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A New Facebook Psychology: How to Account for Violating Public Trust

Rebecca L. Durbin

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Technology has become society’s answer for everything. The internet has virtually replaced brick-and-mortar libraries, has infiltrated most aspects of research, and has become the largest means by which people communicate and share information. However, information is not always accurate. Worse, information is often edited to purposefully alter perception. A lack of accountability further encourages erroneous internet content as there are few regulations and fewer methods for enforcement due to vague laws. Monopolies such as Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Microsoft benefit from the current unregulated structure, as they profit off the consumers’ inability to hold them accountable for violations. This presents a conflict of interest to consumer privacy, as people allow access without understanding what they’ve allowed and how the information can be used.

Neglecting or refusing to update internet policy and law in order to maintain a lack of regulation, enforcement, and accountability is unethical if not illegal. Violations of consumer trust are not always expressly illegal, though violating such trust has an enormous impact on companies that rely on consumer opinion to stay in business. Yet why would companies maintain trust when there is no competition for their services? At some point, conventional wisdom says, the scale will tip against the company. If Facebook fails to keep users, its power, prestige, profit, and influence will likewise narrow.

When the consumers have influence they feel invested. However, when a company subverts the trust of the consumer to benefit itself, such as the recent privacy violations allowed by Facebook, consequences are far-reaching. Facebook and similar online tech companies feel entitled to require consumers to disclose personal information before allowing access and use of their product. This collection of content extends to individuals with whom consumers share a connection: a single Facebook account can provide personal information for literally thousands of people. Even deleting an account will not eliminate information gathered, as Facebook reserves the right to keep information others have shared after the fact.

Though consumers were aware their information was being gathered to personalize commercial ads within Facebook’s application, it was considered an acceptable trade for free use of applications, operating systems, and connectivity. However, consumers were not aware of the extent their personal information was made available to third party companies who purchased the information from Facebook for exploitation purposes. In the Cambridge Analytica scandal, Facebook enabled personal information of 87 million accounts to be sold to a political-advertising firm, who then used psychological information derived from the accounts to customize advertisements designed to motivate users into electing President Donald Trump. Additionally, Facebook does not monitor or prevent fake news and ads on its platform, to include those planted by foreign actors, designed to manipulate the US public and potentially compromise democratic integrity.

After a breach of public trust, regaining the previous level of confidence is more difficult than the initial efforts taken to earn it. In the past, innovators and politicians have used modified business models to influence the public: company mission statements (political platform), management of employees (running a campaign), marketing (lobbyists), and consumers (the public). To monitor social media companies and rebuild consumer trust, it may be advantageous to capitalize on traditional business tactics initially used to achieve consumer trust. However, the previous business model must be redefined and expanded as current practices do not address the limitations in how Facebook leverages user data in order to better sell to advertisers.  Zuckerberg must address privacy issues when restructuring a new business model rather than being perceived to manipulate consumers. The methods utilized for his initial success should be reapplied: he must cater to the psychological needs of consumers by developing a product they use for life enhancement rather than a product that uses them to build external revenue.

The current business model at Facebook does not address how violations of privacy can be devastating to the consumer and has failed to monitor these violations.  This abuse may be purposeful for profit, but it can also derive from inadvertent neglect and complacency. Jane Dalton quoted the French president, Emmanuel Macron, in The Independent in 2018, “Google and Facebook are becoming too big to be governed and may face getting dismantled.” In an article written by Jeremy White in 2018, Mark Zuckerberg stated, “it’s not a question of ‘if regulation’, it’s a question of ‘what type.’” The population is concerned that dismantling social media sites will fundamentally alter them and that government regulation would include censorship laws that would be too restrictive. Each concern renders social media sites unattractive for use.

The best way for companies to protect consumers from abuse without dismantlement or overzealous censorship is for the consumer to be more involved: consumers of social media ostensibly create the very content of social media and should therefore become real shareholders and stakeholders in its management. This would enable the public to provide input on how the company coordinates, collaborates, updates, synchronizes, and corrects mistakes. As a commonwealth company, the public could be held more liable for the content they provide to social media sites. This law would therefore not be a platform to limit the freedom of speech, enforce politically correct commentary, or censor content, but rather hold companies – and its users – responsible for posting and hosting illegal content. The potential for neglect and complacency is avoided. The burden of responsibility is shared and enforced by all. The masses feel reinvested, consumers have a product they want, and companies can earn back credibility.

