Connect with us

Cities

Maldives’ Wetlands Help Fight Climate Change

MD Staff

Published

on

Photo: World Bank

The lighthouse stands guard over the wetlands. Perched at one end of Koattey, it was built by the British who had a military base on the nearby island of Gan during World War II. Scattered across this area are other points of historical interest including the remains of an old fort. However, while tourists may pause to appreciate the ruins, it’s not what they’ve come to see.

Hithadhoo, the capital of Addu city in the Maldives is home not only to the Koattey Protected Area, but also to Eydhigali Kilhi, one of the largest wetlands in the country. This area, lush and beautiful, is famous for its birds. The eastern grey Heron, the Maldivian pond heron, little egret and white tern can be spotted throughout the year. The white tern or dhondheeni, also seen here, is considered a symbol of Addu. This is just one of an estimated 41 islands in the Maldives that boast wetlands.The lighthouse stands guard over the wetlands. Perched at one end of Koattey, it was built by the British who had a military base on the nearby island of Gan during World War II. Scattered across this area are other points of historical interest including the remains of an old fort. However, while tourists may pause to appreciate the ruins, it’s not what they’ve come to see.

Wetlands are the new tourist attractions in the Maldives

33-year-old Aishath Farhath Ali has been working in conservation for 11 years. The Wetlands Component Coordinator for Climate Change Adaptation Project (CCAP) at the Maldivian Ministry of Environment and Energy, Aishath is passionate about preserving the island nation’s wetlands.

“Maldives is a developing country,” she says, explaining that that can mean the budget tends to prioritise infrastructure and utility services. “However, due to our fragile nature, biodiversity conservation is a priority for our government…Through this project we will establish the first terrestrial park in this country,” she says. She hopes it will give tourists another reason to visit a country famous for its beaches and coral reefs.

Nature-based tourism is the engine of economic growth in this island nation, accounting directly for about 28 percent of the country’s GDP. About 800,000 tourists visit the country annually, but as coral reefs are degraded, the Maldives has to look for ways to support the tourism sector.

To make the wetlands more attractive to visitors, new facilities including visitor centres, bird observatories, interpretive signage and changing rooms are being built under CCAP in Hithadhoo. Visitors can hire boats and canoes to explore, go bird-watching or hiking, or simply wander along scenic boardwalks in both wetlands. While foreigners are expected to turn up in numbers, it is the locals that are likely to really enjoy these facilities.

CCAP is funded by the European Union and the Government of Australia. It is administered by the World Bank and implemented by Ministry of Environment and Energy. Through interventions in wetland management and solid waste management in the Addu and Gnaviyani atolls, the project will benefit more than 4,800 households.

A ‘primary defense’ against climate change

Tourists aside, for an island nation like the Maldives, which is grappling with climate-change related risks — including sea-level rise, ocean acidification, increasing air and sea surface temperatures, and changing rainfall patterns — wetlands offer essential protection.

Fuvahmulah city on the Gnaviyani atoll – another designated protected area falling under CCAP – sees heavy rainfall. Its wetland catchments play an indispensable role in flood management explains Mohammed Hamdhaan, an environment and social safeguards officer for the CCAP.

The Maldives comprises some 26 atolls and 1,190 islands – all of which are low lying with an average elevation of only 1.5m. Wetlands, which can store several tens of million cubic meters of water, act as barriers against rising sea levels and flooding caused by extreme weather events. 

Wetlands contribute to waste water management, groundwater recharge, freshwater storage, and purify water that flows through their systems. Plants found here are critical in controlling erosion – erosion of the shoreline is already a severe issue in 64 percent of the Maldivian islands.

As their importance to climate change adaptation efforts has become better known, steps are being taken to preserve these ecologically sensitive areas. Introducing solid waste management programs has been key to protecting wetlands from illegal dumping, says Mohammed. Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into island development planning has also been promoted through other components of the CCAP project, for instance through a program on strengthening local government capacity.

“All these components are linked,” says Mohammed. “Wetlands and coral reefs are the primary defence that a small island nation like the Maldives has against climate change.”

Promoting community participation by boosting eco-tourism

Recruiting community support is integral to ensuring these conservation efforts are sustainable. Outsiders have entered the wetlands to find firewood but illegal cutting down of trees is being curtailed with the community’s intervention.

