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Uncertainties Delaying Economic Recovery in the Pacific

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Growth in the Pacific is expected to remain weak in 2018, as economic and political uncertainties, fiscal challenges, and natural disasters hold back some of the region’s larger economies. The outlook projects a slow recovery, with growth picking up only in 2019, says a new Asian Development Bank (ADB) report launched today.

The Asian Development Outlook (ADO) 2018, ADB’s flagship annual economic publication, projects that Pacific economies will, on average, grow 2.2% in 2018—the same rate as last year. However, expected recovery in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and strong growth in Timor-Leste should contribute to regional growth picking up to 3.0% in 2019.

“Several Pacific countries face heightened economic uncertainty and the impacts of extreme weather events and disasters, highlighting the need to build resilience across the region,” said Carmela Locsin, Director General of ADB’s Pacific Department. “Climate-proofing infrastructure, maintaining fiscal buffers, and investing in education to expand economic opportunities are all vital for more resilient economies in the Pacific.”

PNG—the Pacific’s largest economy—was adversely affected by a major earthquake in late February this year, which will hold back growth in oil and gas production, and slow economic growth to 1.8%. However, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meetings in 2018 is expected to provide economic stimulus. The ADB report says the medium-term outlook for PNG remains positive with GDP growth likely to reach 2.7% in 2019.

After a steep growth slowdown in Fiji in the wake of Cyclone Winston in 2016, reconstruction spending, improved agricultural output, and tourism growth spurred recovery. With most cyclone reconstruction ending soon, economic growth is expected to decelerate slightly from 3.9% in 2017 to 3.6% in 2018 and 3.3% in 2019—with tourism, construction, and agriculture likely to be the main contributors.

In Timor-Leste, the economy contracted in 2017 as political uncertainty held back public spending and private investment. The 3.0% and 5.5% projected growth rates for 2018 and 2019, respectively, hinge on a solid public expenditure program after the election of a new government expected in May. A new treaty with Australia to pave way for the development of the Greater Sunrise oil field will boost the growth outlook in the long term. The report says renewed emphasis on skills development and a supportive approach to labor migration would give young people better access to employment.

Slower growth in Solomon Islands is expected in 2018 and 2019 as new construction will only partly offset a likely further decline in logging. Progress is being made in implementing a national transport plan, but challenges remain.

Growth will moderate in Vanuatu in 2018 and 2019, due to the completion of several large infrastructure projects. Vanuatu’s ambitious infrastructure pipeline is supporting its current and future prospects, but a rise in public debt poses challenges for fiscal management.

The economic outlook for the North Pacific economies is mixed, with tourism expected to recover in Palau, but capacity constraints could limit infrastructure investment-driven growth in the Federated States of Micronesia and Marshall Islands. The report notes that improving education can equip a young labor force with better skills to fill domestic employment over the long term.

Moderate growth in the South Pacific economies of Cook Islands, Samoa, and Tonga is seen this year and the next. Damage caused by Cyclone Gita which hit Tonga in February 2018 is projected to push the economy into a slight contraction. Growth in Samoa will fall sharply this year as one of the country’s biggest employers—a manufacturing plant—closes operations. The Cook Islands’ economy is expected to expand by 3.5% in 2018, supported by tourism.

Economic prospects for the small island economies of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu are weakening. Growth is projected to decelerate slightly in Kiribati and Tuvalu, but more significantly in Nauru due to the winding down of the Regional Processing Centre for asylum seekers. Public investments financed by development partners are expected to drive economic growth in these countries throughout 2018 and 2019.

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Asia and Pacific on course to miss all Sustainable Development Goals

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Unless progress is accelerated, Asia and the Pacific are on course to miss all of the 17 Goals of the UN’s 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the Executive Secretary of the UN regional commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), told UN News at the Organization’s Headquarters on Wednesday.

Under-Secretary-General Armida Salsiah Alisjahbana was in New York to take part in the High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, the main UN platform for monitoring the progress that countries are making towards the Agenda, which is the UN’s blueprint for ending poverty and preserving the planet.

ESCAP’s latest Sustainable Development Goals Progress Report shows that, when it comes to some of the Goals, the region is actually going backwards. These are the goals related to access to clean water and sanitation (Goal 6), decent work and economic growth (Goal 8), and responsible consumption and production (Goal 11).

There are, said Ms. Alisjahbana, several reasons for this: “There is water scarcity, because of the pressure of urbanization, and the management of natural resources and the environment are making the situation worse. As for moving towards sustainable consumption, that has to do with behaviour and lifestyle. With increasing wealth you consume more, but what you consume is something that is actually not sustainable.

Governments, said the head of ESCAP, must ultimately be responsible for investments in sustainable development. Investing in basic infrastructure costs money, but there is a considerable multiplier effect, that has a positive effect on the economy. Countries with smaller financial resources should look at raising money through fiscal reforms rather than looking for aid, and risking becoming dependent, she added.

The Progress Report complains about a lack of data, an important point because, says Ms. Alisjahbana, without the correct data you can’t track progress, or evaluate the best actions to take going forward. Improved data must go hand in hand with improved capacity for analysing data, which means national statistical offices, and SDG monitoring.

Despite the many challenges facing the region’s efforts to achieve the Goals, Ms. Alisjahbana remains optimistic. The situation, she believes, can be turned around, through better cooperation, as well as the abundant talent and expertise found in the region.

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Asia and Pacific Growth Steady Amid Global Trade Tensions

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Developing Asia will maintain strong but moderating growth over 2019 and 2020, as supportive domestic demand counteracts an environment of global trade tensions, according to a new Asian Development Bank (ADB) report released today.

