Asian Development Bank (ADB) President Takehiko Nakao addressed the China Development Forum (CDF), which opened today in Beijing. Mr. Nakao will meet Premier Li Keqiang along with other participants of the CDF. He also participated in a roundtable with Vice Premier Liu He.
During his visit to Beijing, Mr. Nakao met the new Finance Minister and ADB Governor Liu Kun to exchange views on the status of the global and PRC economies, the PRC’s reforms including in the fiscal area, and the strong development partnership between ADB and the PRC. Minister Liu and Mr. Nakao agreed to promote regional cooperation through the Belt and Road Initiative, the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation Program, and the Greater Mekong Subregion Economic Cooperation Program.
In his remarks to the CDF, Mr. Nakao praised the PRC for its remarkable development over the past 40 years. The PRC has grown from one of the poorest countries in the world to the second largest economy globally, and it is on the verge of reaching upper-income status. “The China Development Forum is especially memorable this year as it marks the 40th anniversary of China’s start of reforms and opening up,” said Mr. Nakao.
Mr. Nakao highlighted three policy challenges for the PRC as it transitions to high-quality growth in a new era: (i) inclusiveness, (ii) climate change and the environment, and (iii) an aging society. He emphasized, in particular, the need for inclusive development. Mr. Nakao remarked “China is already a very dynamic and innovative country with momentum for continued growth. Making society more inclusive and equal is a greater challenge for China than achieving further technological development and industrial transformation.”
In his speech, Mr. Nakao stressed that macroeconomic stability and efficient markets are prerequisites for tackling the three challenges and, more generally, promoting sustainable and inclusive growth.
ADB operations are supporting the PRC in meeting the three challenges.
To support inclusiveness, ADB is providing the country with technical assistance to reform the tax system. Making the taxation more progressive and broadening the coverage of personal income taxes will improve equity and help augment government revenue to fund the delivery of social services. ADB is also focusing on education and skills development, including technical and vocational education and training, especially in lagging areas such as Guangxi and with a focus on gender. In addition, ADB is supporting small and medium-sized enterprises through microfinance and capacity building.
Mr. Nakao commended the PRC’s efforts in promoting a better environment, building a green economy, and mitigating climate change under the COP21 Paris Agreement. Since 2015, ADB has been working with the government to improve air quality in the Greater Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region through a series of reform programs and projects. ADB is also planning to provide $2 billion during the 13th Five-Year Plan period of 2016–2020 to help the PRC address water pollution control and water resources management in the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River.
ADB is supporting the PRC’s development needs in an aging society, where the number of people aged 65 years and older reached a record 158 million in 2017. For example, ADB has been supporting efforts to reform the rural social security system, strengthen health and pension administration, and build age-friendly cities.
The CDF is a high-level event organized by the Development Research Center of the PRC’s State Council. Founded in 2000, the annual event offers a platform for global business leaders, representatives of international organizations, and international experts including Nobel Laureates to have direct dialogue with the PRC’s top decision makers and economic planners. Mr. Nakao has attended the CDF since 2014 as one of the first foreign speakers.
The PRC became an ADB member in 1986. Between 1986 and 2017, ADB provided close to $38 billion in loan assistance to the PRC, comprising $34 billion for the public sector and $4 billion for the private sector. ADB has also been supporting the PRC through knowledge work, with $334 million in technical assistance grants approved since 1986.
World Bank Supports Maldives in its Journey Towards Resilience and Prosperity
The World Bank is providing support to the Government of Maldives to strengthen the country’s sustainability of public finances while minimizing impacts of natural hazards. Two complementary agreements – one to enhance budget credibility and reduce fiscal pressures, and the other to help the government support reforms for increased resilience and take immediate action during an emergency – were signed to that effect.
The first agreement, a $20 million Development Policy Financing (DPF), will focus on improving the policy framework for enhancing sustainability of public finances and strengthening the policy framework to increase budget credibility. The second agreement is a $10 million Catastrophe Deferred Drawdown Option, (Cat DDO), with an associated Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility (PEF). The Cat DDO will help enhance the Maldives’ financial capacity to effectively manage the human, physical and fiscal impact of climate change, natural disasters and diseases.
The suite of instruments are quick disbursing sources of financing that will support the government to take immediate response, relief and recovery activities following a disaster or an emergency, including health.
The agreements were signed today at the Ministry of Finance by Minister of Finance, Hon. Ibrahim Ameer and the World Bank Country Director for Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka, Dr. Idah Pswarayi-Riddihough.
“The agreements are part of integrated risk management options to improve the country’s resilience to shocks and safeguard macroeconomic sustainability,” stated Idah Pswarayi-Riddihough, World Bank Country Director for Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. “In addition, it is for the first time that a country in South Asia has prepared a Cat DDO that is linked with this new pandemic emergency financing. This is a kind of insurance for the future.”