The wetlands remain a source of food and livelihoods for these people. Aishath explains that taro reeds growing in and around the wetlands are used to weave mats and baskets but that with the advent of plastic this craft is now threatened. However, training is now being given to locals to help revive this lost art. These and other traditional Maldivian handicrafts, including embroidery work, will be sold in small store attached to eco-tourism facilities in the wetland parks.

Beyond livelihoods, taro also has a role to play in food security. Islanders remember how during World War II a famine gripped these parts, and this humble reed was the only source of nourishment. It is still a staple food today. The wetlands are a rich source of not only taro and other foods, they can support subsistence fishing and are a source of medicinal herbs.

“The community around these wetlands are very much dependent on them,” explains Aishath, adding that over time villagers living on the fringes of the wetlands have become protective of these wild spaces. “There is an awareness now that wasn’t there before.”

World Bank

Continue Reading
Comments

Cities

5 insider tips to plan an unforgettable African vacation

MD Staff

Published

on

When you get lost in wanderlust, do you find yourself dreaming of Africa? This exotic continent is on many people’s travel bucket lists, but planning a trip can be intimidating. If you are ready to stop dreaming and start planning an unforgettable African adventure, here are some simple tips to help you get the most out of your trip.

1. Make time for research

When deciding where to go and what to do, consult online resources and guidebooks to get a sense for what interests you most. For example, many African safari destinations have the Big Five — lions, elephants, rhino, leopard and buffalo — but more rare species like the endangered mountain gorilla are only found in a few countries, including Uganda. Uganda also offers some of the most diverse cultural experiences on the African continent, drawing visitors from around the world.

With 10 distinct national parks, Uganda gives you the chance to explore myriad landscapes and natural habitats, each with its own impressive characteristics and wild inhabitants. Most people only have time to visit three or four parks in Uganda, so it’s important to get a feel for which one may be right for you. Book a boat safari on the Nile in Murchison Falls National Park, or head out on a game drive in Kidepo Valley National Park to see elephants, giraffes, lions and more with your own two eyes. Learn more about these and other unique Ugandan experiences at www.visituganda.com.

2. Prioritize must-do activities

When you start your research, you’ll quickly find there are countless things to see and do. That’s why it’s important to create a bucket list for your trip. Once you know the things you don’t want to leave without accomplishing, you can start putting together an itinerary.

How about the thrill of encountering mountain gorillas in their natural habitat, tracking chimps through dense forest or catching a glimpse of the powerful tree-climbing lions? Birding opportunities are also rich considering more than half of Africa’s bird species can be found in Uganda.

3. Consult a trusted travel professional

Especially if you’re traveling to a foreign country for the first time, a travel expert can provide customized insight you won’t find by doing it solo. Plus, they can help craft the ideal itinerary by suggesting activities or VIP services you may not know about.

For example, maybe kayaking Uganda’s Lake Bunyonyi wasn’t on your radar. Travel agents and tour operators can tell you why it should be. Want to upgrade your gorilla tracking experience? Travel professionals can arrange educational sessions with organizations like the Gorilla Doctors and their jungle veterinarians. They can help you book a rafting trip on the White Nile in Jinja, Uganda’s adventure capital, or arrange a visit to Ziwa Rhino Sanctuary. All these activities and more are made easier when you consult a trusted travel professional.

4. Go beyond wildlife

From the snow-capped peaks of the Rwenzori Mountains to the savannah of Queen Elizabeth National Park and the lush banks of the Nile, Uganda’s beautiful landscapes differ dramatically throughout the country. Wildlife flourishes, but there is so much more to explore than Mother Nature’s delights. The people that make this land their home are the true heart of Uganda.

To make your trip feel complete, incorporate cultural activities into your itinerary. For example, hike to the top of a mountain near Kidepo Valley National Park and visit the Ik people, a centuries-old community maintaining their traditional way of life. Another opportunity is the Batwa Experience where you can explore Uganda’s forest with its original inhabitants. Finally, don’t forget to spend a day in the capital city of Kampala, to see what modern life is like for the people of Uganda.

