Building on the vibrant consultation that UNESCO conducted on defining the Internet Universality Indicators at the WSIS Forum in 2017, UNESCO hosted a high-level session on Promoting Internet Universality Indicators as a comprehensive tool for achieving the SDGs during the WSIS Forum 2018. In the session, UNESCO presented the first draft Internet universality indicators, a comprehensive tool to help states and stakeholders to measure Internet policies in support of achieving the SDGs at the national level that can serve as a recognized and authoritative global research tool for stakeholders to assess Internet development in their countries.
“Implementing the Internet Universality indicators is crucial as it will help all stakeholders understand the state of their national Internet environment, and therefore support the development of concrete policy guidelines” underlined Getachew Engida, Deputy Director General of UNESCO, at the opening of the session. The session, moderated by Boyan Radoykov, Chief of the Section for Universal Access and Preservation at UNESCO, attracted more than 100 participants.
“The application of the indicators will be an important step towards Internet development and policy improvements” underlined Getachew Engida, Deputy Director General of UNESCO at the opening of the session. The initiative to develop the Internet universality indicators, supported by the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA) and the Internet Society (ISOC), was jointly presented by Xianhong Hu (UNESCO) and Anri van der Spuy, representing the Association for Progressive Communications Consortium commissioned by UNESCO to conduct the research on defining Internet Universality indicators.
During the high-level session, a panel of eight speakers provided their feedback on the first Internet Universality indicators. Participants discussed all six categories of indicators developed in light of UNESCO’s internet universality framework and ROAMX principles, based on the principle that the Internet should be Rights-based, Open, Accessible, Multi-stakeholder and take into account crosscutting themes including gender equality and youth.
“The Internet universality indicators project is a useful initiative to assist the international community and national policy makers to tackle the legal, ethical and societal challenges of the information society” underlined Chafica Haddad, the Chair of UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Information for All Programme (IFAP). She stressed that IFAP would serve as a platform to debate and implement Internet universality indicators in Member States and assist national counterparts in formulating policies aimed at bridging the digital divide and ensuring equitable knowledge societies. Providing an overview of IFAP priorities including information literacy and information ethics and the work of the programme in addressing emerging issues such as the dark net and deep web, Haddad emphasized that “information literacy empowers people in all ways of life.”
“Human rights should equally apply online and offline; an Internet that fails to uphold human rights is incompatible with the SDGs” stressed Thomas Schneider, Vice-Director of the Swiss Federal Office of Communications. “The concept of internet universality is very valuable because it promotes features of the internet that are fundamental to it fulfilling its potential for sustainable development,” he further stressed. When discussing the Access and Multi-stakeholder participation indicators part of the Internet universality indicators, Schneider underlined that “access to the Internet should be equal, non-discriminatory and affordable to all citizens. Multi-stakeholder cooperation is essential if you want to create an Internet Society with a human dimension.” Rati Skhirtladze, from the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), equally insisted on the affordability of ICT services as an enabler of Internet universality, and suggested, on behalf of the ITU, using ICT Price baskets as a measure of affordability.
On crosscutting indicators, Dorothy Gordon, the UNESCO IFAP Chair on Information Literacy, stressed that the Internet universality indicators “have the potential to be really transformational” and will help address the gender gap in Internet use and access and boost the development of Knowledge and Information Societies. Gordon further stressed the importance of the open consultation process, mobilizing not only Government but also civil society and the private sector to provide feedback on the process. She further suggested that UNESCO develop an interactive platform online to ensure stakeholder feedback at the national level on the use of the indicators and possible adaptations to national contexts. “It will be crucial that UNESCO ensures resources to build a platform that will allow stakeholders to share how they implement indicators in individual countries” underlined Gordon concerning the implementation of the project at the national level.
