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Successful Use of Public Diplomacy: Lessons from Canada

Rameen Khan

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International Relations in 21st century is characterized by high degree of global interconnections or one may call it as globalization. This has further been driven by various factors such as economic interdependence, technological advancements in information and communications, increased movement of people, transnational crime and security threats and the growing concern over the global environment. These changes in International system calls for more open, cooperative and technology-based approach to the way state affairs are conducted.

Diplomacy however is one of the instrument of foreign policy through which state interact with others, but with the passage of time the concept of new or public diplomacy has emerged which has transformed the concept of traditional diplomacy. The current scenario calls for openness rather than secrecy, it no longer only should deal with nation-state but also with civil societies and public abroad. Public diplomacy means to communicate with foreign audience to promote country’s national interests abroad. The concept of Public diplomacy however is also transforming with the passage of time which includes broad variety of actors such as non- governmental entities, private companies etc. Ministry of Foreign Affairs had to be active in conducting public diplomacy in a better way.

Talking about Canada and its effective Public Diplomacy which can be viewed by other states as an example to conduct relations with foreign audience to help promote its image and reputation as a calm and friendly nation, its culture, and its basic principles like democracy, freedom, and the rule of law with the country’s practical desire to protect its interests, image, and safety. In short it could be said that Public Diplomacy in Canadian context has been considered as the “third pillar” of Foreign Policy which is in theory equal to first “two pillars” of promoting economic growth and International Peace and security.

Canada however has been engaged in Public Diplomacy by communicating with audience through the two-way dialogue process to promote nation’s international goals or interests. Similarly, it has also used several experts and made partnership with them for effective communication purposes. These experts assist in delivering public diplomacy in their specialized areas, including information technology, academic research, finance and others. It has used various approaches of Public Diplomacy like listening, advocacy, Cultural Diplomacy, Exchange Programs and International Broadcasting to see what audience abroad is saying about Canada and how Canada can have an impact on their hearts and minds which could ultimately serve the nation’s goals.

Culture is one of the main approach of Public diplomacy on which Canada is focusing upon it has The Cultural Industries Sectoral Advisory Group on International Trade (SAGIT)which is part of the federal government’s advisory system on international trade. It provides a means for officials from the Global Affairs Canada and the Department of Canadian Heritage to consult with representatives of Canada’s cultural industries. Canada has developed a vibrant cultural sector, with numerous cultural institutions, a diverse publishing industry, a talented music industry, a dynamic cultural new media industry and critically acclaimed film and television industries. Canadian books, magazines, songs, films, new media, radio and television programs reflect who we are as a people. Cultural industries shape our society, develop our understanding of one another and give us a sense of pride in who we are as a nation. Canada’s cultural industries fulfil an essential and vital role in Canadian society. In their effort to reach audiences, its cultural industries have always risen to the challenge of competition from foreign cultural producers. Their ability to create an enduring place in our lives is dependent on the creativity and talent of Canada’s artists, creators and producers. It also depends, in part, on government policies and programs that aim to promote Canadian culture. Therefore, they are making Plans and Policies so ass for better promotion of culture abroad. PM Justin Trudeau however is also very much concerned about Cultural promotions.

The Canadian government uses a combination of financial incentives, Canadian content requirements, tax measures, rules on foreign investments and intellectual property tools to promote Canadian culture.

For influencing audience abroad things need to be promoted in a better way and for that Internet is major tool. The management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFAs) web page is too important. A good webpage is not only informative but invites visitors to comment and engage in dialogue. Canadians have done especially well in structuring such exchanges.

Exchange programs are also one of the approaches followed by Canada it is usually a two-way process it offers student exchange programs, educators programs, and Group exchange programs. The government of Canada a lot of budget for these exchange programs where students as well as teachers travel abroad to make them aware of other cultures, languages and to teach foreign public about their culture etc. However, it could also be seen that vast quantities of foreign students that come to Canadian universities every year.

It could be seen that it also has it public diplomacy officer under the supervision of the Foreign Policy and Diplomacy Service Program (FPDS) Manager, the Public Diplomacy Officer advises on, develops, plans and manages the Consulate’s advocacy and public affairs activities i.e. Plans and coordinates visits from Canada, arranges meetings with key local interlocutors and provides interpretation when necessary; creates and manages events (such as seminars and workshops) to engage civil society groups; engages media through interviews, roundtables, or events; conducts regular media monitoring, and publishes relevant information through social media; manages the Post Initiative Fund;  maintains academic relations in the region, and supports Canadian Studies Centers; organizes or coordinates cultural programs to support the Consulate’s advocacy priorities.