5. Open your mind and take it all in

An African safari is unlike any travel experience you’ll ever have. From mind-blowing wildlife encounters to outdoor adventures and immersive cultural experiences, Uganda has plenty to offer every type of travel personality. Keep an open mind and open heart and the things you’ll experience will change you forever.

Continue Reading

Cities

Climate Week to New York City

MD Staff

Published

on

Mayor de Blasio and NYC & Company—New York City’s official destination marketing organization—announced today that they will welcome Climate Week to New York City from September 24-30, 2018. Organized by The Climate Group, an international non-profit organization, Climate Week NYC will gather international leaders from across the public, private and government sectors to showcase and discuss global climate action in New York City, with support from NYC & Company.

“We are honored to again welcome The Climate Group and Climate Week NYC for the 10th year,” said Mayor Bill de Blasio. “Here in New York, we’re taking bold action on climate. Through our ground breaking OneNYC strategy and our ambitious 1.5˚C Plan, we’ve committed our city to hit the highest goals of the Paris climate agreement. We’re divesting from fossil fuels, mandating that our largest buildings cut their emissions, and investing in electric vehicles. Through investments in resiliency and sustainability, we are building a fairer city for all.”

“Climate Week NYC is the largest climate week in the world and as one of the key summits in the international calendar—which runs alongside the United Nations General Assembly—has been driving climate action forward since its launch in 2009,” said Helen Clarkson, CEO of The Climate Group. “We are thrilled to be hosting our 10th Climate Week NYC and to appear on the world’s stage, to continue to advance climate action to the top of the global agenda.”

“Our goal is to leverage the City’s significant and growing sustainability efforts to position the destination as ‘the capital city of a responsible world,” said Fred Dixon, President & CEO of NYC & Company. “From our most iconic parks becoming permanently car-free, plans for Jacob K. Javits Convention Center to house one of the City’s largest rooftop farms, and many of our leading hotels embracing the City’s Carbon Challenge, events such as Climate Week NYC are the perfect platform to engage our City and the world to demonstrate their pledge to better protect the planet.”

Approximately 10,000 people from over 40 countries are expected to attend 150 events—including panel discussions, concerts, exhibitions and seminars. An opening ceremony on September 24—featuring key speakers and dignitaries including Patricia Espinosa, Executive Secretary of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Edmund G Brown, Governor of California, and President Jovenel Moïse of Haiti—is planned for The Times Center in Manhattan.

Along with Climate Week NYC, New York City has recently attracted high-profile, large-scale events including WorldPride in 2019. These monumental events will help fuel record breaking visitation numbers. In 2017, there were a 62.8 million visitors.

“New York City is thrilled to host the 10th annual Climate Week to showcase the climate leadership happening all across the five boroughs,” said Daniel Zarrilli, NYC’s Senior Director of Climate Policy and Programs and Chief Resilience Officer. “In the absence of federal leadership in Washington, cities all across the country are stepping up their ambition to achieve the Paris Agreement. Here in NYC, we are accelerating our GHG reductions, adapting our city, and divesting from fossil fuels as part of our comprehensive OneNYC strategy.  Congratulations to the Climate Group for building an effective and successful platform for climate action over the last decade and we look forward to the next 10 years of partnership.”

“From protecting our coastlines, buildings, and infrastructure to making our neighborhoods safer and more vibrant, New York City is dedicated to confronting climate change head-on and protecting our city and its citizens from the associated threats,” said Jainey Bavishi, Director of the Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency. “Climate Week NYC brings together some of the most brilliant innovators around the world to do just that.”

“Climate change is here and this moment requires decisive, ambitious, and collaborative action,” said Mark Chambers, Director of the Mayor’s Office of Sustainability. “Climate Week NYC is an opportunity to inspire and embolden us all to deliver necessary solutions.”

“As the Ranking Democratic Member on the State Senate Committee on Energy and Telecommunications, I am excited to celebrate Climate Week NYC. This is a great initiative and effective way to engage all stakeholders as we work to protect the environment,” said Senator Kevin Parker.