To ensure this new business model functions as desired and does not fail means changing laws and policies to prevent future breaches rather than signing agreements which can be reworded to benefit the company rather than the consumers. What must also be understood is that during a transition, laws and policies must not stall in the diagnostics phase. The intent of the law should be followed so solutions and preventative measures with real consequences can be implemented. As the company is crowd-owned, interpretation is left to how a reasonable public understands the intent. This prevents delaying laws and policy while lawyers sneak legal loopholes into regulations. When such loopholes are found, they should be immediately amended. Policies and laws should be made public so that the public can act as mediator.

To sustain this new business model, getting caught up in the momentum of reaching end-state goals should not distract from assessing and understanding new risks. Moving forward, Facebook needs to prevent this, which Mark Zuckerberg seems to have taken to heart. He has promised to assess the lack of oversight at Facebook in addition to assessing future risk. He has also promised to address the lack of strong leadership. Leadership needs to be ethical as well as supervisory: an anti-corruption Chief Compliance Officer should be put in place and be willing to take accountability of compliance to prevent profits from competing with anti-corruption, compliance, and ethics programs. If people control their own privacy settings, then allow them to decide what information to give and how much compensation to receive in trade. As with companies like Ebay, Facebook can take a percentage of this transaction. This ensures Facebook will have sufficient resources to continue providing a platform for social media but does not allow the platform to become too large and unmanageable as it is now. Clear procedures and policies should be made available, showing clear documentation of expectations. Communication and training will ensure compliance, but training can’t be one-size-fits all. Monitoring must be sufficient to ensure anti-corruption, but in this case, it would be focused on Facebook’s policies rather than its consumers. This ensures that owners, executives, employees, and shareholders equally account for wrong-doing and provides a means for corrective action that remains consistent.

A new European Union privacy law is already in place which gives consumers greater control over the use of their data. Harper Neidig explains users will be able to request what personal information companies have, request their information be deleted, order the cessation of distribution of personal data to third parties, and to revoke consent for personal information shared. (Neidig 2018) In this new business model, the public does not partner with the social media platform, but it does control the information and how it is shared: nothing can be shared without the specific release of the initial poster. Such release restrictions limit availability of information based on constraints set by the initial poster, which in turn limits how much manipulation can occur post-posting. A full release is considered fully public and available. This release also ensures information can be traced to the initial poster to ensure content laws are enforced, fake news is prevented, and unauthorized information leaks are quickly contained. When each consumer has control over their own personal information, selling that personal information then becomes a choice for each individual.

When such changes are implemented, it is more likely that consumers will regain trust. Psychologically, Facebook needs to return to a time when the wishes of consumers were more important than profit. Zuckerberg needs to target connectivity and the exchange of ideas between people once again rather than targeting people for their private information in order to exploit potential commercial activity. Consumers should not be treated like credit but should control the means by which companies earn credibility. When the masses have such influence, they feel invested, protected, and they will trust the future of the company. This may be asking for a new psychology of Facebook. But clearly in light of recent information, a new psychology is desperately needed.

Rebecca L. Durbin holds Masters degrees in both Strategic Intelligence and Psychology and is currently pursuing her Doctoral degree in Strategic Intelligence at the American Military University. Commissioned as an Army Intelligence Officer in 2006, she has three combat deployments. Since 2010, she has supported several agencies within the Department of Defense conducting Counter and Human Intelligence analysis.

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India’s Nuclear Imperilment

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Recently, a uranium smuggling racket was busted by the Kolkata police with one kilogramme of radioactive material. According to the reports, smugglers were trying to sell uranium, which has a market value of INR 30 million ($440,000).

The theft of highly sensitive material especially uranium is frequently happening in India.In November 1994, Meghalaya Police seized 2.5 kg of uranium from a gang of four smugglers in the Domiasiat region. Police in the Indian state of West Bengal in June 1998, arrested an opposition politician who they say was carrying more than 100 kilograms of uranium. In July 1998, the CBI unearthed a major racket in theft of uranium in Tamil Nadu, with the seizure of over eight kg of the nuclear material. In August 2001, Police in the Indian state of West Bengal arrested two men with more than 200 grams of semi-processed uranium. In December 2006, a container packed with radioactive material was stolen from a fortified research facility in eastern India.

Similarly, in February 2008 the police seized 4 kg of uranium in Supaul district along the Indo-Nepal border.Police in the north-eastern Indian state of Meghalaya said in September 2008 that they have arrested five people on charges of smuggling uranium ore.In December 2009, the Navi Mumbai Crime Branch arrested three people for illegal possession of 5 kg of depleted uranium.Around 9 kg of radioactive uranium, a banned material, was seized from two persons in Thane, in December 2016.