For International Broadcasting it has Radio Canada International which is voice of Canada around the globe but it does not have any International Television Service.

Hence it could be seen that with the passage of time Canada is developing more plans and creating policies for the better promotion of its image as peace-loving state which is working for sustainable world and International prosperity. So, by looking at this it could be analyzed that the tool of Public Diplomacy is effectively being used by Canada and other nations of the world needs to learn from Canada. However, it could see that challenges are also on the way of Canada for running effective public diplomacy but it is working efficiently to counter them as well.

Undergoing studies in the field of defence and diplomatics. Major areas of my interest includes foreign policy, public diplomacy, interntional law, Conflict resolution, Geopolitics and International Relations.

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Diplomacy

3 Ideas for Your Essay on Diplomacy

Newsroom

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Taking up diplomatic studies is a practice that long ago earned admiration from young people due to the impressive range of opportunities and prospects it gives them. To chase a degree in diplomacy means to keep pace with the business, political, and even social tendencies circulating in society. And, as it happens, pursuing professional and academic goals in diplomatic studies can be pretty challenging, given the somewhat complex nature of this global field of study. And this especially gets tough when it comes to writing papers on diplomacy.

And this is where individuals, for whom diplomacy is a true obsession, come to help! We have decided to compile the top ideas for your diplomacy essay. Now, brace yourself!

  1. Write About Poignant Issues

Although political and social studies are where current challenges of life are mainly explored and highlighted, diplomacy also displays a lot of problems and pitfalls that require prompt reaction and sound solutions. For this reason, covering relevant problems and subjects that the world is dealing with today is a pretty reasonable solution for writing your paper in diplomatic studies! Make sure to find the most critical and trending subjects connected with diplomacy and pick the one to your liking. Remember that, before you start writing, you need to properly research the problem you’ve chosen to explore as well as use reliable scientific sources.

  • Chose the Subject Relevant to Your Country and Its Diplomatic Relations With Other Countries

In your paper in diplomatic studies, it’s important to cover the issues that have global diplomatic significance. However, depending on the current political situation in your country, it might be better to dedicate your essay to the problems that have to do with diplomacy in your particular country. Study the issues your country is currently facing and pay close attention to every major problem your government handles. And, to make your paper look like the excellent pieces they develop at the services where your pals buy cheap courseworks, be sure to write from an unbiased, impartial point of view.

  • Write About Trending Challenges Connected to Diplomacy

Today’s poor world witnesses a lot of hot-button issues encapsulating people and events. And, of course, not all of these issues are related to diplomacy, obvious as it might sound. The confrontation between vegans and non-vegans, sexism, racism, the controversial activism of Greta Thunberg, and many other manifestations of the world’s rapid development and tragic decadence – these challenges of today can be smartly connected to diplomacy in your paper, brightly highlighted within the context of diplomatic relations. All you need to do is conduct substantial research of the problem, connect it to the world’s diplomatic situation, and sketch a plan of your future paper.

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Diplomacy

Chinese soft power winning hearts and minds

Dost Muhammad Barrech

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Soft power cheaper than hard power, winning hearts and minds of the people, is prerequisite for the state in international politics.  Joseph Nye, the pioneer of soft power argues “It is the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments”. Solely relying on hard power in digital era proves to be counterproductive for the state, tarnishing its soft image, causing destruction, squandering a colossal amount of money being spent on military. Seduction, likewise, appears to be more effective and more instrumental than coercion in interstate relations.

Rise of China is imminent, for rising power in 21st, soft power is as crucial as hard power. China’s preoccupation with its soft power has resultantly been accelerating by leaps and bounds, giving positive image to the world that it would be a benign power in the foreseeable future, crafting consent rather than coercion in its foreign policy. China in the last couple of centuries remained isolated from the world, intimidated by the external powers, has currently been emerging as a dominant player on account of its robust economy, initiating Belt and Road Initiative(BRI), making a headway in technological development, settling territorial disputes with its neibouring states,  contributing in UN peacekeeping mission, supporting countries in ongoing pandemic disease that invariably  promote its soft power spectacularly.

