International Relations in 21st century is characterized by high degree of global interconnections or one may call it as globalization. This has further been driven by various factors such as economic interdependence, technological advancements in information and communications, increased movement of people, transnational crime and security threats and the growing concern over the global environment. These changes in International system calls for more open, cooperative and technology-based approach to the way state affairs are conducted.
Diplomacy however is one of the instrument of foreign policy through which state interact with others, but with the passage of time the concept of new or public diplomacy has emerged which has transformed the concept of traditional diplomacy. The current scenario calls for openness rather than secrecy, it no longer only should deal with nation-state but also with civil societies and public abroad. Public diplomacy means to communicate with foreign audience to promote country’s national interests abroad. The concept of Public diplomacy however is also transforming with the passage of time which includes broad variety of actors such as non- governmental entities, private companies etc. Ministry of Foreign Affairs had to be active in conducting public diplomacy in a better way.
Talking about Canada and its effective Public Diplomacy which can be viewed by other states as an example to conduct relations with foreign audience to help promote its image and reputation as a calm and friendly nation, its culture, and its basic principles like democracy, freedom, and the rule of law with the country’s practical desire to protect its interests, image, and safety. In short it could be said that Public Diplomacy in Canadian context has been considered as the “third pillar” of Foreign Policy which is in theory equal to first “two pillars” of promoting economic growth and International Peace and security.
Canada however has been engaged in Public Diplomacy by communicating with audience through the two-way dialogue process to promote nation’s international goals or interests. Similarly, it has also used several experts and made partnership with them for effective communication purposes. These experts assist in delivering public diplomacy in their specialized areas, including information technology, academic research, finance and others. It has used various approaches of Public Diplomacy like listening, advocacy, Cultural Diplomacy, Exchange Programs and International Broadcasting to see what audience abroad is saying about Canada and how Canada can have an impact on their hearts and minds which could ultimately serve the nation’s goals.
Culture is one of the main approach of Public diplomacy on which Canada is focusing upon it has The Cultural Industries Sectoral Advisory Group on International Trade (SAGIT)which is part of the federal government’s advisory system on international trade. It provides a means for officials from the Global Affairs Canada and the Department of Canadian Heritage to consult with representatives of Canada’s cultural industries. Canada has developed a vibrant cultural sector, with numerous cultural institutions, a diverse publishing industry, a talented music industry, a dynamic cultural new media industry and critically acclaimed film and television industries. Canadian books, magazines, songs, films, new media, radio and television programs reflect who we are as a people. Cultural industries shape our society, develop our understanding of one another and give us a sense of pride in who we are as a nation. Canada’s cultural industries fulfil an essential and vital role in Canadian society. In their effort to reach audiences, its cultural industries have always risen to the challenge of competition from foreign cultural producers. Their ability to create an enduring place in our lives is dependent on the creativity and talent of Canada’s artists, creators and producers. It also depends, in part, on government policies and programs that aim to promote Canadian culture. Therefore, they are making Plans and Policies so ass for better promotion of culture abroad. PM Justin Trudeau however is also very much concerned about Cultural promotions.
The Canadian government uses a combination of financial incentives, Canadian content requirements, tax measures, rules on foreign investments and intellectual property tools to promote Canadian culture.
For influencing audience abroad things need to be promoted in a better way and for that Internet is major tool. The management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFAs) web page is too important. A good webpage is not only informative but invites visitors to comment and engage in dialogue. Canadians have done especially well in structuring such exchanges.
Exchange programs are also one of the approaches followed by Canada it is usually a two-way process it offers student exchange programs, educators programs, and Group exchange programs. The government of Canada a lot of budget for these exchange programs where students as well as teachers travel abroad to make them aware of other cultures, languages and to teach foreign public about their culture etc. However, it could also be seen that vast quantities of foreign students that come to Canadian universities every year.
It could be seen that it also has it public diplomacy officer under the supervision of the Foreign Policy and Diplomacy Service Program (FPDS) Manager, the Public Diplomacy Officer advises on, develops, plans and manages the Consulate’s advocacy and public affairs activities i.e. Plans and coordinates visits from Canada, arranges meetings with key local interlocutors and provides interpretation when necessary; creates and manages events (such as seminars and workshops) to engage civil society groups; engages media through interviews, roundtables, or events; conducts regular media monitoring, and publishes relevant information through social media; manages the Post Initiative Fund; maintains academic relations in the region, and supports Canadian Studies Centers; organizes or coordinates cultural programs to support the Consulate’s advocacy priorities.
For International Broadcasting it has Radio Canada International which is voice of Canada around the globe but it does not have any International Television Service.