India is operating a plutonium production reactor, Dhruva, and a uranium enrichment facility that are not subject to IAEA safeguards. India’s buildup of South Asia’s largest military complex of nuclear centrifuges and atomic-research laboratories is somehow threatening efforts related to nuclear security and safety. These facilities will ultimately give India the ability to make more large-yield nuclear arms & hydrogen bombs. The international task force on the prevention of nuclear terrorism is of the view that the possibility of nuclear terrorism is increasing keeping in mind the rapid nuclear development by India. Whereas, U.S. officials and experts are of the view that India’s nuclear explosive materials are vulnerable to theft.

Contemporary Indian internal situation is worsening day by day because of the intolerance and extremism. Likewise, India has more than 65 active terrorist groups operating in different states including the location of nuclear installations. These terrorists may possibly gain access to nuclear materials and use them against civilian and military installations. In January 2016, we have seen a controversial Pathankot Airbase attack, which also shows that Indian intelligence had badly failed to provide true information about terrorist networks.

Nuclear facilities must be guarded closely and the people who are working in these facilities must maintain secrecy. However, in India, nuclear facilities are guarded by Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) and CISF guard admitted that security at the installations needs more enhancements. Mysterious deaths of Indian nuclear scientists is a matter of concern as some were reported suicide and some were murdered. The possibility of nuclear secrecy gets out in the hands of terrorists cannot be ignored.

The Naxalites – India’s Maoists from the Communist Party often target the police and military bases. Though most terrifying revelation was by the EU report that seven Indian companies were involved in funding to ISIS for making bombs. Previously Indian companies were involved in illicit nuclear trade with Iran, Iraq and Libya. So the situation will be a lot worst if the Indian companies provide any chemical, biological or the nuclear material to ISIS

Several of these incidents clearly indicate the failure of the Indian nuclear security agencies. Thus the focus of mainstream media and Western governments should be the Indian nuclear program’s flawed security, expansion and rapidly increasing nuclear weapons technology.

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Know the psychology of ISIL

Sajad Abedi

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In my opinion, the “ISIS phenomenon” is not new; it distinguishes the factors of this group; for example, the audience of the world’s television networks is watching films that ISIS itself publishes. They have internet sites that send their films and photos to the world. On the other hand, the region is full of journalists because both the Syria war is underway and the Middle East regional issues are so important, so journalists can cover the moment.

In addition, the strategic importance of the Iraqi state and its oil resources was due to the fact that ISIS had its first attacks on oil and refineries, but it was effective in triggering their actions, but the thing that shook the world more than anything else, A pattern of behavior that the group represented during the capture of places; films from ISILs that were showing them on the road and checking cars, while carrying laptops with names of those who worked with the government, or any kind of their thoughts It was different from the ideology of ISIL.

The members of the group matched the driver identification card with the list of these names, and if their names were on this list, they would have been executed without trial!

These films spread throughout the world, and the wonder of the whole world prompted which ideology and religion could be, according to which, people were allowed to kill someone by merely naming and without trial, killing someone along the road and rejoicing.

The problem is that the members of this group, other than themselves, do not know the rest of the people as religious and religious, so they assume any violence and murder as loyal to their religious ideology, while many Muslims around the world, especially their classroom, are astonished at these actions and never do such acts godly and on the basis of religion and hate them.

Is Isis a Terrorist?

“Terror” means the creation of horror and fear. In fact, terror means the use of unexpected, shocking and unlawful violence against civilians to force a state or a society to accept demands based on an ideology.

But what does a terrorist want from a psychological point of view, what happens in society and what is his goal? They create psychological phenomena in society, through which they pressure the people and civilians to push them on to governments, and ultimately, to reach the demands of that group. The psychological phenomena that are caused by terrorist movements and their news in people are horror, discomfort and turmoil, unrest and restlessness, pessimism, anxiety and anxiety, anger, grief and tragedy.

Most importantly, the combination of all these unpleasant feelings is causing a lot of confusion, discomfort and insecurity inside people. But what makes the assassination possible? It is clear that those who do such behaviors do not consider themselves brutal or inhumane, and they have the absolute right to do such acts.

In recent years, investigations have been carried out on those who have had extreme behaviors. One of the most important and best investigated was Dr. Wagdey Luzza at the University of Cantabria on the terrorism of religious groups such as al-Qaeda, with the Middle East approach, and the results could be extended to ISIS. According to the study, it turned out that in the West, most of those joining these groups are men aged 17 to 23, usually from middle-class families with relatively high academic and academic achievements in modern science with academic degrees.

