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Myanmar Revises Poverty Measure to Reflect Needs of Population in 2015

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The Deputy Minister for Planning and Finance H.E. U Set Aung joined the World Bank Vice President for East Asia and Pacific Ms. Victoria Kwakwa in a launch event for the second volume of the Myanmar Poverty Assessment

The new report, jointly produced by the Ministry of Planning and Finance and the World Bank using the 2015 Myanmar Poverty and Living Conditions Survey, is the second of the two-part Myanmar Poverty Assessment, which recommends a revision and rebasing of poverty estimates to reflect changing consumption patterns in Myanmar. The revised poverty measures used in Myanmar include durables such as mobile phones and updated calorie estimates courtesy of the Ministry of Health and Sports.

Consistent with the findings of the first assessment, poverty has declined significantly since 2004, falling from an estimated 48.2 percent to 32.1 percent in 2015. Using the new measures, some 15.8 million people live in poverty in Myanmar.

 “Having a more detailed understanding of the characteristics and profiles of those most in need and the constraints they face enable us to prepare appropriate responses – and help reduce poverty for everyone in Myanmar,” said U Maung Maung Tin, Director-General, Planning Department of Ministry of Planning and Finance.

Poor households tend to have fewer working age adults and more dependents, and fewer resources that can generate income, such as land or farming tools. The extreme poor are disproportionately in the agriculture sector as casual laborers or as small holder farmers, and have few alternatives for income.

The report highlights the economic impact of health and weather related shocks, estimating that half the country suffered from such shocks over a twelve-month period and 4 percent of potential work days were lost due to ill-health. Coping strategies such as reducing spending on food or adding more debt can impact the families’ ability to bounce back and ultimately affect long-term growth.

“Now with a better understanding and consensus on the levels and distribution of poverty in Myanmar, the World Bank is in a better position to support Myanmar’s efforts to reduce poverty and promote inclusive growth for all.” said Victoria Kwakwa, World Bank Vice President for East Asia and the Pacific. “Inclusion so that growth and opportunities benefit the poor and near-poor is critical for peace and prosperity.”

The poverty assessment is part of a series of analytical works outlined in the Country Partnership Framework (CPF), the World Bank Group’s first full strategy for Myanmar in 30 years. The strategy supports reforms that promote growth in rural areas, invests in services that work towards better nutrition, health, education, infrastructure, and more jobs.

WTO, World Economic Forum and eWTP launch joint public-private dialogue to open up e-commerce for small business

A new initiative designed to drive public-private dialogue on e-commerce was launched today (11 December) by the World Trade Organization, the World Economic Forum and the Electronic World Trade Platform (eWTP). The initiative, entitled ‘Enabling E-commerce’, aims to bring together leading voices from governments, businesses and other stakeholders to begin a high-level conversation on e-commerce policies and practices that can benefit small businesses.

The launch event took place in Buenos Aires, on the margins of the WTO’s 11th Ministerial Conference. Director-General Roberto Azevêdo was joined by Jack Ma, Executive Chairman of Alibaba Group, representing the Electronic World Trade Platform (eWTP), and Rick Samans, Head of Global Agenda, Member of the Managing Board, World Economic Forum.

E-commerce is a growing force in global trade and has the potential to make the world economy more inclusive by creating opportunities for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) and expanding choice for consumers. However, for MSME engagement in e-commerce to grow rapidly worldwide, reforms to industry practices and government policies are needed.

The Enabling E-commerce initiative will provide an opportunity for stakeholders to develop a clearer understanding of how to enable MSME e-commerce around the globe. It will also encourage research and knowledge sharing on the practical challenges faced by MSMEs and serve as a bridge between global e-commerce practice and policy.

DG Azevêdo said: “There has been a groundswell of interest in e-commerce at the WTO – and in its potential to lift up small businesses around the world. The vibrant debate on these issues has shown the desire of many WTO members to bridge the digital divide, and to gain a deeper understanding of the challenges and opportunities of e-commerce. The Enabling E-commerce initiative will therefore provide a valuable resource – bringing a range of stakeholders together to further explore these issues. I want to thank the World Economic Forum and eWTP for this initiative.”

