The World Bank and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) released today a new joint report titled, Rebuilding Resilient and Sustainable Agriculture in Somalia, outlining the challenges and opportunities for Somalia’s agriculture sector.
According to the findings of the report, over the past three decades, Somalia’s livestock and crop subsectors have been buffeted by an increasingly fragile and degraded natural environment and more frequent and severe cycles of drought and floods. These factors, combined with insecurity, weak government institutions and a deterioration of flood control, irrigation, and transport infrastructure in the south-central regions, have led to a severe decrease in crop yields.
The report, which conducts a comprehensive historical review of Somalia’s major agricultural subsectors (livestock, crops, forestry, and fishing), analyzes the subsectors’ key medium- and long-term development potential and constraints and outlines policy and investment opportunities. It is part of a wider Country Economic Memorandum (CEM) series investigating growth potential across sectors to assist Somalia in its implementation of the National Development Plan (2017-2019), and the preparation of the subsequent plan.
“This report comes at a critical juncture of Somalia’s development trajectory and investment climate,” says Said Hussein Iid, Minister of Agriculture for the Federal Government of Somalia. “It provides much needed analysis of our productive sectors, the environmental impacts, and the development challenges related to governance, infrastructure, and security.”
Livestock and crops remain the main sources of economic activity, employment, and exports in Somalia. Agriculture’s share of gross domestic product (GDP) is approximately 75%, and represents 93% of total exports, mostly linked to robust livestock exports in the recent pre-drought years. Sesame is now the largest export among crops, followed by dried lemon, in the wake of the total collapse of banana exports. Despite Somalia’s rich fish stocks, coastal fishing has remained small-scale and artisanal while foreign commercial vessels have enjoyed both legal and illegal harvesting offshore.
The combination of collapsed domestic crop production and increased domestic food demand, driven by rapid population growth and urbanization, has led to a massive increase in food imports, which have reached almost $1.5 billion in 2015, up from an annual average of $82 million in the late 1980s.
“Rising imports are indicative of increasing demand and a broader opportunity to invest in agriculture, and stimulate a private agribusiness sector in Somalia,” notes Pascal Sanginga, Senior Investment Support Office, FAO Investment Centre. “Making more and better investments in agriculture from the government, private sector, civil society and the vibrant enterprising Somali diaspora is one of the most effective ways to reduce hunger and poverty and expand economic.”
In the short to medium term, the recovery of agricultural production depends on better security, stronger public and community institutions, and the rehabilitation of dilapidated flood control, irrigation, and transport infrastructure. In the longer term, the sector’s growth potential can be achieved by developing and implementing a comprehensive sector development strategy, supported by effective institutions and interventions that harness the dynamism of its private sector.
“Stronger institutions, management, extension services, and infrastructure are critical to supporting private investment in production and markets,” says Mark Cackler, Practice Manager for the Agriculture Global Practice at the World Bank. “Natural resource management, increased crop production, postharvest long-term storage technologies and private sector-led modernization of the sector is needed to make Somali agriculture outputs competitive.”
Deeper Participation in Global Value Chains Will Strengthen Recovery of the Philippine Economy
Post-pandemic, the Philippines has more opportunities to deepen its participation in global value chains (GVCs) especially in business clusters like industrial, manufacturing, and transportation; technology, media, and telecommunications; and health and life sciences. Addressing constraints to participation in these GVCs will boost the recovery, resilience, and competitiveness of the Philippine economy.
A new World Bank report – A New Dawn for Global Value Chain Participation in the Philippines – launched today said there are global trends favoring the country’s chances to succeed in GVCs, among them the increasing use of automation and artificial intelligence, the rise of services in manufacturing demanding higher labor skill, and the efforts by companies during the COVID-19 pandemic to diversify suppliers.
GVCs are international production sharing arrangements where manufacturing and assembly of products take place in multiple countries, with each step in the process adding value to the end-product. Through GVCs, countries trade more than products; they trade know-how and collaborate, boosting growth and creating jobs within their borders.