China possesses components of soft power, having 5,000 years of civilization, 1.3 billion people and 960 million square kilometers of territory. China, remained a great power, the Tang dynasty from the seventh century to the tenth century conceives to be a golden era of Chinese history. Glorifying Chinese civilization and history by Chinese statecrafts as their soft power is on the card. China till December 1, 2015 had built 500 Confucius institutes and 1,000 Confucius classrooms in 134 countries with enrolment of nearly 1.9 million students, promoting Chinese language, culture, and facilitating cultural exchanges.

China, presently remains the hub of foreign students. In 1978 there were merely 2,000 foreign students studying in mainland China, in 2007 the number outstripped to 200,000. Under current juncture, nearly 28,000 Pakistani students are studying in China. China by granting foreign scholarships wishes to exploit foreign talent, ensuing strengthening of its economy, resulting in its soft power projection.

The classic book titled “Research Outline for China’s Cultural Soft Power” authored by Guozuo Zhang. Zhang in the book sheds lights on Chinese culture and its civilization arguing that soft power is deeply entrenched in Chinese history giving reference of Chinese sixth century BC strategist Sun Tzu’s book “Art of War”. The writer quotes Sun Tzu” The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without a war.” “The best tactics is to take by strategy,” “Those who win people’s heart can win the world.”Sun Tzu’s adages unambiguously illustrate functions of soft power in Chinese history.

Another insightful book titled “Charm Offensive How China’s Soft Power is Transforming the World” authored by Joshua Kurlantzick. Kurlantzick in the book states that China’s charm offensive as soft power triggered in 2000s,attributed to desired stability and harmony with all its fourteen neighboring states. Chinese charm offensive maintains that “Safeguarding peace, promoting development and enhancing cooperation, which is the common desire of all peoples, represents the irresistible historical trend,”. The term hepingjueqi, or Peaceful Rise coined by Zheng Bijian a renowned and senior adviser to the Chinese leadership, was soon inculcated into Chinese leaders’ speeches and in foreign policy.

The term Peaceful Rise is being used tactfully in Chinese foreign policy reflects its soft power; realizing its fourteen neibouring states that China unlike the US believes in peaceful co-existence and shuns warmongering strategies. If China eschews Peaceful Rise in its foreign policy, its neibouring states by all means would become sceptical about Chinese belligerent intentions.

China is increasingly using public diplomacy as a soft power. In 2010, the Beijing Foreign Studies University, launched China’s first ever Public Diplomacy Research Centre, aimed at orchestrating positive image of China, invalidating distorted overseas reports regarding China, improving surroundings of Chinese peripheral states and influencing policy decisions of foreign countries. China through public diplomacy has successfully been trying to reinforce its narratives as the saying of Nye goes “narratives become the new currency of soft power”.

Under current circumstances, Covid-19 a highly contagious virus has tightened its grip on the entire world, states are in dire need of help instead of looking towards the US title towards China. Realistically, speaking, Covid-19 oriented in China should have tarnished its image instead China seems to be a torch bearer of the world, supporting states, providing medial aids. Nouriel Roubini, an American economist at NYU, maintains that during the pandemic “China is building its soft power,” he further reiterates that China assures to the world that ‘‘Our political system is better, our technological model is better, our economic model is better.”

To sum up, China has bad reputation in the US; The US and Western states including India will inevitably strive to malign Chinese soft image, demonizing it’s an authoritarian regime, human rights violation in China, its debt trap policy under BRI and labor exploitation in African states. China, thus, needs to engaged into introspection and should ponder over these areas in order to further bolster its soft power.

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Diplomacy

Covid19: Upgrading Diplomacy and Statecraft to prepare the new normal

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image: UN Photo/Loey Felipe

The world is abruptly changing and this requires adaptation. The transformations are targeting not only individuals and specific countries, but the entire international ecosystem. The pandemic will only accelerate the trends we have seen for years in global politics, so the window of opportunity is closing for those who want to play an increased role in the post-Covid world, but do not fully understand or master the tools necessary to succeed in such a complicated context. I will sketch some of the elements that diplomats and decision-makers involved in international politics have to consider as they seek to navigate the new contours of power politics. Beyond talk of wolf warriors or video summits – and fatigue – diplomacy deserves a strategic comeback during and after corona: international affairs professionals needs to be conversant in both the old and new paradigms; in Western, Eastern, non-aligned and Global South vernaculars; and in both technological and old school human terrain navigation. To well serve their countries and organizations, diplomats (and also, as intellectual framework providers, Diplomatic Academies and Institutes) will have to be more adaptable than ever and willing to quickly learn and deploy new tools and techniques. 

