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China and India Exchange Lessons in Urban Transport Management

MD Staff

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The India delegation took a ride on tram line 1 in Suzhou, one of the most economically developed cities on China’s eastern coast Photo: © Yumeng Zhu/World Bank

It is no secret that China and India’s rapid economic expansion have led their big cities to quickly urbanize. As much as this can create opportunities for citizens, it also brings problems that may worsen quality of living. For those two countries, urbanization has ushered in a surge in private car ownership – 310 million vehicles in China (2017) to India’s 210 million (2015) – as well as severe traffic congestion, air pollution and higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

To address this, the Global Environmental Facility (GEF) is working with both countries to establish policy frameworks that promote public transport and manage travel demand in select cities. Facing similar issues and challenges, it was only natural that the two countries came together to exchange expertise.

Dialogue on-the-go

Over five days in early 2018, an Indian delegation from the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) and affiliated agencies, as well as World Bank staff on urban transport development projects in India, held a South-South Knowledge Exchange with staff from the World Bank in China and Chinese government counterparts.

During their stay in China, the delegation carried out a series of site visits and discussions in Beijing, Suzhou, and Guangzhou. Beyond learning about China’s development, the Indian delegation shared lessons of their own related to project funding and financing mechanisms (including public-private partnerships), public transport promotion, and policies to motivate local governments to improve urban transport.

“It’s a priceless chance,” said Liu Xin, Deputy Director-General of the Comprehensive Planning Department, MOT, “for policy makers from China and India to sit together, share their past results, current practices and future outlook. It’s always good to know what your colleagues in another country are doing, and then reflect their experience and lessons in our own country context.” GEF’s project management offices also shared with each other their experiences on implementing projects at the local levels in each country.

Visiting Suzhou, one of the most economically developed cities on China’s eastern coast, visitors took a ride on tram line 1. The tram bus is running at 30 km/h, connecting 28.5 kilometers within the Suzhou High-Tech Zone, and seamlessly integrating with the metro network. The delegation also visited the bus-only-lane network within the city center of Suzhou, which gives buses the precious right of way along busy streets to improve running speed.

Mukund Kumar Sinha, Joint Secretary of the MoHUA in India, was impressed by the revival of the tram, once seen as obsolete. He also found the bus-only-lane network very cost-effective to improve the speed and quality of bus service. “Urban planners and policy makers should take all means of public transport into consideration, and choose the right ones that adapt to their cities’ real circumstances,” he said.

In the southern Chinese city of Guangzhou, where more than 30 bus routes ran through the 23 kilometer-long Zhongshan Road BRT corridor, the delegation members heard of the many changes brought by the BRT since 2010. It’s the first BRT system in China, becoming well-known internationally for how much it was able to improve traffic. But after several years’ operation, some issues, such as bus platooning, emerged. This gave the Indian delegation a sense of the unintended issues that may arise as they work on their own BRT projects.

“We are now implementing six green demonstration projects in five Indian cities, which include BRT components,” said Murli Krishina from the Urban Development Department in Karnataka. “When designing the projects, we’re thinking of the seamless integration of BRT stations with Non-Motorized Transport (NMT) facilities, like bike lanes and pedestrian ways, in order to better improve efficiency, safety, cost-effectiveness, and reliability of public transport, and ultimately provide incentives to shift from the use of private vehicles to BRTs.” He also found Guangzhou’s BRT online payment system interesting, where riders can pay their bus fare via mobile apps or scanning a QR code on bus tickets.

In their meetings in Beijing, the delegation also discussed electric vehicles and bus terminals with charging poles for electric buses.

China, after all, now accounts for 50% of global electric vehicles. “EVs are being increasingly considered as the key green low-carbon mobility solution, but that is still in its early stages. At this point, political commitment and policy support is of vital importance. I’m happy to find that both Chinese and Indian governments have taken quick steps in embracing the new technology and made great efforts for the penetration of EVs. We can definitely learn a lot from each other down the road,” noted Raman Krishnan, Senior ICT Specialist with the World Bank.

As India and China forge on their development paths, avenues for collaboration between these two powerhouses should only grow.

World Bank

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Urban Development

Mali: Bamako Needs Urgent Actions to Become an Engine of Growth and Service Delivery

MD Staff

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Bamako, Mali’s capital city, has an opportunity to promote growth and improve service delivery, however this window of opportunity is narrow, a new World Bank Group report finds.

Launched today, Bamako – An Engine of Growth and Service Delivery analyzes how Bamako can become a city that works, increasing productivity and livability for its residents. According to the report, Bamako dominates Mali’s urban landscape, so reforms and investments in the capital would impact the entire country’s development.

The report highlights that to unleash Bamako’s potential, a balanced approach to reforming institutions, putting the right policies in place and investing in infrastructures and attention to implementation will be needed. This would require coordinated use of land and connective infrastructure, fiscal and technical capabilities to finance and manage better public service delivery, and strengthening of urban institutions.