Maldives has made considerable progress in its macroeconomic and human capital indicators. However, due to its unique geographical placement, vulnerability remains high, and Maldives can increase its resilience by strengthening its fiscal management and preparedness for shocks. The country also continues to be vulnerable to natural hazards and extreme climatic events with considerable economic consequences.
The co-task team leaders of the projects, Fernando Im and Armando Guzman, commended the Maldivian government on their vision, and commitment in achieving a remarkable and innovative milestone. This is particularly important given that Maldives is a small island state.
UNIDO and Kenya to increase cooperation for inclusive and sustainable industrial development
LI Yong, the Director General of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), arrived for a two day official visit to Kenya where he will meet numerous high-level government and private sector representatives, including H. E. President Uhuru Kenyatta, one of the Africa Heads of State and Government who are also Champions for the Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa (IDDA III).
During his official visit, LI Yong will also meet with the Cabinet Secretary of the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Cooperatives, the Cabinet Secretary of the Ministry of Energy and the Cabinet Secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, with whom he will have the opportunity to discuss stronger collaboration, including through UNIDO’s Programme for Country Partnership (PCP), the Organization’s innovative model for accelerating inclusive and sustainable industrial development.
Further, the UNIDO Director General will meet key private sector representatives, including from the Kenya Association of Manufacturers and will pay a visit to the Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI). The two day visit will allow LI Yong to also meet with donors and development partners, including the UN Resident Coordinator and the United Nations Country Team (UNCT) as well as, inter alia, the Head of Development Cooperation and Acting Ambassador of the EU delegation to Kenya and the Ambassador of Italy to Kenya.
UN Security Council discusses Kashmir- China urges India and Pakistan to ease tensions
The Security Council considered the volatile situation surrounding Kashmir on Friday, addressing the issue in a meeting focused solely on the dispute, within the UN body dedicated to resolving matters of international peace and security, for the first time since 1965.
Although the meeting took place behind closed doors in New York, the Chinese Ambassador, Zhang Jun, spoke to reporters outside the chamber following deliberations, urging both India and Pakistan to “refrain from taking any unilateral action which might further aggravate” what was an already “tense and very dangerous” situation.
The Indian-administered part of the majority-Muslim region, known as Jammu and Kashmir had its special status within the constitution revoked by the Indian Government on 5 August, placing it under tighter central control. Pakistan has argued that the move violates international law.
The UN has long maintained an institutional presence in the contested area, which both countries claim in its entirety, with the areas under separate administration, divided by a so-called Line of Control. The UN Military Observer Group in Indian and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) observes and reports on any ceasefire violations.
“The position of the United Nations on this region is governed by the Charter…and applicable Security Council resolutions”, said the statement. “The Secretary-General also recalls the 1972 Agreement on bilateral relations between India and Pakistan also known as the Simla Agreement, which states that the final status of Jammu and Kashmir is to be settled by peaceful means”, in accordance with the UN Charter.
Ambassador Zhang said Council members had “expressed their serious concern” concerning the current situation in Jammu and Kashmir…The Kashmir issue should be resolved properly through peaceful means, in accordance with the UN Charter, the relevant Security Council resolutions and bilateral agreements.”
Pakistan requested the Security Council meeting on 13 August, and it was subsequently called for by Permament Member, China.
Speaking to reporters outside the chamber, Pakistan’s Ambassador, Maleeha Lodhi said the meeting had allowed “the voice of the people of the occupied Kashmir” to be heard “in the highest diplomatic forum of the world.” She argued that “the fact that this meeting took place, is testimony to the fact that this is an international dispute.”
She said that “as far as my country is concerned, we stand ready for a peaceful settlement of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. I think today’s meeting nullifies India’s claim that Jammu and Kashmir is an internal matter for India. Today the whole world is discussing the occupied state and the situation there.”
Speaking a few minutes later, India’s Ambassador, Syed Akbaruddin, said that “our national position was, and remains, that matters related to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, are entirely an internal matter of India…The recent decisions taken by the Government of India and our legislative bodies are intended to ensure that good governance is promoted, socio-economic development is enhanced for our people in Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh.”
He said that the Chief Secretary of Jammu and Kashmir had announced measures which would return the region towards a state of “normalcy”
“India remains committed to ensure that the situation there remains calm and peaceful. We are committed to all the agreements that we have signed on this issue.”
But without naming names, he stated that “of particular concern is that one state is using terminology of jihad against and promoting violence in India, including by their leaders”, adding that India was committed to the principle “that all issues between India and Pakistan, as well as India and any other country, will be resolved bilaterally, peacefully, and in a manner that behooves normal inter-state relations between countries.”
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