Jack Ma said: “The Enabling E-commerce Initiative envisions a world where small businesses, young people and developing countries can succeed in the global marketplace. The problem with globalization is that its benefits have not been made available to all. We cannot stop globalization, we must improve it. If business and government work together, we can create a more inclusive trade model to expand the benefits of globalization to those who have been left behind.”

Richard Samans said: “We have an opportunity to harness innovation to create a more inclusive global economy. As the international organization for public-private cooperation, the World Economic Forum will work with WTO and eWTP to bring all interested stakeholders together to deepen understanding of how to facilitate cross-border ecommerce for small business.”

The initiative will start its work early in 2018, with a high-level meeting at Davos in January. This will be followed up by other conversations, including a major event in Geneva later in the year.

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Finland shows how bioenergy and nuclear can drive the energy transition

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Thanks to the strong role of nuclear, hydro and bioenergy – which alone accounts for 29% of energy supply – Finland has one of the lowest share of fossil fuels in total energy supply among IEA member countries. Yet in its latest review of energy policies in Finland, the IEA finds that the government will nonetheless need to focus on cost-effective measures to achieve its ambitious climate goals of halving oil demand and phasing out coal use by 2030, among others.

For instance, Finland targets 30% of transport fuels from renewable sources by 2030. As a leader in advanced biofuels, Finland needs to ensure that its new biofuels obligation can be met with sustainable feedstocks, encourage investments in novel biofuels production, and ensure the use of biofuels in long-distance transport, such as freight, shipping and aviation.

Finland also aims to reduce car ownership by fostering a shift from personal transport towards transport services. The report notes that while this is commendable, it should not come at the expense of an increase of total transport emissions. “Taking a holistic approach to the decarbonisation of the transport sector will require higher efficiency both in terms of vehicles and the transport system as a whole,” said IEA Deputy Executive Director Paul Simons as he presented the report at the Energy Fair in Tampere today.

In terms of heating, industrial heat demand is largely met by biofuels and electricity. At the same time,  Finland’s energy sector is investing in new nuclear, based on long-term industry contracts. However, coal and peat still play a large role in combined generation of heat and power (CHP) and related district heating and cooling (DHC), placing Finland 7th in terms of IEA carbon intensity of electricity supply.

As the government aims to phase out coal under the Powering Past Coal Alliance, the heat sector needs to shift to biomass-based CHP with technologies to support heat flexibility, including heat storage and smart meters, while fostering energy efficiency in buildings. By aligning energy taxation to a fuel’s carbon content, Finland can encourage the shift to low-carbon fuels in district heating and cooling.

Looking at energy security, Finland is strengthening its integration in the Nordic and Baltic electricity market with new interconnections and is also working on a common gas market with the Baltic States. In this context, regional alignment of policies is vital, as Nordic countries embark on ambitious national decarbonisation paths, all relying on electrification and biofuels. As a net electricity importer, regular adequacy assessments are critical for Finland in order to maintain electricity, as the Nordic market is set to see a rise in variable wind energy and retirements of existing capacity.

Finally, while Finland’s leadership in energy research and development is notable, public funding has declined in recent years. Maintaining strong R&D performance is a critical factor for reaching clean energy goals. For businesses to take investment decisions in innovative transport, energy and climate solutions, a low carbon strategy for 2050 is needed, as well as robust private and public funding to boost clean energy technology innovation.

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Fast-tracking a Zero Waste Economy: Business Leaders Commit to Circular Economy Action

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Denmark, Japan, the Netherlands and the United Arab Emirates have committed to joining a major global initiative to redesign the global “take-make-dispose” economy into a more circular one. They join over 50 government and business leaders who are part of the Platform for Accelerating the Circular Economy (PACE), which was launched at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2018 in Davos.

PACE includes the heads of some of the world’s largest companies such as Royal Philips and Unilever; senior representatives from the governments of Indonesia, Nigeria, the People’s Republic of China and Rwanda; and heads of organizations, including the Ellen Macarthur Foundation, World Resources Institute, Global Environment Facility, UN Environment and World Bank.