“Many of Mali’s development challenges have a spatial dimension – with Bamako at its core. The economic and social importance of the capital city cannot be understated. Decisions made in Bamako will have long-lasting effects on Mali’s development as it is the nerve center of the national economy. Reforms and investments aimed at tackling urban development challenges in the capital will have knock-on effects on national economic development,” said Soukeyna Kane, World Bank Country Director for Mali.

The report looks at factors underlying Bamako’s current challenges. It finds that inefficiencies in the land market deter productive investments. This, combined with low quality of transport, hampers urban accessibility within the city – keeping people away from jobs and services. And these challenges are further exacerbated by institutional fragmentation and lack of adequate investments.

“Bamako has an opportunity to make early investments in urban infrastructure in close coordination with long-term planning. Moreover, digital and disruptive technologies offer an opportunity for Bamako to tackle major challenges like never before. ” said Anna Wellenstein, Director, Social, Urban, Rural, and Resilience Global Practice, World Bank.

Despite Bamako’s prominence, its progress on increasing its competitiveness over time and on urban service delivery for its citizens has been falling behind. The report finds that urban development in Bamako has been fragmented – providing an important explanation of the failure to realize the advantages associated with the city’s growth.

“The high level of urban fragmentation is fettering both – productivity, by preventing opportunities for matching people and jobs – and livability, by driving up the costs of urban infrastructure and service delivery,” said Megha Mukim, Senior Economist and Lead Author of the report.

To become an engine of growth and service delivery, Bamako needs to scale up investments in a bottom-up, innovative ecosystem by developing the right platforms and engaging citizens in finding solutions to transform the city space.

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Urban Development

RASAI: The car-sharing tool seeking to breathe life into Pakistan’s congested cities

MD Staff

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When Hassam Ud-din started studying in Islamabad in Pakistan, he had a three-hour round-trip commute from his home in Rawalpindi. He hated sitting in traffic jams, breathing dirty air and burning up fuel and money. Eventually he moved closer to Islamabad but, not content with solving the problem for himself, he’s now come up with a fix to help others.

Ud-din has created an Internet tool that matches drivers with passengers looking for an affordable way to get to work or elsewhere. Called RASAI, the Urdu word for accessibility, the website and app aim to fill spare seats and empty trunks and create a more efficient travel system that offers low-income travellers more opportunities while also tackling pollution.

“I realized that people are limited in the opportunities they have by the radius of where they can go easily and cost-effectively,” said Ud-din, who has a passion for maps and route planning and studied transportation engineering.

In Pakistan, it is quite common to see people seeking lifts on the side of the main roads. After conducting a survey that found that more than 60 per cent of vehicles were using only half their capacity, Ud-din realized it would be possible to harness this tradition.

“It was already happening in an informal way so what we did was we gave people an option to digitize their daily route. People can go to our website or app and register their route with us and the timings and we can find them passengers to take on their way,” the 26-year-old said, noting that most people tend to use the website to set up monthly rides.

Only 17 per cent of Pakistan’s population of around 200 million own cars but the country’s cities are still blighted by congestion and foul-smelling fumes. The Health Effects Institute’s State of Global Air report last year found that Pakistan, Bangladesh and India had experienced the steepest increases in air pollution levels since 2010.

Authorities are starting to act: for example, in 2020 Karachi will launch a zero-emission Green Bus Rapid Transit network, with 200 buses fuelled by bio-methane, or cow poo. However, the need for affordable transport is still great.

For Ud-din, the answer lies in the vehicles that are already on the roads.

“Our main aim was to create a virtual transit network … where you don’t have an infrastructure but the capacity on the roads is optimized for you and you are able to use it quite efficiently,” he says.

Around 1,400 vehicles are registered on RASAI’s website, with most customers setting up lifts on a month-by-month basis. Passengers who find a lift using RASAI usually pay a nominal amount to help cover fuel costs, but the trips are still more affordable than other methods.

Ud-din had to overcome people’s resistance to sharing their cars. Some were concerned about possible security issues or cultural differences. But Ud-din found a way to circumvent that hesitation by linking his service to the existing concept of pick-drop taxis.

“We need to be disruptive in the tech and the value proposition but it’s good to be conservative when you pitch it to the customer and try to relate it to something that is already there,” he said.

While one of Ud-din’s main priorities was to provide affordable transport for people on lower incomes, he also wanted to address traffic pollution.

“(RASAI) helps solve the pollution problem directly and indirectly: if four people go in one car instead of taking their own cars, that reduces emissions. Indirectly, if those cars are not on the road, that reduces both congestion and pollution.”

Ud-din’s innovation won a grant from UN Environment as part of the Asia-Pacific Low-Carbon Lifestyles Challenge, which supports young people with cutting-edge ideas to foster energy-efficient, low-waste and low-carbon lifestyles.