In a supplement to its Asian Development Outlook (ADO), ADB maintains growth forecasts for developing Asia at 5.7% in 2019 and 5.6% in 2020—unchanged from its April forecast. These growth rates are slightly down from developing Asia’s 5.9% growth in 2018. Excluding the newly industrialized economies of Hong Kong, China; the Republic of Korea; Singapore; and Taipei,China, the regional growth outlook has been revised down from 6.2% to 6.1% in 2019 and maintained at that rate in 2020.

Deepening trade tension between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the United States (US) remains the largest downside risk to this outlook, despite an apparent truce in late June that could allow trade negotiations between the two countries to resume.

“Even as the trade conflict continues, the region is set to maintain strong but moderating growth,” said ADB Chief Economist Mr. Yasuyuki Sawada. “However, until the world’s two largest economies reach agreement, uncertainty will continue to weigh on the regional outlook.”

The growth outlook for East Asia in 2019 has been revised down to 5.6% because of slower than expected activity in the Republic of Korea. The subregion’s growth outlook of 5.5% for 2020 is unchanged from April. Growth for the subregion’s largest economy, the PRC, is also unchanged, with forecasts of 6.3% in 2019 and 6.1% in 2020, as policy support offsets softening growth in domestic and external demand.

In South Asia, the economic outlook is robust, with growth projected at 6.6% in 2019 and 6.7% in 2020, albeit lower than forecast in April. The growth outlook for India has been cut to 7.0% in 2019 and 7.2% in 2020 because the fiscal 2018 outturn fell short.

The outlook for Southeast Asia has been downgraded slightly to 4.8% in 2019 and 4.9% in 2020 due to the trade impasse and a slowdown in the electronics cycle. In Central Asia, the growth outlook for 2019 has been revised up to 4.3% on account of an improved outlook for Kazakhstan. Central Asia’s growth outlook of 4.2% for 2020 is unchanged from April. The growth outlook in the Pacific—3.5% in 2019 and 3.2% in 2020—is unchanged, as the subregion continues to rebound from the effects of Cyclone Gita and an earthquake in Papua New Guinea, the subregion’s largest economy.

The major industrial economies have had slight revisions to their growth forecasts, with the US revised up to 2.6% for 2019 and the Euro area revised down to 1.3%. The growth outlook for Japan is unchanged at 0.8% in 2019 and 0.6% in 2020.

Developing Asia’s inflation projections were revised up from 2.5% to 2.6% for both 2019 and 2020, reflecting higher oil prices and various domestic factors, such as the continuing outbreak of African swine fever in several Asian economies, which is expected to drive up pork prices in the PRC.

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How to measure blockchain’s value in four steps

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To help organizations identify the value of blockchain technology and build a corresponding business case, the World Economic Forum, the International Organization for Public-Private Cooperation, has released the Blockchain Value Framework as part of the white paper, Building Value with Blockchain Technology: How to Evaluate Blockchain’s Benefits.

Co-designed with Accenture, the Blockchain Value Framework is the second in a series of white papers for organizations to better understand that blockchain technology is a tool deployed to achieve a specific purpose, not a goal in itself. This new framework provides organizations with the tools to begin measuring blockchain’s value, including key questions to consider. It is the first visual roadmap of its kind and is based on a global survey of 550 individuals across 13 industries, including automotive, banking and retail, public-sector leaders, chief executive officers and an analysis of 79 blockchain projects.

“In our last paper, we stressed that blockchain deployment is not the end goal,” said Sheila Warren, Head of Blockchain at the World Economic Forum. “We wanted to get beyond the hype. This new framework is for those business leaders that have figured out blockchain is the right solution for a specific problem, but don’t know what to do next.”

“Organizations need to make business decisions and investments with confidence and that requires proof of the value-add and an analysis of why, or why not, they should consider something new,” said David Treat, Managing Director and Global Blockchain Lead at Accenture. “Through this new framework, we aim to educate businesses and challenge them to rethink their current business models, relationships between ecosystem partners, customers and their investments in technology. The path to blockchain adoption starts here with evaluating the technical and strategic priorities and aligning them with investments in innovation.”

The framework starts with questions on blockchain’s role and desired impact. Assessing potential pain points and areas for opportunity without thinking about the technology is essential. Next is to examine the three key dimensions of blockchain’s role alongside its capabilities. The roadmap can assist organizations in moving from current-state assessment to future blockchain opportunity, and to identify where the value will be created and delivered. Cost savings, increased revenue and improved customer experience are all possible business case results.

According to the global survey conducted in conjunction with the new framework, 51% of survey respondents identified “missing out on developing new products/services” as the number one expectation if they do not invest in blockchain technology in the near future. The other two most common answers were missing out on speed/efficiency gains (23%) and missing out on cost savings (15%). The interviews highlighted the potential of the technology to simplify and optimize complete value chains through the sharing of simplified real-time data with increased efficiency. However, the paper also cautions businesses to carefully consider whether blockchain is the best solution, relative to other technologies or other digitization strategies. As noted in the Blockchain Beyond the Hype white paper, blockchain may not be a viable solution or it may not be the correct time to pursue this avenue.

In nine of the industries surveyed, the full traceability and integrity of the data were the top two potential advantages of using blockchain technology. Most of the industries surveyed could benefit from smart contracts and automation provided by blockchain. Surprisingly, few organizations selected “new business products or services” as one of the benefits. This suggests the current focus for organizations is on improving existing products and services before considering investing in new opportunities.

“We may be moving beyond the hype, but blockchain isn’t going away. Central banks are experimenting with digital currencies and supply chain networks are piloting blockchain policies. We are also seeing companies like Facebook and Starbucks entering the blockchain and cryptocurrency space. This means practical use cases of the technology will become more widespread,” Warren said. “A draft of the framework was further validated at a multilateral session of global leaders at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2019 in Davos-Klosters.”

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