“Greater participation in global value chains can be a powerful driver for productivity and growth, enabling countries to leap-frog their development process as seen in many countries in East Asia,” said Ndiamé Diop, World Bank Country Director for Brunei, Malaysia, Philippines and Thailand. “Countries that embrace GVCs are able to leverage their strengths in specific tasks and roles in manufacturing and services and export at scale, enabling them to sustain growth, create more jobs, and reduce poverty faster.”
The report says that the Philippines, for instance, can capture bigger shares in the electronics and electrical parts and components GVCs by attracting foreign investments in design capacity so that more value added is captured and manufacturing is retained and expanded in the country. There are also bigger opportunities for business process outsourcing (BPO) companies to move up the ladder by providing value added services like analytics. This can be achieved through a 3-pronged strategy:
- Strategic reorientation: Mobilize key stakeholders to build opportunities from accelerated digitalization, automation and robotization for the electronics and BPO sectors for which the Philippines is known for.
- Bundling: Capitalize complementarities across clusters; diversify electronic and electrical intermediate goods into electric vehicles, medical equipment, and others; add analytics to the voice service sector; and expand the voice service sector into telemedicine, pharmacovigilance, and patient care services.
- Sequencing: Upgrade BPO to KPO (Knowledge Process Outsourcing) as a key steppingstone to an integrated telecommunication cluster; anchor health and life sciences businesses on telehealth and pharmaceutical multinational companies while further developing the life science subsector; and expand intermediate goods in the three industrial, manufacturing, and transportation subsectors (electronics, automotive, aerospace) which have increasing commonalities.
According to the report, the country needs to overcome some “structural constraints” to take advantage of on-going trends in GVCs. These constraints include restrictions on foreign direct investments (FDI) in various sectors of the economy and scarcity of advanced science, technology, engineering, mathematical skills, among others.
To attract FDIs, the Philippines passed amendments to the Foreign Investments Act, easing restrictions to foreign participation in the economy; Retail Trade Liberalization Act lowering the minimum paid-in capital requirement for foreign retailers, and the Public Service Act opening selected industries such as telecommunications, airline, maritime, and rail transport to foreign investments; among other reforms.
“Timely implementation of these legislations is essential for the Philippines to attract investors looking for alternative production sites as transnational companies adjust to the challenges posed by pandemic,” said Souleymane Coulibaly, Lead Economist and Program Leader for Equitable Growth, Finance, and Institutions Practice Group for Brunei, Malaysia and the Philippines.
Given fiscal space constraints, the report says that partnership with the private sector may be needed to raise the financing required to fill the country’s infrastructure gap, focusing on connectivity – digital as well as physical – and secure access to a competitive and clean energy supply.
To boost advanced skills in the Philippines, the government needs to accelerate its innovation strategy, according to the study. In 2019, Congress enacted Republic Act no. 11293 or Philippine Innovation Act to support education, training, and research and development to foster innovation, internationalization, and digitalization. The implementation rules and regulations were published in February 2020. Accelerating the implementation of this strategy could help to create a Silicon Valley type of environment in which cities and clusters of cities host engineers, technicians, doctors, and nurses working in various business clusters in the country.
Ten years of Afghan economic growth, reversed in just 12 months
A year on from the Taliban takeover in Kabul, Afghanistan is gripped by “cascading crises”, including a crippled economy that humanitarian aid alone cannot address, according to a new report from the UN Development Programme (UNDP) on Wednesday.It says that the already-declining regular economy, as opposed to the black market, lost nearly $5 billion after August 2021 and is reversing “in 12 months what had taken 10 years to accumulate.”
The cost of a basket of essentials needed to avoid food poverty has meanwhile risen 35 percent, forcing poorer households to go deeper into debt or sell off assets, just to survive.
Nearly 700,000 jobs have vanished, said UNDP, further threatening a population reeling from impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, conflict, drought, and war in Ukraine.
“The Afghan people have been relentlessly subjected to extremely difficult circumstances. They have survived numerous challenges in the last 40 years and shown enormous resilience”, the report states, officially entitled, One Year in Review: Afghanistan Since August 2021.