But the results of the 1999 study also revealed that those who carry out terrorist acts in their own countries are people with low and unemployed education who have been roughly dropped out of the text of the community, and themselves have separated themselves from the context of society.

The leaders of these radical and radical religious groups, on average 15 years older than the followers and other members of the group, are about 40 years old, have a great deal of affection and influence, are able to inspire the respect of their followers and their own self, Their ideology, in such a way that they can influence others, have intrinsically an influential personality, inspire others, encourage in the best possible way, usually do not fear death and are professors of death. Of course, in the leaders of these groups, there are people who, incidentally, completely escape death while encouraging others to die in the ideology.

Those who are attracted to groups like ISIS are abnormal?

There is no consensus on this. Some studies show that many of these people have personality disorders. Some even suffer from major psychiatric disorders. But the most important point of the personality that can be mentioned is that they have grown up in a family or a community that has created a feeling of self-sufficiency and humiliation.

These people have never been taken seriously and they feel that they are not first class citizens and their rights are different from the rights of other citizens. They feel like they are not treated to others. One of the most prominent examples of this situation may be seen in the behavior of Arab people living in the suburbs of Paris over the past 2-3 years. They were born in Paris and had a French passport, but their sense of belonging and attachment to the French community was not formed, which caused disturbances in Paris, which caused a lot of damage.

After that, the French government has just realized that it cannot continue to discriminate, and must provide grounds for joining these people to French culture while respecting Arab and Islamic culture in order not to face such rebellion and chaos.

Another aspect of the personality of the members of such groups is that they do not have personality independence and they need to follow someone else with a higher appeal. They have no self-confidence and can only feel confident within an ideology, that is, ideology with rough behaviors so that nobody dares to stand in front of them.

People who lack the sense of empathy and sympathy with others, and they are not basically born of a child of conscience, suffered a severe damage to their self-image from a childhood, which is said to be bad in their family and society, they are a bad people, their religion is not worthless. , Have a brutal nationality, and they are constantly seeking to abandon their anger, and one of the best ways to do this is to join groups that can be abused by membership and violent behavior.

Members of these groups are pessimistic about the world around them and the world, and sometimes have a lot of mental employment, for example, under the control of a very violent parent or violent and punitive rule. Groups like ISIS will be able to empower them. People with such characteristics are so influenced and influenced by a kind of hypnosis that their contacts with the facts are discontinued and their perceptions of facts are confused.

One of the things that the leaders of these groups do well is brainwashing, that is, brainwashing ideological issues in the name of reality in the whole universe, and assuring them that the truth is what their leaders say.

Another group of researchers, according to their studies, has concluded that members of the terrorist groups do not have an abnormal character at all; many of them naturally, educated and highly adhered to their ideology, and are even willing to sacrifice their lives for their ideology. In fact, these people, through sacrificing their lives, feel useful, sacrificed and sacrificed and are proud to be in this way, which ultimately leads to a great name in this world and a fortune-telling to come place for them.

In my opinion, naturally, both groups of these people are seen in groups like ISIL, and perhaps we should look at their behavior in order to find out the reality. I believe that what distinguishes natural people from abnormal is the degree of conscientiousness.

Those who believe in devotion and sacrifice and honesty are surely not willing to surrender their captive family members without trial, roadside, and in front of their eyes.

Unfortunately, due to the actions and actions of the ISIS group, it seems that most of its members have an abnormal character and their thoughts are immortal and primitive. They are usually accustomed to learning to look very straightforward. The example of this is the declaration of the caliphate for the whole world from an area in Iraq and the burning of European citizens’ passports to show that they are universal and do not think nationally! These people believe that they have established a government and a caliphate for the whole world, all of which shows their simplicity.

They see phenomena as absolute black or white, or good or bad. They see the world divided into two categories: the helpless rich, the exploited, and the poor, are miserable, and this means thinking all or nothing. Their beliefs are based on the rejection of the thoughts of others, rather than certain beliefs, and they consider all the rights to themselves. Moreover, they believe that their thinking for all ages and for all people and all the conditions is right, so they want to persuade everyone to force their ideology and if anyone opposes it, they seek to hurt him. Clearly, the analytical system of these groups is weak because the training that they have seen in their schools is more based on memory rather than analysis.

