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The Third Face of Power: Manipulation

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Manipulation. It is the subtle and insidious use of power by rulers over the governed and, in effect, is a form of ideological mind control. There are “three faces of power” in the literature, and manipulation often occurs without the conscious awareness of or objection from the manipulated when we talk about the third face of the power. For example, ruler uses power over citizen to make citizen do what citizen does not want to do and determines and shapes citizen’s wants without citizen discerning the manipulation. Rulers who wear this face of power view it as an effective way to handle conflict among the masses and meld them to the ruler’s ideology or way of thinking.The power is so hidden that the masses never realize what has happened. They blindly follow, convinced that the action they were told was for their own good when in reality it is not.

The use of the third face of power is clearly on display in Turkey where people believe and obey without question whatever they are told and whatever decisions are made, even though the edicts, such as the declaration of a state of emergency,affect their liberties and may even harm them in the long-run. They have become so convinced that the government is doing what is right and is in the best interest of and for the benefit of the people and the country. Over time, they have become numb to the inequalities and injustices. Ironically, when the people do react, their actions prove detrimental to their own good.

Examples of the tragicomedies that result from the application of the third face of power are abundant in Turkey. Here are just a few to prove the point:

People are told that whoever wears a T-shirt emblazoned with the word HERO is bad—that the person is a terrorist in the eyes of the government. Since the edict was issued, many people have been detained and jailed for wearing the shirts in defiance of the government’s order. The freedom to choose what to wear has taken away from the people but, sadly, they are not aware of the loss. Law enforcement officers and the criminal justice system fight with the people who continue to wear HERO T-shirts.

People participated in pro-democracy watch and rallies for the sake of saving and defending democracy. The latest rally occurred on the first anniversary of the failed military coup. Was it really democracy that they were watching and rallying for? The answer is no. Here is why: Ironically, the state of emergency that was declared when the coup failed has been extended several times in the name of democracy. Since the coup attempt, a constitutional referendum has been held—amid the state of emergency—and has paved the way for a much stricter autocratic regime in the near future. Additional fallout from the failed coup includes tens of thousands of people being interrogated, tortured, jailed, imprisoned, abducted, killed, and dismissed from their jobs. While all of these injustices were happening, no one could hire a lawyer because lawyers who attempted to defend the suspects were themselves detained as terrorists.

Whoever had education abroad aredeclared and labeled as spies by the President despite the fact that his own children had education abroad.

Whoever does not support the country’s rulers and the ruling party, are “others,” “enemies,” “traitors,” and/ or “terrorists,” the government purports.For instance, most recently, Turkey’s President labeled anti-war students as traitor youth and terrorists due to their Communist ideology.

People are led to believe that the ruling party is superior and can save the country and that the party in power is there because of God’s will. Therefore, anyone who opposes the supreme leader and the ruling party is bad, andanyone who pledges allegiance to the party is good, regardless of the person’s standing and situation. As an example, gang members’ mafia henchmen no longer need to operate underground. They can become on-the-ground gangs and mafias. Ironically, these criminal elements are seen as heroes because they met with the country’s rulers, who conferred legitimacy on the groups.They now can freely threaten citizens, participate in demonstrations, and hang their banners and posters in the streets and in arenas. The words of a well-known mafia leader Sedat Peker, who pledges allegiance to the supreme ruler of Turkey, reflects how depraved the country has become when he speaks the following at a rally:

“We are full of endless revenge and merciless feelings. We will hang them [the others] to the nearest flag staffs, we will hang them to the nearest trees. I swear…We will continue to hang them in the prisons, as well. We will apply such things that were not even seen on the horror movies. Therefore, keep your revenge feelings alive and high.”

More tragic is the response of the crowd, which supports the argument aloud, saying:

“We hope! With the God’s willing and help! God is great!”

As this example shows, power by manipulation is applied so effectively that a government-legitimized mafia leader does not have to give direct orders to citizens to support or take an illegal and inhumane action. Peker is able to elicit the behavior he wants despite the country’s spiral into chaos where mafia groups and gangs are speaking and acting like legal extensions of law enforcement. The people are convinced the gang membersare acting in the name of patriotism to save the invaded country.

The application of manipulative power is so professional that the real heroes—those who stand against tyranny—are framed as bad people, while the gangs and mafia groups—who pledge allegiance to the rulers and threaten the people for torturing and hanging perceived enemies—are seen as heroes. Even worse is the latest emergency decree that grants immunity for such violent actions in the name of fighting terrorism and saving the country as civilians. This means, there will be no legal consequences for lynching, brutally killing, and extra-legally executing people in the name of so-called patriotism, which in turn, encourage emerging manipulated so-called patriots, as well. Eventually, it will not be a surprise when the country turns into a heaven for the notorious death squads such as the ones in the South America and Spain.

Zakir Gul, Ph.D., is an associate professor in criminal justice at State University of New York (SUNY) in Plattsburgh, where he teaches courses such as terrorism, cyber-terrorism, homeland security and intelligence, transnational crime, and policing and society. Previously, he founded a graduate program on international security and served as the founding director. He also worked in several research centers on terrorism and intelligence, and served as the deputy editor-in-chief of a peer-reviewed journal on policing.

