As urban areas around the world continue to grow, cities are placing an increasingly heavy burden on our environment. Policymakers should therefore treat resource efficiency as equal in importance to climate policy if they want to move towards a sustainable future, according to a new report from the International Resource Panel.
The Weight of Cities: Resource Requirements of Future Urbanization calls for a new strategy to meet the needs of 21st-century urbanization, one that would result in cities that are low carbon, resource efficient, socially just, and in which people can live healthy lives.
Unless the world’s urban areas make optimal use of their resources, cities will soon demand far more resources than our planet can sustainably provide, placing a huge burden on agriculture, energy, industry and transport. In the next 30 years, 2.4 billion people are likely to move to urban areas, bringing the proportion of the global population living in cities by 2050 to 66 per cent.
The annual amount of natural resources used by urban areas could grow from 40 billion tonnes of raw materials in 2010 to 90 billion tonnes by 2050, an increase of 125 per cent, if changes are not made to how cities are built and designed.
The report, the 25th from the International Resource Panel, an eminent group of experts set up by UN Environment in 2007 to examine natural resource use, was one of two summary reports to be launched at the 9th World Urban Forum in Kuala Lumpur today.
“There are already far too many people around the world who are already being poisoned by breathing dirty, dangerous air in the cities they live in, and it’s alarming to see that this trend is set to worsen,” said UN Environment chief Erik Solheim.
“We can and need to do far better. We can design better cities, where people can walk or cycle instead of having to use cars, where waste is recycled rather than burned or tossed into landfills, and where everyone can access clean fuels and energy.”
Slightly more than a third of urban growth is expected to come from three countries: India (expected to contribute 404 million new city-dwellers), China (292 million) and Nigeria (212 million). At the same time, currently one in three urban residents lives in a slum or informal settlement, often without access to proper housing or basic services.
The increase in urban population will require the building of new cities and the expansion of existing ones. Building and operating these new cities, and supporting the urban lifestyles of those who live in them, requires billions of tonnes of raw materials, such as fossil fuels, sand, gravel, iron ore, wood and food.
Historically, existing cities have been spreading at a rate of two per cent a year, increasing global urban land use from just below one million square kilometres to 2.5 million in 2050, and putting agricultural land and food supplies at risk.
To achieve a transition to low-carbon, resource-efficient, socially just cities, the report recommends:
- Monitoring the flow of resources entering and leaving the cities to understand the local situation and to help develop resource-efficient strategies.
- Planning cities to have:
- Compact growth, to avoid urban sprawl and so economize on the square kilometres of asphalt, the concrete, the electricity and the water wasted in spread-out cities.
- Better connections by efficient and affordable public transport (e.g., light rail, bus rapid transit).
- Liveable neighbourhoods where design encourages people to walk or cycle.
- Resource-efficient urban components, such as car sharing, electric vehicles and charging point networks, efficient energy, efficient waste and water systems, smart grids, cycle paths, energy-efficient buildings, new heating, cooling and lighting technology, etc.
- Infrastructure for cross-sector efficiency, such as using waste heat from industry in district energy systems and industrial waste materials in construction, such as fly-ash bricks.
- Establishing a new model for city governance and politics that supports imaginative business propositions and experimentation.
The second report launched today, Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Transitions in the ASEAN Region: A Resource Perspective, was produced by UN Environment with scientific input from International Resource Panel member Dr Anu Ramaswami.
It examines future urbanization in the countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) – Indonesia, the Philippines, Viet Nam, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore and Brunei — where 205 million people are expected to move to cities by 2050, resulting in the rapid rise of 200 new small cities or urban areas with populations of fewer than 500,000. This is likely to take place against a backdrop of increasing air pollution and climate risks, and in a region where 73 million people live in slums, 120 million lack access to electricity and 280 million lack clean cooking fuels.
The report says that collaborative governance, at all levels, and long-range planning will be needed to transform the region’s cities. Strategies suggested include:
- Undertaking national and cross-ASEAN urbanization planning to balance economic growth across a range of city sizes and to preserve high-value agricultural land and ecosystem services.
- Promoting compact, mixed-use, accessible and inclusive cities through regional and city planning to reduce land-use planning, streamline infrastructure provisions and promote sustainable mobility (such as public transport, car-sharing, walking and cycling).
- Developing zero-slum cities through land-use planning that prevents slum formation and rehabilitating existing slums in resource-efficient, disaster-resistant, multistorey buildings.
- Promoting resource-efficient, resilient buildings and electricity grids.
- Promoting resource efficiency at the systems level across the city through innovative and profitable exchanges of “waste” energy and materials.