Finally, I emphasize that the formation of ISIS and its groups is the result of being repelled and humiliated by the family and society. Therefore, if any country wants a phenomenon like ISIS not to emerge, one must understand that it is necessary to respect the rights of citizenship and religion of the people

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Radicalisation of Youth in Indonesia and Counteractions

Abhishek Mohanty

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There is a generic proverb that youth are the upcoming leaders of future. But in reality, they are the leaders of contemporary times. Indonesia, with approximately 266 million population, in which almost 25% of the population is occupied by youth falling below the age of 25. Shaping this group for influencing present and future discourses of Indonesia is very important. But this young generation is ghastly being motivated towards radicalism on several pretexts, primarily politically and religiously. One of the several factors is due to identity crisis which is invoked internally by society and externally by subtle indoctrination through mainstream and social media.

There is an increasing consciousness in Indonesia that terror organisations are encouraging youths to join their ranks. This endangerment was clear since 2009 when Indonesian media telecasted a video of an 18-year old preparing himself for suicide bombing at the Hotel Marriott. The video disclosed the serene account about sacrificing one’s life for the sake of religion. The Indonesian media had unconcealed in front of the whole nation that for some of Indonesian youth, it was their responsibility to wage Jihad against infidels in the form of terrorist acts. Indonesian public found it embarrassing to digest this at that time.

But now, a worrying number of Indonesian youth have been exposed to radical political and religious orientation. Approximately 39% of university students have confessed their support to radical organisations. Fifteen provinces of Indonesia now have a “high risk” categorisation. Their students are an easy prey for radical organisations.A related narrative is also going on in Indonesian high schools. Nearly60% of extracurricular Islamic studies students are ready to engage in fierce jihad. This has caused an alarming situation in Indonesia as it is clearly visible that radical radical elements of the society have infiltrated the minds of Indonesian youth.

One of the earliest radical preachers in Indonesia is the Rohani Islam movement, which upsurged after the fall of Suharto’s autocratic regime. It has promoted radical interpretations of Islams to Indonesian youths through evening classes. Rohani apologists are now the most radical section of people in Indonesian society. Around 40% of the supporters backed to transform Indonesia into an Islamic State under a caliphate. The Rohani Islam movement comes under the purview of the Ministry for Education. But there have been negligible attempts to probe or reorient the Rohani Islam movement.

Another renowned radical organisation Jemaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD) has also been radicalising Indonesian youth since the last three years. It was established in 2015, as a result of amalgamation of more than a dozen Indonesian terrorist outfits to strengthen the influence of ISIS in Indonesia, with Aman Abdurrahman, who recently was sentenced to death for his involvement in terrorist attacks, as it’s de facto supremo. According to Indonesian authorities, the family of suicide bombers which recently perpetrated the terrorist attacks in Surabaya had strong connections with JAD. The radical organisation also runs unauthorised boarding schools study groups for Indonesian youth. It has been also alleged by Indonesian authorities that students and teachers from these schools have travelled to Iraq and Syria for training purposes.

With the issue of radicalism gaining momentum in Indonesia, several NGOs have stepped up to counter the influence of radicalism in the Indonesian society. They have carried out majority of the initiatives on deradicalisation of youths. The Wahid Foundation, like for example, visits high schools which are soft targets of radicalisation. Their activists teach lessons on subjects like peace, religious tolerance, multiculturalism and pluralism. The Jakarta-settled NGO Maarif Institute organises an annual camp youth camp to assist youth in countering the influence of radicalism. Its also organises visits to Catholic churches and Buddhist temple to promote inter-faith cooperation and has partnered with Google to host workshops on ways to combat baneful online propaganda.

The radicalization of Indonesian youth is now a major concern for the government, as inflammatory thoughts now easily move through cultures and borders with one touch, more precisely with just tapping tweet or post. There is an urgent need for maximising government initiatives towards youth related policies. Such as, there are very less public investments in youth related national programmes to tap their prolific assets. Recently, President Widodo has announced new policies to forbid youth from coming under the influence of radical views. For developing a robust framework of youth deradicalisation involves modifications in policies, societies and families.

Indonesia’s youth deradicalisation initiatives will be more complex and intriguing in the coming times. Albeit Indonesia is the best model of a multicultural, religious tolerant Muslim-majority secular democracy, still a lot has to be done in developing an environment among the youth that is free from any kind of radical orientations. One aspect can be encouraging ambitious youth leadership. Interactive sessions by senior educators won’t appeal the youth as much when compared with passionate youth leaders.

Radicalism is often a harbinger to terrorism and concentrating on radicalism signals to get rid of terrorism at the nascent stage, before it is too late for non-coercive tactics. Triumphing over radicalism will in the end not be reckoned by military actions but by encouraging non-military policies that tones up the institutional support of human development in the country.

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