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Middle East

Process to draft Syria constitution begins this week

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The process of drafting a new constitution for Syria will begin this week, the UN Special Envoy for the country, Geir Pedersen, said on Sunday at a press conference in Geneva.

Mr. Pedersen was speaking following a meeting with the government and opposition co-chairs of the Syrian Constitutional Committee, who have agreed to start the process for constitutional reform.

The members of its so-called “small body”, tasked with preparing and drafting the Constitution, are in the Swiss city for their sixth round of talks in two years, which begin on Monday. 

Their last meeting, held in January, ended without progress, and the UN envoy has been negotiating between the parties on a way forward.

“The two Co-Chairs now agree that we will not only prepare for constitutional reform, but we will prepare and start drafting for constitutional reform,” Mr. Pedersen told journalists.

“So, the new thing this week is that we will actually be starting a drafting process for constitutional reform in Syria.”

The UN continues to support efforts towards a Syrian-owned and led political solution to end more than a decade of war that has killed upwards of 350,000 people and left 13 million in need of humanitarian aid.

An important contribution

The Syrian Constitutional Committee was formed in 2019, comprising 150 men and women, with the Government, the opposition and civil society each nominating 50 people.

This larger group established the 45-member small body, which consists of 15 representatives from each of the three sectors.

For the first time ever, committee co-chairs Ahmad Kuzbari, the Syrian government representative, and Hadi al-Bahra, from the opposition side, met together with Mr. Pedersen on Sunday morning. 

He described it as “a substantial and frank discussion on how we are to proceed with the constitutional reform and indeed in detail how we are planning for the week ahead of us.”

Mr. Pedersen told journalists that while the Syrian Constitutional Committee is an important contribution to the political process, “the committee in itself will not be able to solve the Syrian crisis, so we need to come together, with serious work, on the Constitutional Committee, but also address the other aspects of the Syrian crisis.”

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Middle East

North Africa: Is Algeria Weaponizing Airspace and Natural Gas?

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In a series of shocking and unintelligible decisions, the Algerian Government closed its airspace to Moroccan military and civilian aircraft on September 22, 2021, banned French military planes from using its airspace on October 3rd, and decided not to renew the contract relative to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline, which goes through Morocco and has been up and running since 1996–a contract that comes to end on October 31.

In the case of Morocco, Algeria advanced ‘provocations and hostile’ actions as a reason to shut airspace and end the pipeline contract, a claim that has yet to be substantiated with evidence. Whereas in the case of France, Algeria got angry regarding visa restrictions and comments by French President Emmanuel Macron on the Algerian military grip on power and whether the North African country was a nation prior to French colonization in 1830.

Tensions for decades

Algeria has had continued tensions with Morocco for decades, over border issues and over the Western Sahara, a territory claimed by Morocco as part of its historical territorial unity, but contested by Algeria which supports an alleged liberation movement that desperately fights for independence since the 1970s.

With France, the relation is even more complex and plagued with memories of colonial exactions and liberation and post-colonial traumas, passions and injuries. France and Algeria have therefore developed, over the post-independence decades, a love-hate attitude that quite often mars otherwise strong economic and social relations.

Algeria has often reacted to the two countries’ alleged ‘misbehavior’ by closing borders –as is the case with Morocco since 1994—or calling its ambassadors for consultations, or even cutting diplomatic relations, as just happened in August when it cut ties with its western neighbor.

But it is the first-time Algeria resorts to the weaponization of energy and airspace. “Weaponization” is a term used in geostrategy to mean the use of goods and commodities, that are mainly destined for civilian use and are beneficial for international trade and the welfare of nations, for geostrategic, political and even military gains. As such “weaponization” is contrary to the spirit of free trade, open borders, and solidarity among nations, values that are at the core of common international action and positive globalization.

What happened?

Some observers advance continued domestic political and social unrest in Algeria, whereby thousands of Algerians have been taking to the streets for years to demand regime-change and profound political and economic reforms. Instead of positively responding to the demands of Algerians, the government is probably looking for desperate ways to divert attention and cerate foreign enemies as sources of domestic woes. Morocco and France qualify perfectly for the role of national scapegoats.

It may be true also that in the case of Morocco, Algeria is getting nervous at its seeing its Western neighbor become a main trade and investment partner in Africa, a role it can levy to develop diplomatic clout regarding the Western Sahara issue. Algeria has been looking for ways to curb Morocco’s growing influence in Africa for years. A pro-Algerian German expert, by the name of Isabelle Werenfels, a senior fellow in the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, even recommended to the EU to put a halt to Morocco’s pace and economic clout so that Algeria could catch up. Weaponization may be a desperate attempt to hurt the Moroccan economy and curb its dynamism, especially in Africa.

The impact of Algeria’s weaponization of energy and airspace on the Moroccan economy is minimal and on French military presence in Mali is close to insignificant; however, it shows how far a country that has failed to administer the right reforms and to transfer power to democratically elected civilians can go.

