Financing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a huge challenge that will not be met through public money alone. Dramatic increases in private investment—both domestic and foreign—are needed. Multilateral development banks (MDBs) have a key role to play in unlocking this funding.
The Asia and Pacific region’s development needs are vast. In addition to SDGs, we must address infrastructure deficits and climate challenges. For infrastructure, recent ADB research estimates that $1.7 trillion is needed annually over 2016–2030 to maintain growth, eradicate poverty, and respond to climate change.
So how can MDBs help countries attract the private funds they need? I see several key actions.
The first is to expand MDBs’ private sector operations of lending and equity investment to the private sector to maximize leveraging impact. These operations can be both for infrastructure investment such as renewable energy, transport and water, or in social sectors such as technical education and aged care by private service providers. ADB’s private sector operations have doubled in the past 10 years to $2.5 billion in 2016. This was about 16% of ADB’s total approvals of $17.5 billion.
Through ADB’s private sector operations last year, an additional $5.8 billion in commercial cofinancing was mobilized. ADB helps to: (a) make projects viable through its participation; (b) improve the risk profiles of projects via credit enhancement products such as guarantees; and (c) pilot new approaches and technologies. ADB is expanding political risk and partial risk guarantees and supporting local currency project bond issuances by the private sector through credit enhancement.
Second is to support the growth of public-private partnerships (PPPs). When well designed and well delivered, PPPs can tap the significant funding and management expertise of the private sector for infrastructure and social services. ADB is supporting PPPs by helping countries enact laws and establish PPP offices, better preparing projects for the market including through its Asia Pacific Project Preparation Facility, and by providing transaction advisory services. ADB also finances private sector participants in PPPs.
One example of ADB’s support for PPPs is the Mactan-Cebu International Airport in the Philippines, where we helped the government to prepare a PPP deal to expand terminal services. Our private sector operations provided commercial financing of $75 million to the operator which was cofinanced by a syndicate of seven Philippine banks for $450 million. ADB’s PPP office is providing transaction advisory services for the Port Moresby International Airport in Papua New Guinea, a teaching hospital in Kazakhstan, a solar park in Cambodia, and many others.
We should admit that project finance in developing countries is not so easy in practice, because of various risks related to land acquisition, projection of revenues and costs, and regulatory changes. In addition, for foreign investors there are risks involved in converting to foreign exchange and remitting returns abroad. But there are still large opportunities for PPPs, especially for mobilizing domestic resources. I also believe that ADB’s involvement in PPPs, including through use of its credit enhancement products, can effectively reduce investors’ risks and promote bankable projects.
The third is to explore new options to mobilize finance, such as management of third-party funds. ADB manages one such fund, the Leading Asia’s Private Sector Infrastructure Fund (LEAP), established in 2016 with $1.5 billion of equity investment from the Japan International Cooperation Agency. As other MDBs are doing, ADB will explore opportunities to manage funds from private sources, such as pension funds, insurance companies, and asset managers.
In these three areas ADB is making serious efforts to mobilize additional resources from the private sector. But at the same time, I would emphasize that ADB’s operations, including sovereign, have always been about mobilizing private resources. One of the most important reasons for creating ADB in 1966 was to attract resources from international capital markets including the United States and Europe. At that time, Asia was poor, savings were limited, and foreign exchange was scarce. ADB successfully issued bonds in Germany in 1969, Austria and Japan (through the first yen-denominated Samurai bond) in 1970, and in the U.S. (with a AAA rating) in 1971.
ADB’s sovereign operations helped countries build essential infrastructure to entice private investment in industry, and strengthen education and health sectors which not only benefit people’s welfare but also set a basis for strong private sector activities. Policy-based lending to countries promoted structural reforms to enhance the business climate. It was also used to provide budget support during financial crises, helping governments maintain essential social expenditures and avoid a collapse of the market.