Ud-din says the grant boosted his team’s morale, while the mentoring he received as part of the award allowed him to think more clearly about turning his idea into a viable business model.

“The financial support was crucial to hone the product and cover the expenses required. These kinds of startups require a lot of capital to start because they require a critical mass,” he said.

Commenting on the winners of the challenge, UN Environment’s Acting Executive
Director Joyce Msuya said the innovations were just the latest examples of a long history of ingenuity in the region.

“The four billion inhabitants of Asia and the Pacific have seen both sides of the development ledger more vividly than most. Standards of living have skyrocketed as traditional consumption and production models have gone into overdrive,” she wrote in a recent opinion piece.

“Yet, environmental debt accrued by these global habits is increasingly obvious: climate change, pollution, habitat loss and ecosystem destruction. If we continue to make the same choices, our future looks bleak.”

The innovative spirit shown by inventors like Ud-din will take centre-stage at the fourth UN Environment Assembly in March, where the motto will be to think beyond prevailing patterns and live within sustainable limits.

For Ud-din, who spent a year in Silicon Valley as part of the Global Cleantech Innovation programme, technology will play a critical role in finding new solutions to environmental challenges, just as it has enabled on-demand services to facilitate our increasingly digital lives.

“Tech allows us to leverage resources that we might not even have known we have. Take Airbnb: people had spare rooms and the tech allowed them to make them available on a platform, and now it’s a valuable company,” Ud-din said. “In the same way, we are saying that if you are driving somewhere and you have spare capacity, that’s an asset you can leverage.”

UN Environment

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Interview with Renzo Piano

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Renzo Piano © Stefano Goldberg / PUBLIFOTO Genova

Renzo Piano, winner of the 1998 Pritzker Prize and the 2002 UIA Gold Medal (among others), is one of the most prolific architects of our time, with an architectural repertoire that numbers over 50 landmark buildings spread right across the world. Today, he is perhaps best known for his iconic designs of the Georges Pompidou Centre (Paris, France) and The Shard (London, United Kingdom).

Born in 1937 to a family of builders in Genoa, Italy, Piano went on to found the Renzo Piano Building Workshop in 1980, which now has offices in Paris, Genoa and Berlin. He also established the Renzo Piano Foundation, a non-profit organisation dedicated to the promotion of the architectural profession through educational programs and activities.

But Piano, it seems, is far from slowing down: he recently volunteered his services to his hometown of Genoa, where he is designing a replacement for the Morandi Bridge, which tragically collapsed in August 2018.

The UIA Secretariat caught up with Mr. Piano just before the New Year to talk about the 1970 UIA-endorsed competition that marked a milestone in his early career: The Georges Pompidou Centre.

What attracted you to the competition for the Georges Pompidou Centre?

There was an idea in the competition brief that Richard [Rogers] and I found particularly interesting: the creation of a “house of culture”. André Malraux, culture minister from 1959-1969, came up with the idea of establishing a “house of culture” in every French city; a place where the different disciplines could intertwine, from music to literature to art. We liked that idea.

The other thing about this competition was the chairman of the jury, Jean Prouvé: my idol! Prouvé served as a great example to me, not just because of his talent for designing buildings, but also because of the ethics of his architecture, manifest mostly in his work with Abbé Pierre. He was an icon!

How did you feel when you won the competition?

Imagine: you’re 34-years-old, you’ve done a bit of work, but mostly small contracts, and somebody gives you the opportunity to build the Georges Pompidou Centre: How do you feel? Very surprised! We never expected to win – I mean, there were 681 entries!

What impact did this competition have on your career?

It had a huge impact: it gave us self-confidence and the courage to fight for our ideas. When we won that competition, we were projected into a new dimension. Up until then, we were small fry! Then suddenly we found ourselves working with big construction companies, and those kinds of companies are always telling you “impossible, Mr. Piano, impossible”! But our experience with the Georges Pompidou Centre taught us how to defend our ideas and not to let them fade away under the pressure of opposition. Though, of course, you have to be careful; you have to be sure the idea you’re defending is a good one! Once you’re sure of that, you have to be prepared to put all your energy into upholding your idea, day after day.

What advice would you give an architect entering a design competition?

Firstly, I would encourage any young architect to enter competitions. I myself got about 80% of my work through competitions. Even the new Palais de Justice, in Paris, was a competition. Nobody asks you to design buildings like that without a competition process first.

Secondly, forget tactics. One of the reasons why Richard and I won the competition for the Georges Pompidou Centre was because we never thought we could actually win, so we had zero strategy with regards to the jury. We were just focused on finding the right idea for that revolutionary period after May 68. Don’t waste your time trying to conform to what you think the jury is looking for, or you’ll never find true inspiration. Just concentrate on digging deep inside yourself, brainstorming with your colleagues, and looking for the right idea. Then, only then, you might win!

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