Moscow joins the G20 Smart Cities Alliance project for responsible adoption of digital technologies
Moscow has been selected as one of the pilot regions to implement the global policy roadmap for the responsible use of digital technologies. Cooperation with members of the G20 Smart Cities Alliance will allow Moscow to share its accumulated experience and analyze the world’s best practices in the use of digital technologies.
The Russian capital will become a member of the G20 Smart Cities Alliance project, which, as part of the development of digital infrastructure, will cooperate in developing common principles and approaches in the areas of information security and personal data protection, increasing the availability of urban infrastructure and electronic services for people with disabilities developing broadband communication networks and open data infrastructure.
37 megacities, including Barcelona, Bogota, Brasilia, Buenos Aires, London, Lisbon, Manila, Melbourne, Mexico City, Milan, San Jose, Istanbul and others, will work on the roadmap of the G20 Smart Cities Alliance. The community involves authorities, international organizations in the field of IT regulation, experts not only from the G20 countries, but also cities interested in digitalization of territories.
The International Smart Cities Alliance was formed in 2019. The organization aims to create international norms and rules for the responsible use of advanced technologies.
Department of Information Technologies of Moscow
The Department of Information Technologies of Moscow (DIT) has been rapidly developing and actively growing for the past 5 years. During these years we have created over a thousand systems and services and we are pursuing the target of launching around 300 new projects annually. Today, we are proud of having digitalized over 166 state services, this is obviously more than any other region of Russia. Moreover, within the last years we have created an outstanding number of 178 portals, including the official Mayor and Government of Moscow web-site “mos.ru”. Our systems cover over 60 industries and penetrate into each aspect of
Moscow citizens’ everyday lives, our products and services include:
- Electronic queue for Civil registry office;
- Arrangement of remote medical appointments;
- Children assignment to kindergardens/schools/extracurricular activities;
- Providing schools with cutting edge technological equipment;
- Obtaining references, enquiries and services remotely;
- Numerous projects in housing and public amenities, starting from telemetrics and
- Energetics to the possibility of submitting water usage information.
Current structure of the Department distinguishes up to 30 unique products and programs, including medical and education systems informatization, creation of crowdsourcing platforms, development of various resources and portals for Moscow and its citizens. We are aimed at continuing the process of effective informatization of the city with an emphasis on innovation development and advanced technologies application.
Cities at Centre of International Initiative to Add Jobs and Protect the Planet
Cities are engines of growth, contributing some 80% to global GDP, but they also account for 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Even in a post-COVID-19 future, urbanization is expected to grow. Cities, suburbs and the global infrastructure system have a great impact on nature, yet their role in protecting biodiversity loss and mitigating climate change has been underestimated, until now.
To help transform cities into engines of economic growth compatible with planetary and human well-being, the World Economic Forum is collaborating with the government of Colombia and the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Research on Biological Resources on a new global initiative, BiodiverCities by 2030. This initiative will help cities around the world unlock opportunities for urban growth while protecting the environment.
In order to shape a nature-positive future, the initiative is curating a high-level commission of 25 world-renowned experts and practitioners from government, the private sector, academia and civil society. The Global Commission on BiodiverCities by 2030 will build a shared, framework and forward-looking perspective on the BiodiverCities concept.
The publicly accessible framework will outline how cities can shift from the current untenable relationship with rural areas and natural resource assets towards a more nature-positive model, which, research indicates, can add jobs to the economy. On the back of this knowledge framework, the initiative will also build on the Forum’s Strategic Intelligence platform and on a community of innovators and entrepreneurs in close partnership with the World Economic Forum’s UpLink platform.
As President Duque stated, “Colombia is the world’s most biodiverse country by square kilometer, and we have the challenge and the responsibility to protect nature in cities while improving people’s wellbeing. We are excited to partner with the World Economic Forum and key international actors to help shape a much-needed global agenda on BiodiverCities. Building on our produce while conserving and conserve while producing policy, we are eager to both share Colombian cities’ efforts and experiences, and to learn from valuable international knowledge and best practices.”
Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum, said: “COVID-19’s impact is a stark reminder of our imbalance with the natural world. As cities face the enormous task of recovering from the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, BiodiverCities by 2030 aims to show how nature-positive cities can offer transformative opportunities for the benefit of people, planet, health and livelihoods. We greatly look forward to working with the President of Colombia and other partners on this important global initiative and connecting with a community of experts, mayors and policy-makers.”