In a region, that is beleaguered by threats and challenges of terrorism, organized crime, youth bulge, illegal migration and climate change, you would expect countries like Algeria, with its geographic extension and oil wealth, to be a beacon of peace and cooperation. Weaponization in international relations is inacceptable as it reminds us of an age when bullying and blackmail between nations, was the norm. The people of the two countries, which share the same history, language and ethnic fabric, will need natural gas and unrestricted travel to prosper and grow and overcome adversity; using energy and airspace as weapons is at odds with the dreams of millions of young people in Algeria and Morocco that aspire for a brighter future in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Please don’t shatter those dreams!

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Middle East

Breaking The Line of the Israel-Palestine Conflict

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The conflict between Israel-Palestine is a prolonged conflict and has become a major problem, especially in the Middle East region.

A series of ceasefires and peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that occurred repeatedly did not really “normalize” the relationship between the two parties.

In order to end the conflict, a number of parties consider that the two-state solution is the best approach to create two independent and coexistent states. Although a number of other parties disagreed with the proposal, and instead proposed a one-state solution, combining Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip into one big state.

Throughout the period of stalemate reaching an ideal solution, the construction and expansion of settlements carried out illegally by Israel in the Palestinian territories, especially the West Bank and East Jerusalem, also continued without stopping and actually made the prospect of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian crisis increasingly eroded, and this could jeopardize any solutions.

The attempted forced eviction in the Sheikh Jarrah district, which became one of the sources of the conflict in May 2021, for example, is an example of how Israel has designed a system to be able to change the demographics of its territory by continuing to annex or “occupy” extensively in the East Jerusalem area. This is also done in other areas, including the West Bank.

In fact, Israel’s “occupation” of the eastern part of Jerusalem which began at the end of the 1967 war, is an act that has never received international recognition.

This is also confirmed in a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council Numbers 242, 252, 267, 298, 476, 478, 672, 681, 692, 726, 799, 2334 and also United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Number 2253, 55/130, 60/104, 70/89, 71/96, A/72/L.11 and A/ES-10/L.22 and supported by the Advisory Opinion issued by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2004 on Legal Consequences of The Construction of A Wall in The Occupied Palestine Territory which states that East Jerusalem is part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli “occupation”.

1 or 2 country solution

Back to the issue of the two-state solution or the one-state solution that the author mentioned earlier. The author considers that the one-state solution does not seem to be the right choice.

Facts on the ground show how Israel has implemented a policy of “apartheid” that is so harsh against Palestinians. so that the one-state solution will further legitimize the policy and make Israel more dominant. In addition, there is another consideration that cannot be ignored that Israel and Palestine are 2 parties with very different and conflicting political and cultural identities that are difficult to reconcile.

Meanwhile, the idea of ​​a two-state solution is an idea that is also difficult to implement. Because the idea still seems too abstract, especially on one thing that is very fundamental and becomes the core of the Israel-Palestine conflict, namely the “division” of territory between Israel and Palestine.

This is also what makes it difficult for Israel-Palestine to be able to break the line of conflict between them and repeatedly put them back into the status quo which is not a solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict.

The status quo, is in fact a way for Israel to continue to “annex” more Palestinian territories by establishing widespread and systematic illegal settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Today, more than 600,000 Israeli settlers now live in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.

In fact, a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council have explicitly and explicitly called for Israel to end the expansion of Israeli settlement construction in the occupied territory and require recognition of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the region.

Thus, all efforts and actions of Israel both legislatively and administratively that can cause changes in the status and demographic composition in East Jerusalem and the West Bank must continue to be condemned. Because this is a violation of the provisions of international law.

Fundamental thing

To find a solution to the conflict, it is necessary to look back at the core of the conflict that the author has mentioned earlier, and the best way to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is to encourage Israel to immediately end the “occupation” that it began in 1967, and return the settlements to the pre-Islamic borders 1967 In accordance with UN Security Council resolution No. 242.

But the question is, who can stop the illegal Israeli settlements in the East Jerusalem and West Bank areas that violate the Palestinian territories?

In this condition, international political will is needed from countries in the world, to continue to urge Israel to comply with the provisions of international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and also the UN Security Council Resolutions.

At the same time, the international community must be able to encourage the United Nations, especially the United Nations Security Council, as the organ that has the main responsibility for maintaining and creating world peace and security based on Article 24 of the United Nations Charter to take constructive and effective steps in order to enforce all United Nations Resolutions, and dare to sanction violations committed by Israel, and also ensure that Palestinian rights are important to protect.

So, do not let this weak enforcement of international law become an external factor that also “perpetuates” the cycle of the Israel-Palestine conflict. It will demonstrate that John Austin was correct when he stated that international law is only positive morality and not real law.

And in the end, the most fundamental thing is that the blockade, illegal development, violence, and violations of international law must end. Because the ceasefire in the Israel-Palestine conflict is only a temporary solution to the conflict.

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