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Economics of Nuclear Power

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It’s all about organized lightening. Lights, sparks, brightness are symbol of life. It enables us to see the world with more clear vision. When rest of the world is aspiring to reach beyond the limits of the sky, countries like Pakistan are still facing power shortages. In Pakistan Summers are welcomed with a gift of 8000MW shortfall while winters embrace a cool and smoggy shortfall of 7000MW.

According to an estimate 1.3 billion people in the world are spending their lives without enjoying the benefits of electricity. Pakistan ranks atthe fourthposition among the list of countries that are facing energy deficit according to a United Nations Report, 2013.So, Pakistan is confronted with the problem ofhow to meet this energy crisis in best possible way?

The world consumption of energy has been increasing day by day. It’s not only the developing countries who are facing energy shortfall but even the developed countries are also trying for the means to enhance their total energy capacity. The economic feasibility of power production has two major modes of costs, i.e. fuel costs and capital cost. Advanced economies like the US, Japan, and China are relying on nuclear power plants, which are cost competitive, reliable and are capable to generate more energy. Beside, 449 nuclear power plants already operating in 30 countries,there are 60 others that are under construction in 15 different countries around the globe.Being one of the largest consumers of energy China plans to increase its nuclear power capacity up to 70% by 2020.Likewise, Japan and the US incorporateabout 30% and 20% oftheir totalelectric output through nuclear energyrespectively.

Considering the prevailing energy consumption of Pakistan, thermal and hydro powers are the major source of electricity generation. The total installed capacity of thermal power plants is 16599MW I.e. 61%, while that of Hydro power plant is7115MWi.e. 34% of the total electric output. Although, Pakistan is a nuclear power but unfortunately it contributes a very small portion of nuclear energy in total output.There has been a significant improvement in average shortfall of electricity from 7938MW to 2888MW with an increase in output i.e.11804MW to 18658 MW since 2013 to 2017 respectively. However, still it is now essential to take a better decision for selection of energy resources and nuclear is the best option.

Currently four nuclear power plants are successfully operating in Pakistan. KANUUP1, CHASHMA I, II, and III are producing almost 1030 MW of electricity altogether. Recently, in September 2017, CHASHMA IV started operating with a total capacity of 340MW. KANUUP is a Canadian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor under international safeguards with a net design capacity of 125 MWe. CHASHMA I, II, and III are Canadian Pressurized Water Reactor (CNP) with design Capacity of 300, 300, 315 MWe respectively.  Pakistan is on its way to construct two more nuclear power plants; KANUPP II and KANUUP III with Chinese assistance under international safeguards. The two plants are scheduled to be operationalized by 2020 and 2021 with total design capacity of 1100 MWe each. In the past couple of days China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) announced that it will build a one-million-kilowatt-class nuclear power unit with HPR1000 technology at the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant in Pakistan. This will be the seventh nuclear power unit that China has exported to Pakistan and the third HPR1000.

The reason why Pakistanshould do more for nuclear power plants is because they are cheaper and reliable than the coal fired plants.  The total fuel cost of a nuclear power plant is typically one third of a cold fire plant. 1 kg of Uranium is equal to 3tons of coal and can produce upto 36000 KWh electricity. Furthermore, Uranium pallet of one inch has the capacity to producehigher amount of energy than one ton of coal because of itshigher density. Nuclear energy generates electric balance through diverse sources of electricity. Moreover,it also provides a wide array of jobs for engineers, mechanics and scientist and boosts economic growth with high pay packages. In addition to all that, nuclear energy reduces the effects of greenhouse emissions due its environmental friendly characteristics.

Pakistan is running its nuclear power plants in a safer mode under proper safety measures following the international standards.However, according to international bodies – non-proliferation regime, Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) – Pakistan is not eligible for the nuclear trade with countries around the globeunless or until it signs the NPT.But Pakistan’scrippling energy sector demandsa nuclear energy to envisage a target of 8,800 MW of electricity by 2030.Countries which are not member of NPT should be allowed to do civil nuclear cooperation, because it is the right of every state to pursue peaceful civil nuclear program for fulfilling its energy needs.

Countries which are permanent members of the NPT and NSG should promote peaceful nuclear energy access to the developing countries. As this will improve their energy requirements and will help them eliminate poverty and human sufferings. Moreover, nuclear energy also has the potential to improve financial conditions of developing countries by making international markets accessible. It’s important to adopt the non-conventional indicators of power rather than merely relying on conventional means. Nukes should be meant to deter not to actually bring in the battle field. Once a country has acquired a nuclear technology it should further enhance it for peaceful purposes as well. Utilizing the nuclear technology for peaceful purposes would stabilize the international political economy. So, economic interdependencies would make war evitable. 