“Yet the last 12 months have brought cascading crises: a humanitarian emergency; massive economic contraction; and the crippling of its banking and financial systems in addition to denying access to secondary education to girls and the restrictions on women’s mobility and participation in the economy”.
‘Strong response’ by UN
The head of UNDP, Achim Steiner, praised the UN’s “strong, coordinated response to the crisis” saying it proved critical in averting a catastrophe last winter.
“Building upon what worked last year including tailored efforts across multiple sectors to improve the livelihoods of more than half a million people, there is a pressing need to support further measures to prevent a deeper crisis.”
“We need to help Afghans cope with the coming winter including through our ABADEI programme which aims to support two million people with livelihood and job opportunities over the next two years – with a focus on particularly vulnerable groups such as women entrepreneurs and young people.”
The report paints a bleak fiscal picture of the country, dating back more than a decade before the Taliban ascendency.
With GDP in steady decline since 2008, Afghanistan had come to rely on international aid to sustain its economy, which accounted for a staggering 75 percent of total Government spending and nearly 40 percent of GDP at the time of transition. But foreign donors largely suspended aid after the transition, UNDP notes.
Without support from outside, Afghanistan must now rely on limited domestic revenue from agriculture and coal exports.
Authorities have sought to address revenue shortfalls by cracking down on corruption in key revenue streams, such as customs, and by reaching out to the private sector and foreign investors.
“Two decades of heavy dependence on international aid and imports, a lack of industrialization and competitiveness, and limited mobility and connectivity among regions, among other factors, have hindered Afghanistan’s forward momentum,” the report says.
Cost of excluding women
UNDP analysis forecasts that restricting women from working can result in an economic loss of up to $1 billion – or up to five percent of the country’s GDP.
“The rights of women and girls are critical for the future of Afghanistan,” said UNDP Asia-Pacific Director Kanni Wignaraja. “It starts with education and continues with equal opportunity when it comes to employment and pay.
“UNDP made the support to women-owned businesses front and center of its aid activities: we provided support to 34,000 women-owned small businesses. Our goal is to reach 50,000 women-owned business by the end of this year.”
UNDP Resident Representative Abdallah Al Dardari said they was grateful for the $300 million in funding provided for the programme’s work on livelihoods as part of the overall crisis response, “but much more is needed for economic recovery”.
“Afghans are running out of time and resources. Afghanistan needs support from the international community to bring back to life local markets and small businesses which are the backbone of Afghanistan’s economy.”
Commitment to ESG Reporting is Driving Change within Global Corporations
New case studies from the World Economic Forum show how comprehensive environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) reporting has started to drive corporate transformation around the world, particularly in sustainability efforts and company culture.
Based on case studies from companies reporting on the Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics, the white paper found examples of specific strategy and operations changes as a result. These include initiatives such as new approaches to water management in real estate and implementing biodiversity strategies and targets.
The case studies also indicate that despite some progress, companies are still struggling with competing and disparate ESG frameworks around the world. As regulators begin to roll out mandatory ESG reporting across regions, alignment will be key to ensuring that the clarity and efficacy of ESG reporting continues to improve globally.
We’re happy that support continues to grow for this set of metrics even in the face of geopolitical challenges, the lingering global pandemic and economic disruptions of the past two years,” said Emily Bayley, Head of Private Sector Engagement, ESG, World Economic Forum. “As this growth continues and jurisdictions transition from voluntary to mandatory sustainability reporting standards, we hope these learnings can provide valuable insights for companies that are just getting started on sustainability reporting and those that have been doing it for years.”
ESG-Driven Corporate Impacts
The Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics Initiative case studies engaged a global set of companies to gather how, and if, their ESG reporting has informed corporate transformation both internally and externally.
Examples of these transformations include:
Stakeholders told Ecopetrol their report was too long – the Forum’s core metrics helped the company focus on reporting topics that are most material and will generate value.
The metrics go beyond ESG to capture commercial metrics on employment, economic contribution, investment and tax. This delivers “an annual dashboard of comparable data on both sustainability and prosperity that will provide us with a snapshot of how healthy our company is”.