The combination of lending, whether sovereign or nonsovereign, with expertise in preparing and implementing projects has made an important contribution to the region’s development. ADB’s tradition of working together and closely with governments on the ground is appreciated. At the same time, we are increasing efforts to speed up our work by streamlining business processes, including for procurement. We are also incorporating more advanced and innovative technologies into our projects.
It is my belief that ADB’s lending operations should keep pace with the development needs of the region. To secure our financing capacity, ADB took the innovative step of merging its Ordinary Capital Resources (ADB’s main window to borrow from capital markets and lend with a certain spread) and concessional lending from the Asian Development Fund (which will continue to provide grants to low-income developing member countries). The merger, effective the beginning of this year, will increase annual loan and grant approvals by over 50% to more than $20 billion by 2020. This balance sheet optimization based on existing capital contributions from shareholders and donors presents a useful example to other MDBs.
On the funding side of our lending operations, we are also increasingly using innovative instruments such as green bonds, water bonds, and gender bonds. We are issuing more local currency bonds to support our local currency-denominated private sector operations.
To achieve the SDGs, meet infrastructure needs and address climate challenges, MDBs should play a critical role. Their own financing will continue to be important, especially by incorporating expertise and new technology. But MDBs should become more innovative and dramatically enhance their efforts to mobilize resources from the private sector.
Friend-shoring: India’s rising attractiveness for an emerging partnership
There are numerous forces currently affecting investment flows in the global climate for foreign investment. Investor concern has been caused by the many geopolitical issues, which had repercussions even as countries were recovering from the pandemic. Businesses are being forced to re-evaluate the global business environment and potential fault lines as a result of these disruptions. India has constantly improved the business environment (EoDB). It may now advance by utilising the advantages to strengthen its place in the global economy and fulfil the ambitions of its sizable, primarily young population. The country’s business and investment climate has significantly improved as a result of the fast and steady pace at which reforms have been implemented.
Apart from the fact that India is one of the largest economies in the world with the quickest rate of growth, the government’s emphasis on infrastructure and manufacturing, strong consumption patterns, digitization, and a burgeoning services sector all contribute to this optimism. The persistent efforts of the Indian government to lower regulatory hurdles are also fuelling MNCs’ favourable opinion of India. However, India’s expanding domestic consumer base and digital economy are the greater draws. After the US and China, the estimated actual growth in consumption is the third-highest. Given that all of these markets are sizable but relatively saturated and growing at a slower rate, India presents a particularly good opportunity for MNCs seeking growth opportunities in the ensuing ten years.This has acquired more traction in the US context as it has become clear that the nation cannot overcome all production issues on its own and that cooperation with friendly or ally nations is essential for all-around development. The term “friend-shoring,” a hybrid of the terms “onshoring” and “near shoring,” refers to forming business alliances with people who have similar principles and interests.
In a world driven extensively by globalisation, it is inevitable to not just make ally’s or create partnerships that are not only strategic and synergistic, but also facilitate a purpose driven iterative connection between two nations. A strategy used by the US to persuade companies to relocate their sourcing and manufacturing operations to friendly shores—often back to the same shores in the case of the US—is known as friend-shoring or ally-shoring. And the goal is to protect their supply networks against countries with less compatible policies, like China. But is it the best course of action? Global supply chains have changed production by enabling businesses to produce things wherever it is most affordable, thanks to decreased tariffs, lower transportation, and communication costs. This typically means that low-end production shifts to emerging markets and developing countries, while high-value-added inputs (such as research and development, design, advertising, and finance) are provided from established economies.
A commitment to cooperate with nations that “have a strong adherence to a set of norms and values about how to function in the global economy and about how to govern the global economic system” was described as “friend-shoring” in Secretary Yellen’s statements of April 13, 2022. But is it the best course of action? Any type of protectionism will worsen the already shaky global supply chain after the years-long Covid-19 shutdown has had an impact on the world economy. Despite its political unrest, China has been devoting its resources to manufacturing since the 1990s, and many businesses have already established manufacturing operations there since their suppliers are all nearby.