Qura tul ain Hafeez has done M Phil in international relations from Quaid-I Azam University Islamabad. She is currently working as a Research Associate at Strategic Vision Institute Islamabad. She can be reached at Quraathashmi[at]gmail.com

Economy

Upswing in global growth won’t last forever: IMF says world must prepare now for leaner times ahead

MD Staff

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While the world economy continues to show broad-based momentum, a new report released Tuesday by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) is warning that there may be choppy seas ahead, caused by increasing protectionism or tit-for-tat trade wars.

“Global growth is projected to soften beyond the next couple of years,” said the report, explaining that: “Once their output gaps close, most advanced economies are poised to return to potential growth rates well below pre-crisis averages – held back by aging populations and lackluster productivity.”

Looking at the largest economies, the World Economic Outlook , the Fund’s semiannual report on the health of the international economy, shows growth projections at 2.4 per cent for the euro area, 1.2 per cent for Japan, 6.6 per cent for China and 2.9 per cent for the United States.

“Despite the good near-term news, longer-term prospects are more sobering,” said Maurice Obstfeld, Economic Counsellor and Director of Research at the IMF, the specialized United Nations agency working to ensure stability in the global financial system.

“Advanced economies – facing aging populations, falling rates of labor force participation, and low productivity growth – will likely not regain the per capita growth rates they enjoyed before the global financial crisis,” he continued.

Mr. Obstfeld painted a diverse picture for emerging and developing economies, saying that among non-commodity exporters, some countries can expect longer-term, pre-crisis type growth rates.

However, despite some improvement in the outlook for commodity prices, he pointed out that some exporters will need to diversify their economies to boost future growth and resilience.

The IMF, which is holding its annual Spring Meetings in Washington, D.C., with the World Bank, continued to echo its advice that the current cyclical upswing offers policymakers a good opportunity to make longer-term growth more resilient and inclusive.

“Sound policies can extend the upswing while reducing the risks of a disruptive unwinding,” Mr. Obstfeld stated. “Countries need to rebuild fiscal buffers, enact structural reforms and steer monetary policy cautiously in an environment that is already complex and challenging.”

Trade tensions

While some governments are pursuing substantial economic reforms, trade disputes risk diverting others from the constructive steps they would currently need to take to improve and secure growth prospects, Mr. Obstfeld warned.

Despite widespread economic growth, public optimism has been eroding over time by job and wage polarization trends, raising the threat of political developments that could destabilize various economic policies – even beyond those of trade.

“Governments need to rise to the challenges of strengthening growth, spreading its benefits more widely, broadening economic opportunity through investments in people […] that could radically transform the nature of work,” underscored Mr. Obstfeld. “Fights over trade distract from this vital agenda, rather than advancing it.”

Trade tensions started in early March when the US announced it would levy steel and aluminum tariffs for national security reasons, provoking China’s announcement of retaliatory tariffs on US imports.

In the present environment, excessive global imbalances should be reduced multilaterally.

“Plurilateral arrangements, if consistent with multilateral rules, can also provide a useful springboard to more open trade,” stated Mr. Obstfeld.

While each Government can do much on its own to promote stronger, resilient and inclusive growth, multilateral cooperation remains essential to address a range of challenges – including climate change, infectious diseases, cyber-security, corporate taxation and corruption.

“Global interdependence will only continue to grow and unless countries face it in a spirit of collaboration, not conflict, the world economy cannot prosper,” Mr. Obstfeld underscored.

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Economy

Why Trade, Investment, and Competition Reforms Matter for Argentina

MD Staff

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A loaf of bread. A gallon of milk. Eggs, cheese, and chicken. Most people would not link these everyday staples with a country’s integration in the global economy. But in Argentina, where customers pay 49% more, on average, for these groceries than people would have to under similar conditions in OECD countries, higher food prices are a symptom of deeper economic issues.

The country faces challenges in three policy areas that reinforce each other in fostering further integration in the global economy: trade, investment, and competition. Argentina’s trade flows have fallen by almost half over the past fifteen years, and while most countries participate in about 14 free trade agreements each, Argentina is only party to one, Mercosur. Foreign direct investment levels are low in Argentina, amounting to just two percent of GDP between 2000 and 2015. Further, state-owned enterprises in 17 different sectors are not competing on a level playing field with private investors or delivering services less efficiently than the private sector could.

A report from The World Bank Group, Strengthening Argentina’s Integration in the Global Economy: Policy Proposals for Trade, Investment and Competition, analyzes the current state of affairs in these three policy areas and proposes reforms designed to boost integration with the global markets which would then provide opportunities to grow, create welfare for consumers, and generate better employment opportunities. The reforms suggested in the report cover a wide range and include recommendations such as lowering tariffs, removing bureaucratic hurdles that make private sector investments difficult, and strengthening anti-cartel enforcement, among others. Enacting these reforms would allow firms to be more competitive and better integrated into the global economy, the report finds.