A New Generation of Sustainable Hotels
New York City’s evolving hotel scene is embracing eco-conscious design and practices. Overall, 19 properties are currently committed to the NYC Carbon Challenge. 1 Hotel Brooklyn Bridge opened in 2017 as part of the eco-friendly 1 Hotels brand. The Grand Hyatt New York and The Peninsula New York have vowed to shrink their carbon footprints through upgrades like high-efficiency boilers and LED lighting. The Pierre participates in EarthCheck, a program which measures the property’s impact on the environment, and boutique Crosby Street Hotel was awarded the City’s first LEED Gold Certified building.

Park Preservation and Honoring Horticulture
As of June 2018, Central Park—the world’s most iconic greenspace, which welcomes more than 42 million visitors yearly—joined Brooklyn’s Prospect Park in becoming entirely car-free. Suspended above the City streets, The High Line—an abandoned elevated rail line transformed into a horticultural oasis—opened its first section in 2009 as a habitat for birds, insects and humans seeking respite. At Battery Park City, horticulturists manage the neighborhood’s park without pesticides and engage in large-scale composting.

This summer, New York City welcomed new green spaces at Hunter’s Point South in Long Island City, Domino Park in Williamsburg, and Pier 3 at Brooklyn Bridge Park.

Green Roofs and Urban Farms
The Jacob K. Javits Convention Center is currently home to a 6.75-acre green roof, completed in 2014, which attracts wildlife, provides insulation that cuts the building’s energy use by 26 percent, and absorbs storm water. The Javits Center’s latest initiative is to cultivate a nearly 1 acre rooftop farm on the roof of the expansion, with the intention to grow produce to serve delegates.

Atop Brooklyn’s Barclays Center—famed for its sporting events and concerts—is a 3-acre green roof with another sloping over its subway entrance. Brooklyn Grange keeps bees in over 30 naturally-managed, rooftop hives citywide and operates the world’s two largest rooftop soil farms in Long Island City, Queens and the Brooklyn Navy Yard.

New to the Bronx, The New York Botanical Garden introduced Edible Academy this spring. The three-acre campus features a green roof, demonstration kitchen, technology lab, teaching greenhouse, solar pavilion, vegetable gardens, teaching and performance spaces and more.

Established in 2012 to help feed, inspire, and educate the local community, Snug Harbor’s 2.5-acre Heritage Farm on Staten Island produces fresh fruits and vegetables in an environmentally sustainable manner. In 2017 Heritage Farm staff worked with over 100 volunteers and educated over 2,280 children on sustainable farming, food sources, and plant biology.

Roosevelt and Governor’s Island
Roosevelt Island is home to Cornell Tech’s in-progress campus, featuring cutting-edge green buildings the “net-zero” Bloomberg Center and “The House”, the world’s largest LEED-Platinum passive house structure. On Governors Island, eco highlights include an urban farm with resident goats, a composting center and the Billion Oyster Project, an ecosystem restoration and education initiative which has already planted 25 million oysters of a 2035 goal of one billion oysters, to create waterway filtration in New York Harbor.

City’s Top Attractions LEED The Way
The City’s LEED buildings are models of sustainable urban architecture. In 2009, the Empire State Building underwent a green-focused retrofit of the iconic 1931 skyscraper while One World Trade Center was constructed as one of the world’s tallest LEED-certified buildings. At Hudson Yards—the largest private real estate development in the history of the US—14 acres of gardens and public spaces, rainwater-collection infrastructure to reuse 10 million gallons per year and an on-site hyper-efficient power plant are leading green features. Of note, the first completed building in the emerging neighborhood, 10 Hudson Yards, is LEED Platinum certified.

Brooklyn’s Children’s Museum earned a Silver LEED certification after it was built in 2008 for solar-generated electric power, recycled rubber flooring and geothermal heating and cooling, while the venue also teaches children about ecology through hands-on exhibits. The Whitney Museum of American Art is also LEED Gold certified for its energy-saving measures, recycled materials used in construction, and green roof which is home to two beehives.

Shining examples of the NYC theater industry’s commitment to sustainability include the creation of The Broadway Green Alliance.

Continue Reading

Cities

Beijing joining the ranks of the world’s most liveable cities

MD Staff

Published

on

Every year, people all over the world tune in to see which cities make it onto the Economist Intelligence Unit’s (EIU) list of the world’s most liveable cities. And every year, a number of surveys look at the best and worst living conditions in the world’s major cities. For the EIU, each city is ranked across 30 factors – from acceptable to intolerable – and across quantitative and qualitative criteria.