Alison Gillwald, Executive director of Research ICT Africa, underlined the challenge, in the framework of the applications of the indicators at the national level, to maintain common values related to human rights while working in national contexts where rights cannot be assumed. “Indexes that assume we should have online rights when we don’t have offline rights can pose a challenge” Gillwald underlined, stressing the importance of acknowledging that the underlying human development issues, including education, that underpin persistent gaps including with regards to gender equality, must also be addressed in tandem. Ramiz Uddin, Head of Results Management and Data in Bangladesh’s a2i, reflected on the use of the indicators based on the experience in Bangladesh in ensuring openness in education and added that it is important to keep a manageable number of indicators so interested stakeholders can use them effectively.
“This project is very relevant for the future of the Internet. It embraces very complex issues, but we are in a complex time. In the Internet space, complexity is our strength but also our challenge,” stated Raquel Gatto, representative of the Internet Society (ISOC). Gatto further underlined the possibility of the indicators to help empower communities to shape their own future through collaborative, inclusive, transparent, and multi-stakeholder analysis.
Towards the end of 2018 and following further multi-stakeholder consultation, UNESCO will finalize the Internet universality indicators. Pilots and pre-tests will be undertaken in several countries in order to provide insights on the applicability of the indicators in various national contexts. The final Internet universality indicators will then be submitted to UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC) Council Meeting for endorsement in November 2018.
Iran among five pioneers of nanotechnology
Prioritizing nanotechnology in Iran has led to this country’s steady placement among the five pioneers of the nanotechnology field in recent years, and approximately 20 percent of all articles provided by Iranian researchers in 2020 are relative to this area of technology.
Iran has been introduced as the 4th leading country in the world in the field of nanotechnology, publishing 11,546 scientific articles in 2020.
The country held a 6 percent share of the world’s total nanotechnology articles, according to StatNano’s monthly evaluation accomplished in WoS databases.
There are 227 companies in Iran registered in the WoS databases, manufacturing 419 products, mainly in the fields of construction, textile, medicine, home appliances, automotive, and food.
According to the data, 31 Iranian universities and research centers published more than 50 nano-articles in the last year.
In line with China’s trend in the past few years, this country is placed in the first stage with 78,000 nano-articles (more than 40 percent of all nano-articles in 2020), and the U.S. is at the next stage with 24,425 papers. These countries have published nearly half of the whole world’s nano-articles.
In the following, India with 9 percent, Iran with 6 percent, and South Korea and Germany with 5 percent are the other head publishers, respectively.
Almost 9 percent of the whole scientific publications of 2020, indexed in the Web of Science database, have been relevant to nanotechnology.
There have been 191,304 nano-articles indexed in WoS that had to have a 9 percent growth compared to last year. The mentioned articles are 8.8 percent of the whole produced papers in 2020.
Iran ranked 43rd among the 100 most vibrant clusters of science and technology (S&T) worldwide for the third consecutive year, according to the Global Innovation Index (GII) 2020 report.
The country experienced a three-level improvement compared to 2019.
Iran’s share of the world’s top scientific articles is 3 percent, Gholam Hossein Rahimi She’erbaf, the deputy science minister, has announced.
The country’s share in the whole publications worldwide is 2 percent, he noted, highlighting, for the first three consecutive years, Iran has been ranked first in terms of quantity and quality of articles among Islamic countries.
Sourena Sattari, vice president for science and technology has said that Iran is playing the leading role in the region in the fields of fintech, ICT, stem cell, aerospace, and is unrivaled in artificial intelligence.
From our partner Tehran Times
Free And Equal Internet Access As A Human Right
Having internet access in a free and equal way is very important in contemporary world. Today, there are more than 4 billion people who are using internet all around the world. Internet has become a very important medium by which the right to freedom of speech and the right to reach information can be exercised. Internet has a central tool in commerce, education and culture.
Providing solutions to develop effective policies for both internet safety and equal Internet access must be the first priority of governments. The Internet offers individuals power to seek and impart information thus states and organizations like UN have important roles in promoting and protecting Internet safety. States and international organizations play a key role to ensure free and equal Internet access.
The concept of “network neutrality” is significant while analyzing equal access to Internet and state policies regulating it. Network Neutrality (NN) can be defined as the rule meaning all electronic communications and platforms should be exercised in a non-discriminatory way regardless of their type, content or origin. The importance of NN has been evident in COVID-19 pandemic when millions of students in underdeveloped regions got victimized due to the lack of access to online education.