Implementing economy-wide reforms will pay off in a variety of ways. For instance, with all else being equal, a more integrated Mercosur- with lower external tariffs and streamlined internal non-tariff measures – would expand Argentina’s GDP by at least 1%over baseline projections for 2030. Increasing competition in the manufacturing sector would add 7 percent to annual growth labor productivity. Reducing the restrictiveness of market regulation in Argentinian services sectors (such as energy, transport, professional services, and telecommunications) would translate into an additional 0.1 percent to 0.6 percent growth in annual GDP.

Argentina’s government recognizes these opportunities and is taking active steps to open its markets. The Macri administration, which took office in 2015, has already reduced export taxes, replaced the import licensing system, approved reductions in energy and transport subsidies, pushed for a new Competition Law and facilitated $102 billion in new future investments in just 24 months.

“We are convinced that to defeat poverty, Argentina needs a profound productive transformation to become a developed country,” said Miguel Braun, Secretario de Comercio de la Nación, at an event in December 2017.

To reap the benefits of an open economy and increase prosperity in Argentina, the World Bank Group suggests tackling reforms across all three policy areas simultaneously, prioritizing those that can offer short-term wins and tangible benefits.

“No one policy alone ensures that firms can integrate into the global economy,” explains Martha Martinez-Licetti, Lead Economist in the World Bank Group’s Macroeconomics, Trade & Investment Global Practice and Lead Author of the report. “More must be done to ensure that everyone shares fully in the benefits of trade. Policies that help all people benefit from the opportunities that come with trade include investment and competition policies. It is only when implemented in a coherent way that reforms to trade, investment and competition can bring positive effects for the economy as a whole, better jobs for Argentine people, and more variety of goods and services at lower prices for consumers.”

The reforms suggested by the World Bank Group aim to address four particular challenges that firms in Argentina face.

  • Opportunities to enter and/or invest;
  • Access to efficient market inputs;
  • Ability to compete on a level playing field;
  • Capacity to thrive in global markets.

In the past, government interventions prevented investment from expanding or thriving. But today, Argentina is looking to the future and building policies that will help it reintegrate into the world economy.

“Even in this turbulence that we are experiencing, there is an opportunity to intelligently join the world,” said Argentina’s Minister of Production, Francisco Cabrera. “This report is an analytical anchor to understand where we are standing and to be able to make decisions.”

World Bank

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Economy

Growth Expected to Rebound in Middle East and North Africa

MD Staff

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The World Bank Group’s latest Middle East and North Africa Economic Monitor projects regional growth to increase to 3.1% in 2018, up from 2% in 2017. The increase in growth is expected to be broad based, driven by a favorable global economic environment, stability in the oil market at slightly higher prices, and the resumption of post-conflict reconstruction.

“There are grounds for optimism,” said Hafez Ghanem, World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa Region. “Now is the time to focus on creating more jobs and economic opportunities for youth. The positive outlook is an opportunity to speed up reforms for a renewed private sector as an engine of growth and job creation.”

On the back of a good performance by Gulf Cooperation Council countries, oil exporters could see growth reach 3% in 2018, double the rate in 2017. Growth among oil importers is expected to increase to 4% on average from 2018 to 2020, driven by a sharp rebound in Egypt and a rise in remittances, tourism and exports. Almost all countries in the region have embarked on major reforms to reduce or eliminate energy subsidies, identify new sources of non-oil revenues, and expand social safety nets to shield the poor from adverse effects of change.

“While stabilization policies have helped economies adjust in recent years, we need much faster growth to absorb the hundreds of millions of young people who will enter the labor market in the coming decades,” said Rabah Arezki, World Bank Chief Economist for the Middle East and North Africa Region, “In this report, we study ways for transforming rather than adjusting the region’s economies, to achieve the growth needed.”

Low oil prices and a global shift toward renewable energy to meet climate goals poses risks and opportunities. With its abundant sunshine, the region can leverage the power of solar technology. Turning risks into opportunities will require innovation and the adoption of new technologies. Along with helping the region adapt to the new reality of low oil prices, leveraging new technologies could be a new engine of growth and jobs for the regions. A focus on corporate governance will need to accompany efforts to improve the business environment, to create a new system of incentives at the firm level that encourages the bold and creative thinking required for economic transformation.

Adopting new technologies will require significant investments in infrastructure, which will require greater leveraging of private finance. This can be achieved through public-private partnerships, which Jordan has used to build the Queen Alia airport, and Egypt to attract sizeable private investments in its energy sector. Public-Private partnerships have the added advantage of drawing on the innovation and efficiency of the private sector, and are a step toward changing the role of the state from the main provider of employment to an enabler of private sector activity.

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