are to achieve the SDGs and move towards a world where we see an end to poverty, the protection of our planet and everyone enjoying peace and prosperity,” she added.

While SDG 11 pledges to make cities and human settlements safe, inclusive, resilient and sustainable by 2030, local and national authorities are making uneven progress towards achieving that goal, according to the UN.

A new report by UN-Habitat and partners tracking SDG progress since their 2015 adoption coincides with the first review of SDG 11 at the HLPF.

At the current rate of expansion, over 700 cities will have populations of more than one million by 2030.

While cities can be powerhouses of economic growth and development, without proper planning and regulation, they could, among other things, suffer soaring levels of poverty, crime and pollution, says UN-Habitat.

“Cities are the spaces where all SDGs can be integrated to provide holistic solutions to the challenges of poverty, exclusion, climate change and risks,” affirmed Ms. Sharif.

Leilani Farha, UN Special Rapporteur on adequate housing, told the HLPF that although there are no global homeless statistics, “housing conditions are fraught.”

She underscored that some six billion people are inadequately housed worldwide and that close to 900 million people are living in informal settlements and encampments in both the global North and South.

“If we do not find housing solutions, no State will be able to meet their Agenda 2030 commitments because without access to adequate, secure and affordable housing there is no equality, there is no end to poverty, to health and well-being, to sustained access to education, to employment,” she added.

Established in 2012, the HLPF meets annually under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). It is the main United Nations platform on sustainable development and it has a central role in the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda and the SDGs at the global level. The Agenda with its 17 Global Goals were adopted in 2015 by UN Member States and aim to protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

Historic Step

Meanwhile in the afternoon, New York City took the distinction of becoming the first city in the world to report directly to the international community on its efforts to reach global benchmarks in addressing poverty, inequality and climate change by 2030.

Among other accomplishments, its Voluntary Local Review (VLR) showcased significant achievements in cleaner air and water, record job and wage growth, and tripling the number of children in free pre-Kindergarten.

“We encourage cities and communities to join the urgent discussion about what is working on the local level, and how we can address the shared challenges that remain on the way to reaching the Global Goals,” said Penny Abeywardena, NY Commissioner for International Affairs.

Moreover, Mayor Bill de Blasio declared Wednesday, 11 July 2018, as Global Goals Day in New York City, to welcome HLPF participants and express local solidarity with efforts worldwide to achieve the goals.

Applauding the Mayor’s leadership and New York on the SDGs, Secretary-General António Guterres noted that the UN recently launched the Local2030 platform for cities and local governments to pursue new pathways for low-emission growth and climate action, poverty alleviation and inclusion of the most vulnerable residents.

“This Voluntary Local Review is a first step towards such progress and I urge other cities and local governments to follow suit,” he said.

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Urban Development

New financial instrument to make Brazilian cities more energy efficient

MD Staff

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A new financial instrument will allow Brazil to increase its investment in urban infrastructure and make the country more energy efficient. The Financial Instruments for Brazil Energy Efficient Cities – FinBRAZEEC will catalyze resources from the private sector and climate funds to create new markets in the areas of efficient street lighting and industrial energy efficiency.

“With this project, CAIXA has the opportunity to develop innovative financing mechanisms that will attract  new investors,” said Antonio Gil Padilha Bernardes Silveira, executive director of sanitation and infrastructure at Caixa. “We will work to support the development, implementation and financing of projects for public lighting in Brazilian municipalities and industrial energy efficiency.”

Brazil’s public sector funding declined in 2015 and 2016, exacerbating the gap in infrastructure financing and highlighting the urgency of bringing private funds into the financing equation. The country’s high urbanization rates (86% in 2018) make investments in urban energy efficiency crucial to address the 2030 SDG’s Energy Efficiency and National Determined Commitments (NDC) goals.

FinBRAZEEC will help Brazil increase investments in urban energy efficiency and meet the goal of improving energy efficiency in the electricity sector by 10% by 2030, set as part of its Nationally Determined Contribution under the Paris Agreement on climate change.

“The FinBRAZEEC project offers one of the first genuine project financing structures in the Brazilian market”, said Martin Raiser, the World Bank Director for Brazil.  “Its innovative financing model will help us unlock investment potential in the street lighting and industrial energy efficiency sectors, which had previously been identified as particularly promising for market based solutions. But we hope the example will encourage similar approaches also in other areas”.