Research shows that nature-positive solutions, or those that add value back into nature, can create healthier and more resilient cities while generating $3 trillion in business opportunities and creating 117 million jobs. “Cities can be cooler in the summer, have cleaner air and be better protected against flooding if we can put nature at the heart of its development model,” said Akanksha Khatri, Head of the Nature Action Agenda, World Economic Forum.
At the World Economic Forum’s Sustainable Development Impact Summit 2020, and during the United Nations General Assembly meeting, President Duque called for a broader effort to advance cities and sustainable development through a “BiodiverCities” approach.
A network of nine Colombian cities, including Barranquilla as one of the initial pilots, aims to include biodiversity in their urban development models and to promote the interaction of citizens with nature. The Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development of Colombia is leading efforts to pilot this initiative with support by the World Resources Institute and the Alexander von Humboldt Institute for Research on Biological Resources.
BiodiverCities by 2030 comes at a vital moment. The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged assumptions about work, transportation and city living; and, nature-positive cities can offer transformative opportunities for the benefit of people, planet, health and livelihoods.This new global initiative and partnership between the World Economic Forum and Colombia will promote cities’ potential to drive pro-biodiversity urban growth.
Cities Are Key to India’s Post-Pandemic Growth
The unfolding COVID-19 pandemic has been catastrophic for cities, which have borne the brunt of the outbreak. According to estimates, about 70% of India’s GDP comes from its cities and around 25-30 people migrate to the cities from rural areas every minute. However, most big cities in India have wide economic disparity, with expansive slums and a large urban poor population. Studies estimate that about 25 million households in India – 35% of all urban households – cannot afford housing at market prices. It is time to create a new urban paradigm that enables cities to be healthier, more inclusive and more resilient.
The World Economic Forum’s new report, Indian Cities in the Post-Pandemic World, highlights the country’s most pressing urban challenges that were further exacerbated by the pandemic. The report provides insights for translating the lessons learned from the pandemic into an urban reform agenda.
The impact of the pandemic has been profoundly uneven on different population groups. Vulnerable populations, including low-income migrant workers, have suffered the dual blows of lost income and weak social-protection coverage. The pandemic has also laid bare gender-based imbalances in public and private life in India’s urban areas.
The report, produced in collaboration with the IDFC Institute in Mumbai, compiles insights from leading global and Indian urban experts across seven thematic pillars: planning, housing, transport, environment, public health, gender and vulnerable populations.
Among other recommendations, the report underscores the critical role data can play in helping cities manage and direct emergency operations during a crisis. But data alone is not a panacea; realizing the potential of cities requires empowered and capable governance, investment in transport and infrastructure to fuel productive urban economies, and a rethink of outdated planning norms and regulations.
The wide-ranging recommendations compiled in the report include:
· A rethink of outdated urban planning regulations, which will make cities more compact, commuter-friendly and green
· Greater decentralization and empowerment of local governments, which will allow for more proximate and responsive governance
· Addressing supply-side constraints to building houses at an affordable cost and encouraging a vibrant rental housing market that allows for labour mobility
· Investing in transport solutions that recognize the need to integrate peri-urban areas with urban cores
· Bolstering health capacity in cities by increasing the number of trained healthcare personnel; ensuring that infrastructure has adequate functional capacity, aligned with current and future demands
· Prioritizing inclusivity by addressing the biases and impediments faced by women and vulnerable populations in accessing urban opportunities
· Prioritizing action on environmental sustainability, air pollution and disaster management in urban rebuilding efforts
“Well-designed and governed cities can be dynamic centres that spur innovation, drive economic productivity and provide citizens with a good quality of life. The pandemic is an opportunity to address historical urban challenges and bring about positive long‑term change,” said Viraj Mehta, Head of India and South Asia and Member of the Executive Committee, World Economic Forum.
“Amidst every pandemic, from the bubonic plague to the Spanish flu, pundits have foretold the death of cities. And yet they have emerged stronger every time. The pandemic can be a turning point in India’s urban journey, if we draw the right lessons and translate them into lasting change,” said Reuben Abraham, Chief Executive Officer and Senior Fellow, IDFC Institute.
The Indian Cities in the Post-Pandemic World report is part of the World Economic Forum’s broader collaboration with the IDFC Institute for a working group on Rebuilding Cities which has emerged from the Regional Action Group for South Asia. This group brings together public and private sector leaders and prominent experts from the region to interact regularly in order to support an adequate public-private response to the COVID-19 pandemic and jointly chart recovery efforts.
The working group on Rebuilding Cities is partnering with multiple Indian state governments to constitute state-level working committees comprising local/municipal government representatives, urban experts and other relevant stakeholders to devise implementable and context-specific urban reform recommendations.
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