The annual report, which measures quality of life, fires up the aspirations of many of the world’s greatest cities. Beijing is one city that is tackling its ranking, and its environment.

But what goes into these rankings and how much do environmental factors really matter to quality of life? And can a city grow in population and at the same time improve the quality of its air, water and public transportation?

Beijing is striving to do just that. The city has climbed four points on the EIU’s list in just a decade and is striding to do better.

What is “liveability”?

Beijing scores well on many of the EIU criteria. It has, low crime, low threat of civil unrest, high quality of private healthcare, consumer goods and services, and good quality of private education.

The city currently scores under 70 (out of 100) in the EIU’s “culture and environment” category.

Beijing is keen to improve its score and is taking steps to improve quality of water provision, quality of public transport, general healthcare indicators, humidity/temperature rating, discomfort of climate to travelers and quality of energy provision.

“Roxana Slavcheva, Head of City Practices at the EIU, explains how these domains are interlated: A dense public transport network cuts down on greenhouse gas emissions,”

Slavcheva cautions that EIU tries to refrain from being too prescriptive in their reports. “We aim to reflect the reality on the ground, and not produce a forecast or recommendations.”

But of course, ambitious cities are looking for signals that will help them develop a roadmap to a highly ranked future. It is no wonder that the city is looking to its scenario planning arm – and the international community – to help it.

Two factors that no doubt affect quality of life, are pollution and air quality. “These are included in the environmental category, as there is a strong correlation between pollution and climate”, says Slavcheva.

Building a pollution-free future

China is indeed ambitious. “Beijing wants to be one of the best livable cities in the world,” says Dr. Kijun Jiang, the head of the Energy Research Institute at the Chinese National Development and Reform Commission.

“Sydney, Vancouver and Vienna have won. And Beijing is asking ‘how do we get to this?’” To answer that, Jiang and his colleagues are busy creating scenarios for that “liveability future”.

On the sidelines of the recent GEO6 conference in Singapore, Jiang explained how Beijing aims to outperform some of the world’s most environmentally ambitious cities. A youthful, energetic scientist, Jiang projects optimism about the energy future of China – and the world.

Jiang started out as a computer science major at university in 1990, crunching national greenhouse gas models for the governmental Energy Research Institute. In 1998, when the Beijing haze had become notorious, he was given a new mission: China’s energy future.

Jiang responded to the challenge by coming up with concrete recommendations based on modeling and data. He and his team analyze air quality, energy consumption and climate change patterns, among other variables.

“We are looking to see what happens in 2030, 2050 and 2100 and giving advice on how to reach the highest ranks.”

Beijing became famous for its Olympics-related clean-up and this may just have been the beginning of a monumental effort to jump on the world’s clean air stage.

It won’t be easy, he acknowledges. “Beijing still has big trouble with air pollution.”

How has the GEO process helped Beijing?

Jiang has been involved in GEO conferences for more than a decade. “I’m very happy to join the GEO process,” he says. “I am looking forward to bring back to the Chinese government what we learn from the global environmental process” and adapt it to what he calls “the Chinese way, the Chinese road”.

Collaborations with processes such as the GEO-6, are also part of a new model of adapting to climate change. “China is releasing and sharing data with scientific entities, to help them make sense of and act on the data. I think there is this realization in China, that it serves them well to see where the problems are.”

How far has Beijing come and how far to go?

This isn’t the first time the city has worked to improve its environment. During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics the city invested massively in infrastructure and improving air quality. This resulted in improving its rank by four points.

Contrary to popular perception, says Jiang, the Beijing air quality turnaround story did not just begin with the 2008 Olympics. It started eight-years earlier, where the city executed an action plan every six months to reduce pollution.

“Five years ago, China started an action plan on air pollution control. Today if you go to Beijing, it is much better than five years ago, and people are surprised by what we managed to achieve.”

Jiang says at times he has to deliver prescriptive messages to Chinese policymakers. “We tell them, if you want to be the best in the world, you should reach zero emissions by 2050, in air pollution, carbon emissions.”

No doubt, China and Beijing will rise to this challenge!

UN Environment

Continue Reading

Latest

Trending

Copyright © 2018 Modern Diplomacy