The core metric on water consumption and withdrawal in water-stressed areas led the company to encourage its teams and clients to agree water management plans and targets. It may even influence where the company rents office space in the future.
Accurate reporting on the environmental and social impacts of its operations. For example, the metric on resource circularity points customers towards the most impactful products on the market and drives the company’s innovation agenda to design more sustainable solutions.
Reporting on the Forum’s metrics has increased the value of transparency within the company, leading to conversations and progress on difficult issues.
The metric on land use and ecological sensitivity contributed to Schneider’s new approach to biodiversity, as it adapted its reporting and asked all sites to set specific biodiversity action plans.
ESG Regulatory Landscape
While progress has been made on the creation and implementation of meaningful and effective ESG disclosures globally, concerns remain about the disparate nature of the competing and complex ESG reporting mechanisms that exist today.
There are also concerns that as reporting becomes mandated there could be less transparency because people will not want to disclose more than they have to. As mandated ESG reporting becomes more widespread, both regulators and internal advocates should ensure corporations understand the full value of transparency on sustainability and other ESG issues.
Addressing this issue is particularly important as regulators in different regions begin to roll out their mandatory reporting requirements. Focus on a common set of comprehensive and material metrics will be important for both the efficacy and feasibility of ESG reporting in the coming months. As much as possible, the European Union, the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) Foundation should align their metrics to ensure companies are able to implement effective ESG reporting globally.
Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics Initiative
The World Economic Forum and the coalition of companies adopting the Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics, engaged with the preparatory working group and are continuing the dialogue with the International Sustainability Standards Board (ISSB) technical teams under the IFRS Foundation as they go through the standard-setting process. The metrics are expected to form part of the ISSB “exposure draft” next year on cross-thematic disclosures and metrics.
Announced at the World Economic Forum Sustainable Development Impact Meetings 2022, these case studies build on the earlier report to showcase progress on the commitment made by companies at the Annual Meeting in 2020. Since then, 186 global companies, with a combined market capitalization of over $6.5 trillion, have adopted the Stakeholder Capitalism Metrics. Of these, 126 companies have disclosed against the metrics in their mainstream reports for either one or two years.
Mozambique Marks Five Years of Extreme Violence in Cabo Delgado
Mozambique marks five years since extreme violence erupted in northern Mozambique’s Cabo Delgado province, forcing nearly 1 million people to...
Solutions to Strengthen Digital Infrastructure for Learning in India
As part of its Education 4.0 India initiative, the World Economic Forum has launched a new Education 4.0 India Report...
Deeper Participation in Global Value Chains Will Strengthen Recovery of the Philippine Economy
Post-pandemic, the Philippines has more opportunities to deepen its participation in global value chains (GVCs) especially in business clusters like...
Pakistan’s Economy Slows Down While Inflation Rises Amid Catastrophic Floods
Pakistan’s economy is expected to grow by only 2 percent in the current fiscal year ending June 2023. According to...
First EU TalentOn brings science to life in competition to solve global challenges
By HORIZON STAFF Criss-crossed by a network of canals, the city of Leiden (pop. 120 000) is just 16km north of...
New UN report urges Europe to step-up action over triple environmental crisis
A new UN report presented on Wednesday to the Organization’s highest pan-European environmental policy body, covering 54 countries, is calling...
WHO issues warning on Indian cough syrup linked to 66 Gambian child deaths
The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned that a deadly batch of cough mixture connected to the deaths of dozens...
Europe3 days ago
How a U.S. Colony Works: The Case of Germany
Defense4 days ago
Between the Greater Russia and the MAD
Defense3 days ago
A Matter of Ethics: Should Artificial Intelligence be Deployed in Warfare?
Economy4 days ago
China’s economic slowdown and its implications for the rest of Asia
Economy3 days ago
The dimensions of BRICS geography
Intelligence2 days ago
Who Masterminded the Suicide Attack on Hazara Students’ Educational Center Kaj in Kabul?
Russia2 days ago
The facts about the mobilization in Russia
Energy3 days ago
Mozambique Readies For Developing Mphanda Nkuwa Hydroelectric Project