Article 19/2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights notes the following:
“Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.”
Internet access and network neutrality directly affect human rights. The lack of NN undermines human rights and causes basic human right violations like violating freedom of speech and freedom to reach information. There must be effective policies to pursue NN. Both nation-states and international organizations have important roles in making Internet free, safe and equally reachable for the people worldwide. States should take steps for promoting equal opportunities, including gender equality, in the design and implementation of information and technology. The governments should create and maintain, in law and in practice, a safe and enabling online environment in accordance with human rights.
It is known that, the whole world has a reliance on internet that makes it easy to fullﬁll basic civil tasks but this is also threatened by increasing personal and societal cyber security threats. In this regard, states must fulfill their commitment to develop effective policies to attain universal access to the Internet in a safe way.
As final remarks, it can be said that, Internet access should be free and equal for everyone. Creating effective tools to attain universal access to the Internet cannot be done only by states themselves. Actors like UN and EU have a major role in this process as well.
Future Energy Systems Need Clear AI Boundaries
Today, almost 60% of people worldwide have access to the Internet via an ever-increasing number of electronic devices. And as Internet usage grows, so does data generation.
Data keeps growing at unprecedented rates, increasingly exceeding the abilities of any human being to analyse it and discover its underlying structures.
Yet data is knowledge. This is where artificial intelligence (AI) comes in. Today’s high-speed computing systems can “learn” from experience and, thus, effectively replicate human decision-making.
Besides holding its own among global chess champions, AI aids in converting unstructured data into actionable knowledge. At the same time, it enables the creation of even more insightful AI – a win-win for all. However, this doesn’t happen without challenges along the way.
Commercial uses of AI have expanded steadily in recent years across finance, healthcare, education and other sectors. Now, with COVID-19 lockdowns and travel restrictions, many countries have turned to innovative technologies to halt the spread of the virus.
The pandemic, therefore, has further accelerated the global AI expansion trend.
Energy systems need AI, too.
Rapidly evolving smart technology is helping to make power generation and distribution more efficient and sustainable. AI and the Big Data that drives it have become an absolute necessity. Beyond just facilitating and optimising, these are now the basic tools for fast, smart decision making.
With the accelerating shift to renewable power sources, AI can help to reduce operating costs and boost efficiency. Crucially, AI-driven “smart grids” can manage variable supply, helping to maximise the use of solar and wind power.
Read more in IRENA’s Innovation Toolbox.
Risks must be managed to maximise the benefits.
AI usage in the energy sector faces expertise-related and financial constraints.
Decision makers, lacking specialised knowledge, struggle to appreciate the wide-ranging benefits of smart system management. In this respect, energy leaders have proven more conservative than those in other sectors, such as healthcare.
Meanwhile, installing powerful AI tools without prior experience brings considerable risks. Data loss, poor customisation, system failures, unauthorised access – all these errors can bring enormous costs.
Yet like it or not, interconnected devices are on the rise.
What does this all mean for the average consumer?
Smart phones, smart meters and smart plugs, connected thermostats, boilers and smart charging stations have become familiar, everyday items. Together, such devices can form the modern “smart home”, ideally powered by rooftop solar panels.
AI can help all of us, the world’s energy consumers, become prosumers, producing and storing our own energy and interacting actively with the wider market. Our data-driven devices, in turn, will spawn more data, which helps to scale up renewables and maximise system efficiency.
But home data collection raises privacy concerns. Consumers must be clearly informed about how their data is used, and by whom. Data security must be guaranteed. Consumer privacy regulations must be defined and followed, with cybersecurity protocols in place to prevent data theft.
Is the future of AI applications in energy bright?
Indeed, the outlook is glowing, but only if policy makers and societies strike the right balance between innovation and risk to ensure a healthy, smart and sustainable future.
Much about AI remains to be learned. As its use inevitably expands in the energy sector, it cannot be allowed to work for the benefit of only a few. Clear strategies need to be put in place to manage the AI use for the good of all.
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