Hence it could be seen that with the passage of time Canada is developing more plans and creating policies for the better promotion of its image as peace-loving state which is working for sustainable world and International prosperity. So, by looking at this it could be analyzed that the tool of Public Diplomacy is effectively being used by Canada and other nations of the world needs to learn from Canada. However, it could see that challenges are also on the way of Canada for running effective public diplomacy but it is working efficiently to counter them as well.
Pakistan and India: Changing Minds, Winning Peace
With the emergence of world as a global village, relations between two nations getting more popularity as compared to relations among respective governments. Governments always attempt to communicate with foreign public to export their ideas, its institutions and culture, as well as national goals and current policies. Public diplomacy can be defined as the efforts of one nation to influence public or elites of the next nation for using foreign policy to achieve its targets and cherished goals. Pakistan and India as two rival nuclear powers in south Asia have fought many battles because of their conflicting regional interests and still both states are on the edge of a new war. This leaves public diplomacy as the only option to normalize the situation.
Many efforts have been made in nineties during the democratic government in Pakistan which can offer a wide canvas for interaction such as South Asian Dialogue, Pakistan Peace Coalition and Pakistan-India Peoples Forum for Peace and Democracy. More recently two media groups one from each country has started a media campaign Aman ki Asha to promote sector-wise cooperation and engagement on both sides and provide a human touch to serious matters of war and conflict.
This campaign has organised several events bringing people of two countries to a common forum including women empowerment, poverty alleviation and basic human rights. Every year many Sikh’s Visit Pakistan to pray their Holy Places and Pakistani people always welcome them and show hospitality. Many civil society organizations and NGO’s are working to promote peace and harmony between Pakistan and India which include South Asian Free Media Association (SAFMA),Pakistan Green Circle Organization (GCO),ISSP etc. Both countries also paying much attention in education sector as well.
In present time, the tension is decreased because of human rights, civil society , artists , scholars role which brought two countries closer to each other and is also providing new ways for a peaceful and democratic relations. Both countries also relaxed their citizens for visas making it more comfortable. Not only this, both countries are also paying attention for releasing prisoners from jail.
We found our many artist like Rahat Fateh Ali Khan is working for Indian industry. Rahat Fateh considered as a success symbol for films in India. So media can bring the people of two nations closer to each other and create harmony between both nations.
Every year, Aaghaz-e-Dosti launches an Indo-Pak Peace Calendar which includes paintings from students of both countries. This calendar exists of shared dreams of peace and friendship. It is a reflection of shared dreams and hopes from both sides for a better tomorrow. In addition to these efforts, there has been a rise in trade between both countries. This multi-layered diplomacy has ensured that during the time of tension, links between both sides were not totally broken
Lastly cricket diplomacy has played and still can play a pivotal role in bringing both nations together beyond anyone’s imagination.
Public diplomacy in its real sense can bring these two rival countries closer to each other as it enables a country to reach out to a large audience in the other country, whether through social media or books or events for a greater good. It can lead us towards social and economic development in which both the countries lag behind from the rest of the world.
UK Public Diplomacy: Soft Power games in South Asia
Public diplomacy refers to the ability of a country to attract foreign states through image building rather than using old coercive and stiff methods to forcefully get the things done in one’s own way. One may say that public diplomacy is a public face of traditional diplomacy. In this diplomacy neither a relationship that a state has with other state can be neglected nor the role of public in the government’s policies. States use various ways to stand tall on international forum thus no state ever wants to do anything against their international reputation. This reputation is achieved through huge efforts and then requires consistency to maintain it. Britain with no denying fact is among those states who have been prominent in international society since centuries. It already has a better and strong image in the eyes of world as for as its public diplomacy is concerned. All it needs to do is to maintain this very image by sticking to its various soft power approaches.
In today’s global politics Britain seems much interested on enhancing its soft power image throughout the world. As we know that Public diplomacy of a state is highly linked with state’s foreign policy as well. The steps adopted by Britain in achieving its foreign policy goals through soft power include exchange programs for students and scholars, visitors programs, cultural events and exchanges, language training, radio and television broadcasting etc. Generally, Britain has been carrying out these practices all around the globe for quite sometimes however in South Asia, she has done a lot in recent years. In Bangladesh in 2013, for example, the English in Action project (funded by the UK’s Department for International Development) promoted the learning of English ‘as a route into work and out of poverty’. In Pakistan, British Council has been working in the areas of Arts, Education, English and Youth Engagement in all four provinces as well as in Azad Jammu and Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan. For instance Abaseen Foundation is a UK’s 3-year project with UK Aid directly focused on improving maternal health and reducing child mortality through developing health service delivery for a poor and marginalized community in North West Pakistan. Moreover, UK-India Education & Research Initiative i.e. UKIERI is a multi-stakeholder partnership program funded by both Indian and the UK Governments to support educational programs, develop professional capacities and facilitate policy dialogues on areas of mutual interest. Whereas Sri Lanka has the largest British Council Library membership.