Even though Vietnam, India, and Thailand are also known for their low-cost manufacturing, moving the manufacturing sites could be expensive and risky for businesses because they would need to reorganise their entire supply chain for all materials required. In addition, other Asian countries might not have the full infrastructure needed to support manufacturing in some sectors. The world of today is at its best because of international cooperation. Each country’s disadvantage is made up for by having it use its greatest asset to boost global economic growth. Although there are many differences and even disagreements between nations and we are still far from full globalisation, offshoring does not seem like a good answer for a better future for the global supply.
USA is believed to pursue the “friend-shoring” strategy of deepening economic integration with dependable trading partners like India to diversify away from nations that pose geopolitical and security risks to supply chains. This is in response to an “extremely challenging” global economic outlook and geopolitical instability. She claimed that some economies’ debt loads were becoming unmanageable due to the Russia-Ukraine war-related spike in food and energy costs, and that steps to reduce these debt loads would need to be explored. Countries that already have well-established production and business service networks are those that are seen as friendly partners in the US context. India is attempting to draw MNCs that are moving their subsidiary supply chain networks and activities in this wave of supply chain restructuring and diversification of their specialised ecosystems.
Pakistan’s elite and the current economic crisis
Former Pakistan Finance Minister Miftah Ismail in a media interview made some very interesting points. While Ismail lashed out at his successor and current Finance Minister Ishaq Dar saying that the latter’s Anti International Monetary Fund (IMF) approach was one of the key reasons behind the current economic crisis in Pakistan. He also underscored some other points.
First, he said that if countries like Bangladesh and India have left Pakistan behind, there are some serious deficiencies in Pakistan’s governance model.
Second, Ismail stated that different forms of government – democracy, parliamentary democracy, dictatorship – have been tried out, but the country is invariably ruled by a small elite, and this is amongst the key reasons for the numerous challenges the country is facing today.
In recent years, has been increasing criticism of Pakistan’s foreign policy and its excessive economic dependence upon other countries for its economic survival. While earlier strategic commentators and analysts questioned the skewed nature of Pakistan’s ties with the US, in recent years several strategic commentators have begun to question the excessive dependence upon Islamabad and the terms and conditions of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), and the lack of transparency of the project.
If one were to look at the current economic crisis which has engulfed Pakistan, there have been a series of opinion pieces critical of domestic policies, the country’s dependence upon external sources for aid not just the US, but also Gulf Countries and China and how the IMF rescue program would impact certain sections of the population more than others.
Maleeha Lodhi, a former Pakistani diplomat, and a prominent writer and commentator, in a hard hitting article titled Elite Politicsfor Dawn (December 5, 2022)argues:
‘The availability of external resources as a result of Pakistan’s foreign policy alignments during the Cold War and beyond created a habit of dependence on ‘outside help’. This habit urged successive governments — representing rural and urban elites — to avoid economic reform, mobilise adequate revenue or tax its network of influential supporters’.
Touqir Hussain in an article An underwhelming foreign policy written for The News (November 23, 2022) highlights how Pakistan’s dependency upon China could harm the bilateral relationship. Says Hussain:
‘Because of the dependency syndrome, even the China connection has become ever more important for Pakistan, and not for all the right reasons. It is fomenting a popular view that with China at its back Pakistan does not need to care about other relationships, inciting anti-Americanism which has become in the public mind a badge of ‘independent’ foreign policy’.
S Akbar Zaidi in an article IMF as Saviour for the Dawn (January 26, 2023) makes an interesting point about how the unequal impact of the IMF program and how the elite would not just be able to deal with it but also benefit in the long run. Says Zaidi:
‘A fistful of dollars coming in, prices being upwardly adjusted, an exchange rate which is supposedly ‘market-driven’, will offer false hope to our elite while it grumbles about the tough measures of the IMF’.