All are committed to efforts that cut waste and pollution and fast-tracking circular economy solutions in which products and materials are redesigned, recovered and reused to reduce environmental impacts. Extending the life of products creates new business opportunities and revenue streams, while minimizing the environmental impact of mining, resource extraction, refining and manufacture.

Japan’s commitment comes as the second World Circular Economy Forum – hosted by the Ministry of the Environment of Japan and Finnish innovation fund Sitra – gets underway in Yokohama, Japan.

Japan is one of the most resource-efficient economies globally, and has recently launched its 4th Fundamental Plan for Establishing a Sound Material-Cycle Society a new public-private Plastics Smart campaign. The Netherlands government aims to achieve circularity by 2050 and halve the use of primary resources by 2030 and Denmark launched its Circular Economy Strategy and a related National Action Plan on Plastics. The UAE is committed to shaping strategic action to advance the circular economy.

To date, PACE, which is hosted and facilitated by the World Economic Forum, has catalysed major projects and collaborations to advance the circular economy, including the Global Plastics Action Partnership, which was launched in collaboration with the Friends of Ocean Action at the Forum’s Sustainable Development Impact Summit in New York. PACE is also focused on waste from electronics. In 2016, 44.7 million metric tonnes of e-waste was generated, equivalent to the weight of 4,500 Eiffel Towers. E-waste contains a number of toxic substances that can cause great harm to health. At the same time, the UN estimates that some 55 Billion Euro worth of secondary raw materials lays idle in e-waste.

Antonia Gawel, Head of the Circular Economy Initiative, World Economic Forum, said: “We have the knowledge, power and technologies to drive circular economy action. We just need to act more quickly and build partnerships to scale solutions. The Fourth Industrial Revolution offers great opportunities in this area – which is why PACE is excited to explore its potential with an expanding group of partners.”

Frans van Houten, Chief Executive Officer, Royal Philips, and PACE Co-Chair, said: “A circular economy is essential if we are to achieve global economic growth whilst stopping unsustainable resource consumption. Large corporations, SMEs and governments must collaborate to transform supply chains and the modern consumption economy. Philips is pleased to partner with private and public sector organizations through PACE enabling large-scale projects with firm commitments and decisive action.”

Naoko Ishii, Chief Executive Officer and Chairperson, Global Environment Facility (GEF), and PACE Co-Chair, said: “It is a real pleasure for me to welcome a growing network of governments to PACE.  The world urgently needs to move to a more Circular Economy, and PACE is a strong platform that brings together a broad coalition of stakeholders to accelerate action.”

Yoshiaki Harada, Minster of Environment, Japan, said: “We all have a common view on realizing a circular economy on a global scale by networking and accumulating knowledge and experience of public and private entities around the world. The Ministry of the Environment of Japan has decided to participate in PACE, and share our knowledge and experience globally. As part of our contribution to PACE, we would like to provide information on excellent actions, experiences and technologies of Japan’s public and private entities registered in our “Plastics Smart” Campaign.”

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ADB Invests $25 Million in Private Equity Fund to Help Small Businesses in Southeast Asia

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The Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed an agreement to provide a $25 million equity investment to Exacta Asia Investment II, L. P. (Exacta II), a private equity fund, to provide much-needed investments for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Southeast Asia.

“ADB’s investment will help well-managed and middle-market SMEs in Southeast Asia to realize their growth plans, thereby driving employment, tax generation, skills transfer, and regional trade,” said ADB Director for Private Sector Investment Funds and Special Initiatives Division Ms. Janette Hall. “Investing in Exacta II allows ADB to participate in Southeast Asia’s continued economic growth while providing development benefits for people in the subregion.”

ADB’s support will allow Exacta II to invest growth equity into smaller firms—particularly those from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Viet Nam—whose growth is driven by domestic consumption and export. This will help address the issue of low private equity penetration in Southeast Asia, which is crucial to create new jobs, drive economic growth, and encourage further investments in related sectors.

Exacta II, a private equity fund with a target capitalization of $250 million, intends to invest about $10 million to $40 million per transaction in some of Southeast Asia’s SMEs and lower middle-market companies, particularly in the manufacturing, technology, and service sectors.

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