In this quest, one first has to acknowledge the challenges on the substance (beyond communications issues, such as disinformation in the latest form of the infodemic) and understand that they pose problems we never had to face before. Climate change will bring about coastal entropic systems collapse, desertification and food insecurity, with potential consequences related to increased refugee influx, civil wars and inter-country tensions. Pandemics are also here to stay: Covid19 is only the first major outbreak of this decade and, with the right technology, almost any country with minimal biotech capabilities can turn sneezing into anti-personnel weapons. Catalyzed by great power competition, deglobalization, protectionism, and the restructuring of global value chains, non-market and imperial economics revival will become a staple of the new era. Tech dominance and informational supremacy will be a highly sought after prize and the competition will only increase. Strategically, with the rise of China and a relative decline of Europe and the US, we should be ready for a world order that values a different type of multilateralism and is polycentric and non-Western based. The Gulf, as an ambitious global hotspot abundant in global and regional medium powers, is watching power shifts closely and adapting its strategies and actions accordingly. It also has, via Saudi Arabia and its chairmanship of the G20, a key role to play in “annus horibilis” 2020 global solutions. 

Institutional transition and reform is complicated not so much because of inertia, but because since World War Two we were asked to focus and solve one problem at a time, by keeping all other variables constant. Given the above mentioned changes, to cater to institutional transition needs, we have to develop our capabilities to include the most unusual and un-practiced skills and knowledge that now has become, in our estimate, a must have in order to navigate from an age of certainty to a state of continuous flux. By being programmed to combine technological foresight, cultural intelligence, transversal inter-generational multicultural and integrated disciplinary approaches to statecraft and grand strategy, diplomats 2.0 (during and after corona) will be ready to engage comprehensively with a wide range of situations, geographies, and objectives. Research and innovation in international relations, grand strategy, statecraft and identity development strategies should be combined with communication efforts that integrate tools related to cognitive patterns discovery, subversive frameworks neutralisation, and multi-stage communication strategy development.

Organizations need to function more like networked capabilities and teams of teams, rather than relying on traditional multi-tiered track diplomacy and traditional engagement practices. In my experience, the more non-central and non-mainstream actors are, the more they will engage asymmetrically. Furthermore, their engagement tends to be more reputational and personalised than the traditional Western expectations of structure, objectivity, and calculated gains would have us believe. For a long time, with the exception of the actions of great powers, the policy and academic discussion has focused on how the international environment overwhelmingly shapes domestic politics. The international will continue to matter, but we will see a strong pushback from national politics to shape the conversation in global affairs. Diplomats, as the platform between the state and the rest of the world, are on the forefront of meeting the challenge. The context of economic crisis and uncertainty generated by the pandemic will mean additional pressure on mainstream parties and a threat to political stability, so populism and protectionism will also affect diplomatic action, and nationalism diminish diplomatic efforts. 

Based on the experience of South Korea, Japan, Singapore, the Nordics and the Baltics, one can encourage International Relations and Diplomatic institutes and academies to develop general public content and training to increase societal resilience, governance and democratic literacy, and citizen esprit de corps. From an elements of power perspective, these vectors need to be developed within every national strategic studies institution to complement the traditional areas of preparedness for which nation states prepare. Five topics are particularly important, in my opinion: T-profile development of people: transversal, interconnected, broad knowledge, with one vertical in depth (versus the current extremes of either breadth or ultra-specialisation); Bellingcat type of skills for information acquisition from OSINT, use of digital means, and understanding of online behaviours (social media aggregation and analysis would also play an important role); increased attention to global Architectures and competition between “Old” and “New” global and regional organisations; IP Diplomacy that focuses on networks of innovation, capital, technology and entrepreneurship – today, intellectual property diplomacy is practices by a handful of countries currently (Singapore, Switzerland, China, Israel), but will become the cornerstone of future exchanges, the same way Silicon Valley is for tech, and NY for global capital. Last but not least, each MFA Academy and IR institute should create its own simulation of the world based on AI, behavioural and statecraft modeling capabilities, and its own „handbook of world views and strategic interests”. Interestingly, in context, wargaming and redteaming of policies and strategic decisions are currently under development in a handful of institutions and will start rolling out to national security establishments towards the end of 2020.

All these points are relevant especially for countries that want to punch above their weight, both regionally and globally, especially current middle powers and aspiring middle or great powers. But they also carry lessons for other states, in case they want to deal with the pressures and risks attached to great and middle power competition in a diplomatic-efficient manner. 

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