There has also been a suggestion to rethink Pakistan’s approach towards India and focus more on geo-economics. Shahzad Chaudhry, a prominent strategic commentator, in an opinion piece published in Express Tribune praised India’s foreign policy for managing to balance ties between the US and Russia, in the aftermath of the Ukraine crisis. While praising India for having been able to strike a balance he dubbed this as diplomatic coup. Chaudhry also said that Pakistan should rethink its foreign policy vis-à-vis India and focus on ‘geo-economics’.
Pakistan PM, Shehbaz Sharif in an interview to Al Arabiya TV (a Dubai based channel) had himself stated that Pakistan could not afford another war with India and had also alluded to his willingness to resume talks (The Pakistan PMO however said that Pakistan would only resume talks with India if the latter reversed the decision to revoke Article 370 in Jammu and Kashmir).
In conclusion, while Pakistan clearly has its task cut out if it is able to realize the pitfalls of excessive dependence upon external countries will it be able to put its economy firmly back on track. It is also important for Pakistan to strengthen economic ties with neighbours in South Asia rather than looking at the outside world. For this it will require Pakistani leaders to think out of the box.
Guangdong special economic zones at China
Guangdong Province in southern China is distinguished by the economic development. The sign been approached by “Made In Guangdong” is becoming so famous globally, besides the Guangdong industries and its unique culture.
Guangdong represents one of the most important provinces of China for a number of political, economic, social and natural reasons. Indications of the success of the openness experiment pursued by China since the late seventies of the last century are evident in it.
Guangdong special economic zones have made great achievements. As the province with the largest economic output in China, south China’s Guangdong Province has achieved tremendous economic development in the past 40 years, thanks to the establishment of special economic zones.
According to my information, the Guangdong region has established the “Zhuhai Doumen” intelligent manufacturing economic development zone recently, after the Guangdong Provincial Government officially approved the establishment of the “Zhuhai Doumen intelligent manufacturing economic development zone”, which will implement the existing provincial-level economic development zone policy. It is the third regional economic development zone in “Zhuhai” after “Foshan Industrial Park and Liangang Industrial Zone”.
Guangdong Province is an economic powerhouse in southern China, and the province will promote high-quality development this year by fostering new engines of growth and strengthening cooperation and communication in the regions of (Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay) to deepen reform and opening up.
Guangdong Province, a major part of China’s foreign trade and industrial hub, accounts for about one-tenth of China’s GDP and is the largest of all Chinese provinces.
Guangdong Province pays close attention to the progress of China’s modernization and the overall picture of reform and opening-up and major national strategic planning. It firmly attaches importance to the reform and opening-up policy by strengthening cooperation between the province and the “Hong Kong and Macao” regions, aligning the development of Guangdong with the “Northern Metropolis” plan of Hong Kong and the economic diversification strategy of Macao, implementing the “Greater Bay Area Connection” project in a more in-depth way, and working with “Hong Kong and Macao” together to build a world-class bay area, injecting vigor and strong impetus into its modernization efforts”.
It Is remarkable that most of the cities of Guangdong Province are crowded with visitors from all over the world, especially Arabs and Africans, who come to them for the purpose of trade and search for investment. The province is considered one of the regions characterized by the diversity of its industries, quality and attractive prices, as well as commercial activities in various fields.
It Is also distinguished by the beauty and sophistication of its buildings, which embody the aesthetics of modern Chinese architecture, as well as the spread of green spaces and vibrant squares throughout the day. It is also distinguished in terms of weather, with its atmosphere that resembles the tropical atmosphere with heavy rain, and the various cities of Guangdong Province are also characterized by easy access to it from different parts of the world throughout the day, as well as ease of movement between its various cities, thanks to the presence of an infrastructure that makes most of the cities of the province at the forefront of attractive cities for investment globally.
Due to the existence of the commercial ports, Guangdong has a long experience in terms of commercial exchanges regionally and globally.
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