In similar manners Nation branding is another technique used by the Great Britain to cash their better reputation. This not only provides an opportunity for states to interact on international platform but also mitigates cultural barriers among their citizens. Brands such as Burberry London, Dove and Sunsilk are acting as sensor that opens diplomatic door for Britain in various states. Actress and Model Humaima Malick is the brand ambassador for Sunsilk in Pakistan, whereas Sunsilk’s brand ambassador for India is currently Alia Bhut. The overall nation branding of Britain is famous owing to six factors i.e. Tourism, Culture, People, Immigration-Investment, Exports and Governance. According to one of the British Council’s report the UK ranked 3rd out of 50 nations for Tourism and 5th for Culture.
Furthermore, British government entities related to public diplomacy are well active in South Asia, for instance British Council and FCO (Foreign and common wealth office). BBC on the other hand is also playing its key role to inculcate right image of United Kingdom in the region.BBC Urdu not only provides its Pakistani viewers with right information of Pakistan in Britain but also shares unbiased analysis on Pakistan’s current domestic as well regional issues. Similarly BBC Hindi has also been so vociferous for the rights of Indian immigrants in United Kingdom and finally gained trust in public masses. Hence these public diplomacy techniques served as binding force between the UK and the region.
To cut the long story short, Britain seems much focused to safeguard its national interests. Its foreign policy is proving as stepping stone for its national interest whereas public diplomacy is acting as lubricant to it. By doing so it is successfully promoting its culture, tradition, products etc. in the world generally and in South Asia specifically. Since decolonization from subcontinent, The United Kingdom has always tried diplomatic ways to build friendly relationship with south Asian countries. Public diplomacy though is considered new in the racks of overall diplomacy yet UK has successfully used it to promote its culture and to keep influence in this region.
Italian Culture: An asset for country’s public diplomacy
Public Diplomacy is important for long term relationship and to create a positive image of a country. Italy, a European country with a long Mediterranean coastline, has left an effective mark on Western culture. Its capital, Rome, is home to the Vatican and also point of interest for ancient remains. Over the span of 3,000 years, Italian history has been set apart by series of temporary unification and long detachment, of intercommunal friction and failed empires. At peace for more than half a century now, Italy’s inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living and a highly developed culture.
One example of Italian Public diplomacy is the exhibition of “Italian Style dressing body and daylife”, which was organized in Doha (Qatar) by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Culture, which opened on 12th November, 2007. That day, the Italian President, Giorgio Napolitano, inaugurated an event about Leonardo, composed by the Ministry of External Commerce. Napolitano presented the Emir’s wife, Moza bint Nasser al Missned, with a Bulgari handbag (a popular Italian brand) as National brands are helpful for attracting people’s attention towards a country and showing its quality.
The Year of Italian Culture in the United States was a phenomenal act of Public diplomacy. The fellow Italians in the United States, among them 26 million Italian Americans – companies, and institutions that worked hardly day and night to promote the “Italian brand” and even the press, which gave many positive articles to the initiative that felt the strong urge to rediscover the charm of Italy’s past, to uncover the best of its present, and to feature the examples of how it is progressing towards the future. This has done to open new doors for the citizens of both countries. It’s about over 200 events in more than 200 U.S. cities. The main objective of this campaign is to bring the best of the most important country (Italy) which they have to depict through its culture, traditions and the elegance of its ‘Made in Italy’. “Italy inspires U.S.” is the slogan that has been chosen to best enfold the meaning of the Year of Italian Culture in the U.S. what they want to express is that Italy is not just a country, it is a lifestyle.
On December 12, 2012, at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, Italians inaugurated the exhibition of the popular David Apollo by Michelangelo. On this date, a huge number of visitors, observers and enthusiasts were all ready enjoy their ‘piece of Italy’ i.e. paintings, sculptures, present and past achievements, music and theater. Above all, the Year brought new partnerships between public and private world of two nations: among them, a cooperation agreement between NASA and the Italian Space Agency and in addition various new agreements between museums and cultural institutions, companies, local agencies and universities were made.
The Italian government should organize some more events and undertake nation promoting projects including its territorial and regional brands, with a basic aim of giving guidelines for Italy’s external cultural relations, through the promotion of their single regions and also national language and culture.
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