Under the project, which includes a US$ 200 million project IBRD loan combined with Green Climate Fund (GCF) and Clean Technology Fund (CTF) resources, the World Bank will partner with Caixa Econômica Federal (CEF), the second largest state-owned financial institution in Latin America and the fourth largest bank in Brazil, as the financial intermediary and borrower of IBRD and climate funds. CEF will lead the syndication of commercial lenders and will establish a Guarantee Facility that will provide partial credit guarantees to the commercial lenders participating in the syndication.

The creative approach of FinBrazeec’s new financial instruments galvanizes the experience of the World Bank in strengthening a truly domestic, modern and de-risked infrastructure asset-class market for investors,” according to Antonio Barbalho, Practice Manager for Energy, Latin America and the Caribbean. “The World Bank developed a cutting-edge financial and risk mitigation product, opening new windows of opportunity for supporting infrastructure investments,” adds Barbalho. The instrument encompasses best practices in infrastructure project preparation and provides flexible features to mobilize private finance while managing and mitigating risks.

FinBRAZEEC is expected to mobilize more than US$ 1.1 billion for urban energy efficiency investments in Brazil. In addition to the US$200 million IBRD loan, it will count on US$180 million of counterpart funds, as well as US$195 million in climate funds from the GCF and US$25 million in climate funds from CTF. The Project’s goal is to leverage US$ 730 million in commercial debt and equity, making it an excellent example of the World Bank’s strategy of Maximizing Financing for Development.

The Project will also benefit from a strong technical assistance program, supported by a US$ 4 million GCF grant, as well as nearly US$1 million in Bank-executed funds from the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the Global Infrastructure Facility (GIF). These funds will be used to increase CEF’s capacity to implement the innovative financial products and support sub-project pipeline development.

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Urban Development

Act Now for a More Prosperous and Livable Dhaka

MD Staff

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Through swift measures to develop East Dhaka, Bangladesh has a unique opportunity to relieve the flooding, congestion, and messiness that are clogging the capital’s growth and affecting the quality of life of its people, says a new World Bank report released today.

The report, Toward Great Dhaka: A New Urban Development Paradigm Eastward, lays out a strategic vision for the city to unlock its development potential. Inspired by the success of Pudong, Shanghai, but based on localized economic modeling and simulations, the report recommends three critical interventions to develop East Dhaka. This area is mainly rural at present, but it is located within a few kilometers of the most valuable parts of the city.

The three interventions are: building the eastern embankment along the Balu River to mitigate flooding; developing transport links and public transit to ease congestion; and creating a world-class business district with sound policies to attract firms and residents eastward.

The report analyzes how these interventions could propel Dhaka toward becoming a global city and a stronger economic powerhouse for Bangladesh. If adopted, average income per capita in Dhaka could reach $9,200 by 2035 compared to less than $8,000 on current trends.

Dhaka’s residents currently face many difficulties, as the city’s infrastructure development has not kept pace with the substantial growth of its population and traffic” said Martin Rama, the World Bank’s Chief Economist for South Asia. “Developing East Dhaka with a strategic approach will result in a more prosperous and livable city. But action must be taken now, to avoid replicating the messy urban development of the past, and to mitigate environmental and social risks. Fixing East Dhaka in the future will be much more expensive and difficult.”

Dhaka’s population has increased from 3 million in 1980 to more than 18 million today, with 3.5 million residents currently living in slums that lack basic services. Average driving speed has slowed from 21km/h to less than 7km/h, and 3.2 million working hours are wasted everyday due to congestion. Social costs will worsen without a different approach to urban development, as Greater Dhaka will be home to 25 million people by 2035 on current trends.

 “Because of its vast size and proximity to the city center, East Dhaka represents a golden opportunity that few megacities in the world have. But seizing this opportunity requires a clear mandate by authorities, good collaboration between agencies, and concerted implementation” said Qimiao Fan, the World Bank’s Country Director for Bangladesh. “As a long-term development partner, the World Bank stands ready to work with the government and the people of Bangladesh to transform the dream of a great Dhaka into a reality.” 

The three interventions proposed in the report could enable Dhaka to comfortably host an extra 5 million inhabitants, and to create 1.8 million additional jobs, compared to a continuation of business as usual. The interventions would cost about $15 billion, but they could lead to $53 billion in increased economic activity per year by 2035. They would also result in an improved quality of life for Dhaka’s inhabitants, and alleviate many of the challenges the city currently faces.

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